SAMPLE 1
232/3
PHYSICS
PAPER 3
 You are provided with the following apparatus
– Complete retort stand
– Wooden wedge (knife edge)
– Two pieces of thread (40 cm and 20 cm long)
– Mass Q
– Metre rule
– A single pulley
– A spring
– Two 10g masses
– Two 20g masses
– Two 50g masses
Proceed as follows;
 Balance the metre rule on the wedge. Note and record the point, G, where the metre
rule balances
G = _________________________________________________ cm (1mk)
(b) Measure the mass m of the metre rule using the spring balance.
M = _________________________________________________kg (1mk)
(c ) Arrange the apparatus as shown in figure 1 below
Pulley 
50g 
Pivot 
Thread 
(d) Hang the mass Q on the metre rule and adjust its position so that the metre rule is in equilibrium. The thread over the pulley must always be kept perpendicular to the metre rule.
(e) Measure the distance,x, between the point of suspension of the mass, Q and the thread.
Repeat for masses 90g, 100g, 110g and 120g instead of the 80g mass and each time note(x)
Complete table 1 below
Mass(g)  50  60  70  80  90  100 
Tension, T(N)  
Distance,X(m) 
(5marks)
(f) On the grid provided, plot a graph of distance x (yaxis) against the tension, T.(5marks)
 g) Calculate the slope (s) of the graph (2marks)
(h) Measure L, the distance between G and the thread.
L = _______________________________________________(m) (1marks)
(i) Given that X = 0.8y + Lz – 0.8T obtain the values of y and z from the graph
y y 4mks
(j) Determine the maximum load the beam balance can measure. (1mark)
 (a) You are provided with the following apparatus.
– 2 new dry cells size D
– 2 cell holders (holding 1 cell each)
– 8 connecting wires atleast two with crocodiles clips.
– A resistance wire PR 1m long mounted on a metre rule.
– An ammeter (01A)
– A voltmeter (0 3v)
– Lamp S
Proceed as follow:
Connect the circuit as in figure 2 below;
PR is the resistance wire.
Fig. 2 
R 
J 
P 
 With the jockey J at R (L= 100 cm from p) record the ammeter and voltmeter readings
 Repeat (a) (i) for other values of l and records the ammeter and voltmeter readings in the table below
L(cm)  100  80  60  40  20  0 
Ammeter reading I (A)  
Voltmeter reading V (v) 
(6 marks)
(iii) Plot a graph of V(v) against I (A). (5marks)
(iv) State your observation about the behaviour of the lamp S as the jockey J is moved from R towards P. 1mk
(b) You are provided with the following apparatus
– a glass block
– a plane mirror
– 4 optical pins
– a soft board
– A cellotape ( about 15cm long)
– 2 white – plain sheets of paper
– a ruler or half metre rule
– a protractor
– 4 office pins
Proceed as follows:
 Using the cello tape provided fix the plane mirror to the glass block along side as shown in figure 3 below. The reflecting surface to face the glass block.
Length 
Fig. 3 
Plane mirror 
Breadth 
Glass block 
 With the use of the office pins, secure firmly a white plain paper on the board and place the block together with attached mirror.
 Draw the outline of the glass block together with the mirror
 Remove the block and the mirror and draw a normal at B somewhere a quarter way the length of the outline you drew in (iii) above.
 Draw four(4) different rays AB incident at B and extended to C. The incident rays should make angles 10°, 20°, 30°,and 40°.
 Replace the glass block together with the attached mirror so as exactly fit the outline in(iii)
 Place two object pins P_{1} and P_{2 }along the 10° Locate the images of pinsP_{1} and P_{2} as they appear by nonparallax (the images of the pins appear to be in a straight line when viewed through the glass block).
Place pins P_{3} and P_{4 }so that the images of pins P_{1} and P_{2 }are not seen.
 Remove the glass block together with the attached mirror from the outline and produce the lines joining P_{1} to P_{2 }and P_{3} to P_{4} so that the they intersect at C. Measure and record the distance x table 3 below.
 It may be necessary for you to draw another outline so as to avoid congestion of (construction) lines.
Angle i °  10  20  30  40 
Distance x(cm) 
Table 3
 Now measure the breadth b of the glass block.
b = _______________________________________________________________(1mark)
 Calculate the average A_{x }of the values of x in table 3 above
A_{x} ____________________________________________________________ (1mark)
 Determine the refractive index of the glass block using the formula.
Refractive index n of glass = b (2 marks)
A_{x}
_{ }
_{ }
_{ }
_{ }
_{ }
_{ }
SAMPLE 2
232/3
PHYSICS
Questions 1
You are provided with the following apparatus
 Clamp
 Boss
 Stand
 Optical pin
 Copper wire
 Protractor
 Two pieces of plasticine
 Cork
Cork 
clamp 
(a) Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram below
Optical pin 
plasticine 
wire 
q 
Stand 
(b) Bend the wire in the middle so as to make an angle of 50^{0.} Attach the two small pieces of plasticine at both ends of the bent wire as shown in the diagram.
(c) Place the bent wire on the optical pin and give a small horizontal displacement. Take the time
for 10 oscillations and record in the table below.
(d) Repeat the procedure above for other values of θ and complete the table below (8mks)
Angle θ^{0}  Time t for 10 oscillations (sec)  Periodic Time T (sec)  Frequency f(Hz)  f^{2 }(H_{3})^{2}  Cos (θ/2) 
50  
60  
70  
80  
90  
100 
 i) On the graph paper provided, plot a graph of f^{2} (yaxis) against Cos(θ/2) (6mks)
 ii) Determine the gradient of the graph
gradient =……………………………………………………… (2mks)
iii) The equation for the Oscillation of the wire is given by the formula
f^{2} =150 Z Cos (θ/2)
4pL
Given that L=0.15m
Use the gradient of the graph to determine the value of Z
QUESTION 2.
 (a) You are provided with the following apparatus:
 Convex lens
 Candle
 White screen
 Lens holder
 Metre rule
Screen 
Convex lens 
Candle 
 Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure below
Metre rule 
 Place the lit candle at an object distance U=20cm. Move the screen towards or away from the lens until a sharp image of the candle flame is obtained on the screen. Measure the distance V and record it in the table of results below
 Repeat the experiment for other values of U and record in the table.
Object distance (U)  Image distance (V)  U+V  UV 
20cm  
30cm  
45cm  
60cm  
75cm  
90cm 
 Plot the graph of U+V against UV. Determine its gradient (7mks)
 Use the gradient obtained above to determine the power of the lens (3mks)
 (b) You are provided with the following apparatus
 2 New dry cell
 An arnmeter
 A voltmeter
 A mounted wire labeled AB
 Cell holder
 Switch
 Connecting wires
 i) You are required to design a circuit that you will use the above apparatus to determine the
resistance of the wire AB.
Draw the circuit diagram (2mks)
 ii) Set up the apparatus as in your circuit diagram and tabulate your results (2mks)
iii) Calculate the resistance of the wire (2mks)
SAMPLE 3
Question 1
Q1. You are provided with the following apparatus
 A voltmeter
 An ammeter
 A wire x mounted on a metre rule
 6 connecting wires with crocodile clips
 Micrometer screw gauge
 A switch
 A jockey
 One new dry cell and a cell holder.
Proceed as follows:
Connect the apparatus provided as shown in the circuit below.
Metre rule 
jockey 
Wire x 
 With the crocodile clip at L = 10 cm , close the switch S and record the ammeter and voltmeter reading.
I = ________________________ A
V = ________________________V
Repeat the procedure in (b) for other values of l = 15cm, 20cm, 25cm, 30cm, 35cm and record
the readings in the table below.
Length. L. (cm)  10  15  20  25  30  35 
Voltmeter reading , V (volts)  
Ammeter reading , I(A) 
(5mks)
Plot a graph of potential difference, V(yaxis) against the Current I (5mks.
Determine the slope of the graph (2mks)
 Given that V= E – I r, use your graph to determine the value of;
(i) E (1mk)
(ii) r (2mks)
 Measure the diameter d of the wire x using the micrometer screw gauge.
d = ___________________________ mm
____________________________m (1mk)
 Dismantle the apparatus and set up the circuit as shown below.
 Close the switch S and record the ammeter and the voltmeter readings
I = __________________________ A
V = __________________________ V (1mk)
Hence find R, the resistance of the wire x.
R = ___________________________ W (1mk)
 Given that R = 4r
p d^{2 }, determine r (2 mks)
Question 2
You are provided with the following apparatus;
 A copper wire
 A 50g mass
 A metre rule
 Two pieces of woods
 A test –tube
 A retort stand, boss and clamp
Proceed as follows.
 Measure the length, L, of the wire provided
L = ________________________ cm (1mk)
 Wind the whole length of the wire tightly on the testtube making sure that the turns are as close as possible but not overlapping. Measure the length, j , of the coil made.
j =__________________________ cm (1mk)
 Count and record the number, N, of the complete turns on the coils.
N = _____________________________________( 1mk)
 Remove the coil from the testtube. Straighten the first and the last turns of coil. Bend one end to make a hook.
 Count and record in the table below, the number, n , of complete turns remaining on the coil.
 Measure and record in the table below, the distance, h_{1 }between the end turns of the coil as shown on the diagram below
Pieces of wood 
Figure 2 
Figure 1 
 Load a 50 g mass on the coils as shown in figure 2 above. Measure and record in the table below, the distance,h_{2} , between the end turns of the coil.
 Remove the mass from the coil Reduce the number of turns by straightening three turns of the coil from the upper end and adjust the point of suspension of the coil as shown in figure 2.Record the number of turns, n, remaining.
 Measure and record the new distances,h_{1 }in the table below. Load 50g mass on the coil. Measure and record the new h_{2 }in the table below.
 Repeat the procedure (i) and (j) above so as to obtain four sets of readings for, n,h_{1} and h_{2}.
Calculate the corresponding extension and complete the table below.
Number of turns,
n, remaining 


Distance, h_{2 }(cm)  
Distance, h_{1 }(cm)  
Extension, e(cm) 
(6mks)
 Plot the graph of extension, e(yaxis) against the number of turns, n, on the grid provided. (5mks)
 m) I Determine the slope, s, of the graph. State its units. (2mks)
II Determine the constant, p, for the wire from the expression:
P = 4mgR^{3}
S r^{4}
Where m is the mass used
g is acceleration due to gravity, g = 10m/s^{2}
^{ } R = L
2pN
r = j
2 N (4mks)
END 
SAMPLE 4
232/3
PHYSICS
Question 1You are provided with the following
 One half meter rule
 One retort stand
 A boss and a clamp
 One 10g mass
 Six cylindrical masses with hooks labeled M_{1}, M_{2}, M_{3}, M_{4}, M_{5} and M_{6}
 One 100ml measuring cylinder
 Three pieces of cotton thread
 One 400 ml beaker
 Water in a 500ml beaker
Proceed as follows
(a) (i) Suspend the half metre rule on the clamp using one of the pieces of thread. Balance the rule and note the position of its center of gravity. This point of suspension should be maintained throughout the experiment:
(ii) Suspend the cylindrical mass M_{1} at a distance of 3.5cm from the center of gravity of the rule using a looped thread. Suspend the 10g mass to balance the mass. (See figure 1).Record in table 1, L_{1}, the distance between the center of gravity of the rule and the balance point for the 10g mass
Cylindrical mass M_{1} 
½ metre rule 
Boss 
Clamp 
(iii) Suspend M_{1}in water contained in the 400ml beaker. Adjust the position of the 10g mass to balance M_{1}(See figure 2)
Fig. 2 
Loop 
10g mass 
Beaker 
Cylindrical mass M_{1} 
Water 
½ metre rule 
Clamp 
(iv) Remove M_{1}with the loop of thread and determine its volume using the 100ml measuring cylinder. Record this volume, V in table 1
M_{1}  M_{2}  M_{3}  M_{4}  M_{5}  M_{6}  
Vol V(cm^{3})  
L_{1}(cm)  
L_{2} (cm)  
(L_{1}L_{2} )(cm) 
(b) Repeat the procedures a(ii) to a(iv) for the other cylindrical masses and complete the table (7mks))
(i) On the grid provided, plot the graph of volume (yaxis) against (L_{1}L_{2}) (5mks)
 (ii) Determine the slope of the graph (2mks)
(iii) Given the equation of the graph as
L_{1} – L_{2} 
V= 2I
5K
Where k is a constant, determine the value of k (3mks)
(d) Design a set up and use it to determine the mass of the halfmeter rule without using the cylindrical masses. Draw the set up and show your working (3mks)
Mass of the half metre rule= …………………………………………………………….
Question 2
Part A
You are provided with;
 A nichrome wire, 1m long, mounted on mm scale and labeled PQ at the ends.
 A nichrome wire of length 15cm labeled X
 A 10 ohm resistor labeled Y
 A dry cell (New)
 A switch.
 A voltammeter (02.5V) and
 8 connecting wires (4 with crocodile clips)
 (i) Set up your apparatus as shown
Cell 
Jockey 
(ii) Close the switch. Place the jockey at P and then at Q (The voltammeter deflects in opposite directions)
(iii) Place the contact J, 5cm from Q and record the voltammeter reading
(iv) Repeat this for values of L indicated in the table below. Record the corresponding values of V
L(cm)  5  15  25  35  45 
V, (Volts) 
Table 1 (2mks)
(b) (i) Interchange the voltmeter terminals. Place jockey at P and make sure the voltmeter pointer deflects to the right
(ii) Place the jockey on the wire 95cm from Q and record the voltmeter reading
(iii) Repeat this for values of L given in the table below
L(cm)  95  90  85  75 
V(Volts) 
Table 2
(c) On the same axes plot two graphs of V (yaxis) against L using the values in the tables above (6mks)
(d) From your graphs determine
(i) The value of V when L=0 (1mk)
 (ii) The value of L where the two graphs intersect (1mk)
(e) (i) Record the value of the resistance of y, R_{y} given to you.
(ii) Work out the value of the unknown resistance of X, R_{x }of wire X using the expression
(3mks)
R_{x}=R_{y}(100L)
L
Part B
(f) Use the apparatus given below to carry out the experiment that follows
 Three optical pins and four office pins
 A plain white A_{4}piece of paper
 Soft board
 Glass slab
Place the glass slab on the white piece of paper and trace its outline. Secure it in place (In its position) by the office pins A, B, C, D as shown in the diagram below
B 
 g) (i) Fix the pin P firmly at the end of the slab and with your eye E_{1} at the opposite of the slab fix pin P_{1} and then P_{2} in line with the image I of the pin (see diagram) (1mk)
Remove the pins P1 and P2 and mark their positions P_{1} and P_{2} respectively
(ii) Similarly fix P_{3} and then P_{4 }so that they are in line with the image I of P ( 1mk)
Again remove the pin P_{3} and P_{4 }and mark their positions respectively. Remove the glass slab and pins ABCD
 h) Join P_{1}P_{2} produced with the tracing of the slab outline. Join P_{3}P_{4} produced to intersect line P_{1}P_{2}. label this point of intersection I, the supposed position of the image of pin P. (1mk)
(i) Measure the lengths QP and QI
QP ………………………………………………………………………………… (1mk)
QI …………………………………………………………………………………. (1mk)
(ii) Determine the ratio QP/QI (1mk)
SAMPLE 5
232/3
PHYSICS
 You are provided with the following
– Helical spring with pointer
– One clamp, one stand and one boss
– a stop watch
– one metre rule or half metre rule
– one 50g, four 20gm and one 100g masses (a set of six masses) or slotted masses starting from 20g to 150 g.
Proceed as follows
 (i) Suspend the spring vertically alongside the clamped metre rule as shown in figure 1 below. Measure the length L_{o, } of the spring before loading it.
L_{0} = ……………………………….cm 1mk
stand 
Fig 1 
Half metre / metre rule 
 Attach a mass of 20g on the spring and measure the new length, L, of the spring. Record this in table I below.
 Calculate the change in the length, e=L – L_{o} due to the mass of 20g and record this in table I below.
 Repeat the steps (ii) and (iii) using additional masses of 20g and record in table I
Mass(g)  20  40  60  80  100  120 
L(cm)  
L – L_{o}=e(cm) 
5mks (v) Plot a graph of extension, e (yaxis) against the mass. 5mks
(vi) Determine the gradient, S, of the graph
Gradient, S = 3mks
 (i) Using the same set up as fig 1, attach the 120g mass on the spring and support it from below with your palm so that it does not oscillate.
 Pull the mass a small distant vertically downwards and release it to execute vertical oscillations. Record on table II below the time, t, for twenty complete oscillations. Repeat to obtain a total of three readings i.e. t_{1}, t_{2} and t_{3}. This is also done for a mass of 150g.
TABLE II
Time for 20 oscillations  Average
time(s) 
T
(s) 
T^{2}
(S^{2}) 
T^{2}/_{m}
S^{2}g^{1} 

Mass, m, (g)  t_{1}(s)  t_{2 (s)}  t_{3(s)}  
120  
150 
2mks
(iii) Find the average value of T^{2}/m. let this value be P. 1mk
(iv) Given that the gradient, S, is given by S = PK , determine the constant K 2mks 4p^{2}
(v) What does it represent? 1mk
 This question is in two parts. Answer both parts.
PART 1
You are provided with the following
A nichrome wire 1m long mounted on a scale
 A dry cell
 1 ammeter ( 0 – 1A)
 A switch
 A bulb
 A voltmeter ( 05v or 0 – 3v)
 A one cell holder
 At least 6 connecting wires, one with a jockey
Proceed as follows
 a) (i) Set up the circuit as shown in fig. 2
jockey 
Fig 2 
 With the jockey / crocodile clip at B (L=100cm) note the voltmeter reading V and ammeter reading, I and record on the table III below.
 Repeat the procedure in (ii) above for L=80cm, 60cm, 40cm, 20cm and 0cm and record.
Table III
L(cm)  100  80  60  40  20  0 
V(volts)  
I (A) 
(iv) Plot the graph of V(yaxis) against I on the grid provided. 5mks
 v) Calculate the slope of your graph when current is 0.15A. 3mks
PART II
You are provided with the following
 test tube
 Gas jar or 250ml measuring cylinder
 Sand / fine gravel / lead shots in a small beaker.
 Vernier calipers ( to be shared)
 A weighing balance ( to be shared)
 Metre rule / a half metre rule / 30cm rule / 15cm rule
 Spatula and water
Proceed as follows
 Set up the apparatus as shown in fig. 3 by adding lead shots/sand/fine gravel into the testtube until the testtube just floats upright.
Test tube 
Gas jar 
sand 
water 
Fig. 3 
 Measure the length, x
x =…………………………cm 1mk
 c) Measure the whole length of test tube y 1mk
y = …………………………. cm
 d) Determine the external diameter of the test tube using the vernier caliper.
External diameter = ………………………………. cm 1mk
External radius, r = ……………………………….. cm 1mk
 e) Measure the mass of the testtube and its contents,
Mass, m = ………………………………………….g 1mk
 Determine the density of water given that
r = 7M
22 r^{2}(y – x) 2mks
SAMPLE 6
232 / 3
PHYSICS
 You are provided with the following
– Two bar magnets P and Q
– Piece of manila paper measuring about 1.5cm
– Retord stand boss and clamp
– Stop watch
Proceed as follows
 Wrap a manila paper provided round a magnet labeled P. Suspend magnet P from the retord stand using a thread, so that it is just off the bench, allow it to oscillate until it settles.
 Place magnet Q such that it can attract the end of P as shown in figure
N S 
stand 
Manila paper 
Thread 
 c) Move magnet Q so that the distance L, between the two magnets is equal to 20cm. Twist magnet P a little and release it so that it can oscillate. Determine the time t for 10 oscillations
t 1mk
 d) Calculate the frequency f of an oscillation
f 2mks
 e) Repeat the experiment for other values of L and complete the table below.
L(cm)  20  18  16  14  12  10 
t(s)  
f (Hz)  
^{1}/_{L}^{2} (cm^{2}) 
6mks
 f) (i) Plot a graph of f against ^{1}/_{L}^{2} 5mks
 f) (ii) Determine the gradient of the graph. 2mks
 find the frequency fo when
^{1}/_{L}^{2} = 0 3mks
 Part I
You are provided with the following:
 two new dry cells
 cell holder
 8 connecting wires
 ammeter
 voltmeter
 switch
 variable resistor
 a) Set up circuit as shown below
 (i) Close the switch and adjust the variable resistor until the voltmeter reads 2.7v.
 Record the voltmeter reading V and the corresponding Ammeter reading I, in the table 2 below
 Repeat the procedure in (b) above for other values of V given in table 2
Table 2
V (volts)  2.7  2.5  2.3  2.1  1.9  1.7 
I (Amperes) 
3mks
 d) (i) Plot a graph of v( y – axis) against I. 4mks
 d) (ii) Determine the gradient of the graph. 2mks
 e) Given that E = V + Ir, determine the values of E and r, for the battery, using your graph. 3mks
E
r
 You are provided with the following
– one spiral spring
– Two stands, 2 clamps and two bosses
– one half metre rule
– 10cm long cellotape
– 30cm long cellotape
– one 100g mass
– one metre rule
– 1 brick
Clamp 
Proceed as follows
Metre rule 
Spiral spring 
Thread 
½ metre rule 
clamp 
 a) Suspend the spring with its pointer against the mm scale shown
 b) (i) Place one end of the metre rule against the brick and suspend the other end of the spring using a thread. Adjust the thread so that the height h above the table is 30cm
Measure and record the distance
Lo = 95cm
Note and record the position of the pointer reading in the table below when there is no mass placed on metre rule.
(ii) Place the mass M at a distance 20cm from the end of the metre rule against the brick. Read and record the new position of the pointer reading.
 Find the extension e of the spring and enter value in the table
Distance d (m)  0  20  30  40  50  60  70 
Pointer reading  
Extension 
5mks
 c) Plot a graph of extension e ( y – axis) against d. 3mks
 d) The equation of the graph is given by
e = 0.98 + Q
LoK
Determine value of k 2mks
SAMPLE 7
232/3
PHYSICS
 1. You are provided with the following.
– A dry cell 1.5V, new and in a cell holder.
– A voltmeter (Range 0 – 2.5v or 0 – 3.0v)
– An ammeter (Range 0 – 1.0A)
– A constantan wire, W, (SWG 30) mounted on a millimeter scale on a wooden plank.
– 07 connecting wires with at least one with a crocodile clip at one end.
– A micrometer screw gauge.
Proceed as follows:
 a) (i) Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram below.
NB: Ensure the circuit is complete before commencing the experiment. The switch K should control both circuits.
Calibrated wooden plank 
Wire, W, 
(b) Starting with the crocodile clip, J, at l=200mm from A, close the switch K and read and record the
voltmeter reading x and record the corresponding ammeter reading, I.
(i) Voltmeter Reading, v = _____________________________ ( ½ mk)
(ii) Ammeter Reading, I = ______________________________ ( ½ mk)
IMPORTANT
Open the switch, K, when not taking the readings.
 c) (i) Repeat the procedure in (b) above for values of l=300, 400, 500, 600 and 700mm.
(ii) Record your results in the table below
Length (AJ) L (mm)  200  300  400  500  600  700  
Voltmeter Reading V(v)  
Ammeter Reading I(A) 

_{ } 
(3mks)
 d) Plot the graph of the voltmeter Reading, v, (vertical axis) against ammeter Reading (Use the scale 1cm to represent 0.1v along yaxis and 1cm to represent 0.05A along xaxis) (4mks)
 e) From your graph;
(i) determine the slope, S, of your graph. (3mks)
(ii) determine e.m.f of the cell. (1mk)
 Measure the thickness, t, in metres, of the wire, W,
t= _______________________________
 g) Now connect the voltmeter across the wire, W, to enable you obtain a potential drop across any
part length, AJ, of the wire, AB
 Using the length, AJ, = L = 550mm, close the switch and then read the voltmeter and corresponding ammeter readings
Voltmeter Reading, V = _____________________________ ½ mk
Ammeter Reading, I = ______________________________ ½ mk
 Calculate the value of P from
P = 11Vt^{2}
14IL
Where L, v, t and I are quantities obtained above in their SI units. 3mks
(iii) What does the quantity P represent? 1mk
(iv) Sketch the diagram for the set up you have used in (g) above. 2mks
Q.2. Part 1
You have been provided with the following pieces of apparatus:
 A plain sheet of A4 paper
 A soft board
 Some plasticine
 A plane mirror
 04 optical pins
 04 office pins
(You should have your own 15cm ruler, a protractor and a pair of compasses)
Proceed as follows
 Fix the plain sheet of paper on the soft board using the office pins near the edges.
 Draw a line AB about 15cm long on the sheet of paper. Label the midpoint, N, of AB.
 Draw a line CD = 12cm long and perpendicular to AB such that NC = 6cm. ½ mk
Soft Board 
Plain paper 
Office pin 
(d) (i) Mark the points E,F,G, H, J and K such that CE=1.5cm, CF=3.0cm, CG=4.5cm, CH=6.0cm, CJ = 7.5cm and CK = 9.0cm. 1mk
(ii) Join these points to N and measure the angles, q, they make with AB. 3mks
q_{1} = ______________ q_{2} = ________________ q_{3} = _____________
q_{4}= _______________ q_{5} = _________________ q_{6}= _____________
 Erect the mirror, MM_{1} along the drawn line AB such that the front of the mirror is on line AB. (Use plasticine to hold the mirror in place and vertical to the paper)
 Fix the pins P_{1} and P_{2} on EN and view their images in a straight line with the eye E.
Fix the pins P_{3} and P_{4} in a straight line with the images of P_{1} and P_{2}.
(Mark this positions P_{1}P_{2}P_{3 }and P_{4} before proceeding with another set of pins. After this you may use your own labeling to differentiate the different positions of the set of pins.)
 Repeat the procedure (f) above for the lines FN, GN, HN, JN and KN. Each time labeling the positions of the object pins different from the image tracing pins as in P_{3} and P_{4}.
 (i) Now remove the mirror and the pins. Join the image Tracing pins pairs to N as in P_{4}P_{3} to N.
(ii) Measure the angles, β, that they make with the lines of incidence produced eg <P_{4}NQ=β_{1}.
 j) Record your results in the table below
Height h(cm) 
h h^{2} + 36 
Angle β^{0}  Sin β^{0}  
1.5
3.0 4.5 6.0 7.5 9.0 
3mks*TRZ*
(k) Plot the graph of sin β (along the vertical axis) against h along the horizontal
axis). h^{2}+ 36
(Use the scale: 2cm on vertical axis to represent 0.1 units and 2cm on horizontal axis to represent 0.01) cm^{1}) 4mks
 l) Calculate the slope, S, of the graph. 2mks
NB: Hand in the A4 paper used in this experiment together with the answer sheet attached.
PART II
You are provided with the following pieces of apparatus
 One 300g mass
 One 250ml beaker (glass)
 One 200ml beaker (plastic) lagged with cotton wool
 A thermometer ( 10 – 110^{0}C)
 Stop watch/clock
 Tripod stand with gauze wire and a source of heat.
 Accessible to hot water
 A piece of strong thread about 30cm long.
Proceed as follows
 Record the mass M indicated on the metal in kilogrammes.
M = _____________________________ ½ mk
 b) Read and record the room temperature from the thermometer.
Room Temperature, T_{r}, = ___________________________ ½ mk
 c) Tie one end of the piece of thread onto the mass M and immerse it into the hot water in a glass beaker, about 250cm^{3}, and heat to boiling point.
Metal mass M 
Cold water 
Wool lagging 
Stirrer 
string 
Tripod stand 
Heat 
Gauze wire 
Metal mass M 
Boiling water 
Plastic beaker 
Thermometer 
 d) (i) Meanwhile measure out 150cm^{3} of cold water and pour it into a 200ml plastic beaker lagged with cotton wool.
(ii) Read and record the temperature, Tc, of the cold water.
Tc = _____________________________________ ½ mk
(e) After the water has boiled for about 5 – 10 minutes, take the temperature of the boiling water and mass M. Read and record.
T b = __________________________________ ½ mk
(f) (i) Carefully transfer the metal piece from the boiling water into the cold water in the lagged beaker. Immediately start the stop watch as you gently stir the contents for seven (07) minutes.
(The thermometer must be continually in the cold water in the beaker with the metal M)
(ii) Read and record the final temperature Tf of the contents at the end of 7 minutes.
Tf = _______________________________ 1mk
 Find the value of the loss of heat from the equation.
Q = 1.7 x 10^{3}Ms, where s = 1.429. 4mks
SAMPLE 8
232/3
PHYSICS
Question 1.
 You are provided with the following.
 One spiral spring with a pointer
 One stand, two bosses and two clamps.
 One half metre rule.
 A piece of cotton thread
 A brick or some other heavy object.
 One mass labelled M
 Spring balance or beam balance
Proceed as follows:
a). Set the apparatus as shown in figure 1
Fig. 1 
Half metre rule 
Spiral Spring 
Brick 
Thread 
Retort stand 
b). Suspend the spring with its pointer against a mm scale as shown.
c). Place one end of the metre rule against a brick and suspend the other end on the spring using a piece of thread. Adjust the thread so that the height h above the table is 30cm the rule pressing against the brick and the point of suspension of the
d). (i) Measure and record the distance Lo in metres between the end of
metre rule.
Lo = _____________________ M (1mk)
 Note and record the position of the pointer reading in the table below for d= O (She pointer reading when there is no mass placed on metre rule)
 Weigh M and note its mass. M=
iv). Place the mass M at a distance, d=20em from the end of the metre rule against the brick. Read and record the new position of the pointer reading.
Distance d (cm)  0  20  30  40  50  60  70 
Pointer reading ( cm)  
Extension x (cm) 
 v) Find the extension, x of the spring and enter your value in table
vi). Repeat parts (iii) to (v) above for the other values of d shown in the table above.
d). I) Plot a graph of extension, x (vertical axis) against d. 5mks
 ii) Determine the slope, 8 of your graph. 3mks
iii) Determine the value of constant, K from K – 0.98 3mks
K = 0.98
S x Lo
Question 2:
You are provided with:
 One screen with a hole and crosswires
 One white screen
 A lens
 A len holder
 A candle
 A metrerule
a). Using the lens provided, focus clearly the image of a distant object onto the
screen.
Measure the distance D between the lens and. the screen,
D=————————(cm) (Imk)
b). (i) Arrange the apparatus on the bench as in the figures
ii). Starting with a distance of u=20cm between the xwire which is the object and the lens, adjust the white screen until a clear image of the cross (x) is formed on the screen V = _________________________ (CM) iii). Repeat for other values of u and record the values of V in the table 2 below
Table 2
U (cm)  V(cm)  UV(cm^{2})  U + V (cm) 
20  
25  
30  
35  
40  
45  
50  
55 
 c) Plot a graph of uv(cm^{2}) (Yaxis) against ( u+ v) cm 5mks ii) Given that the equation of the graph is u + v = uv k determine the value of K 4mk
What is its signify
SAMPLE 9
 You are provided with the following apparatus:
 A retort stand and clamp
 Thread (1m long)
 A small bob of 30g
 Stop watch / clock
 Two small pieces of wood
 A metre rule
Procedure :
Clamp the pendulum as shown (figure 1) below starting with the length, L, = 80cm
Fig. 1 
L 
Retort stand 
pendulum 
string 
Pieces of wood 
 Give the bob a small displacement and record the time t, for 10 oscillations .
 Record also the periodic time, T, for one complete oscillation.
 Repeat part (b) above for values of L= 70cm, 60cm , 50cm, 40cm, 30cm & 20cm. Enter your results in the table below.
 Complete the Table below for. The values of the squares of the periodic time, T^{2 }7mks)
Length,cm)  Time for 10 Oscillations,t(s) 4mks)  Period T(s) (3mks)  T^{2} ( s^{2})(3mks) 
80.0  
70.0  
60.0  
50.0  
40.0  
30.0  
20.0 
 e) Plot a graph of T^{2 }(vertical axis) against L(Horizontal axis) 5mks
 f) Determine the slope of your graph 2mks
 g) The equation of the graph in (e) above is given by;
T^{2 }= 4 p^{2 }L + C
g
Where, C, is a constant and, g ,is the acceleration due to gravity
 h) Using the equation in (g) above determine the value of g in m/s^{2} 3mks
 a) Your are provided with the following apparatus
– Metre rule
– Lens on a lens holder
– Cardboard with crosswires on a hole.
– A white Screen
– Source of light
Lens 
Procedure.
White screen 
Fig. 2 
Source of light 
x 
Cross wire 
Object distance, u 
Image distance , v 
 Set up the apparatus as shown above in figure 2
 Place the object (cross wires & screen) at the zero centimetre mark of a
metre rule
Set the object distance u, by placing the lens at the 70cm mark of the metre rule
 Adjust the screen until a sharp image is obtained
 Determine the corresponding image distance v.
 Repeat the procedure above for values of u=60cm, 50cm, 40cm and 30cm.
 i) Record your results as shown below
Object distance u (cm)  Image distance, v, (cm) 3mks  1/u (cm^{1})
(2mks) 
1/v (cm^{1})
(2mks) 
30  
40  
50  
60  
70 
 ii) Use the table to plot a graph of ^{1}/_{v }against ^{1}/_{u }(^{1}/_{v } vertical axis) 5mks
iii) Using the graph; determine the focal length of the convex lens 3mks
 a) You are provided with
– Voltmeter
– Ammeter
– Nichrome wire 10cm long gauge 32
– one cell and cellholder.
– A switch
Procedure:
Nichrome wire 
Set up the apparatus as shown in figure 3 below
FIG 3 
 i) Complete the table below for the values of the current passing through the Nichrome wire and the pd across it.. 3mks
Current (A)  
p.d volts (V)  
^{V}/_{I} 
 ii) What is the resistance of the nichrome wire____ W 2mks
SAMPLE 10
 You are provided with the following
 A 250 cm^{3} beaker
 Water
 Screen
 Metre rule
 Candle
 Add 200cm^{3} of water to the vessel and obtain ‘h’ the height in cm of the water above the base of the vessel Determine the approximate Value of R, the internal radius in cm from the formula;
h= _____________________________cm (1 mark)
R=_____________________________cm (1mark)
This experiment uses a cylindrical vessel, filled with water as lens and compares its radius with the effective focal length.
 Set the apparatus as shown in diagram below:
Set u to be about 10R away from the centre of the ‘Lens’ and use the screen to locate the image formed. The image is a sharp vertical line. Measure u and v from the center of the vessel Repeat the experiment with the following multiples of R. and record all values of u and V in the table below:
10R  9R  8R  7R  6R  5R  4R  3R  
U(cm)  
V(cm) 
 Plot a graph of u against v (5 marks)
 From the graph, determine:
 ‘V’ the value of V for which V=U (1 marks)
 ‘u’ the value of u for which (1 mark)
 Determine the effective focal length of the ‘lens’ from the formula: (2marks)
 Give the appropriate value of (1 mark)
 You are provided with the following
 100cm Nichrome wire mounted on a metre rule label X.
 An ammeter
 A volt meter
 Three dry cells
 Cell holder
 Eight connecting wires (at least 4 with crocodile clips at the end)
 A 2.5 volt bulb fixed into a lamp holder
 A switch
Procedure:
 Connect the apparatus provided as shown in circuit diagram below:

 Place the sliding contact at X 20cm from ‘p’ then close the switch Record the ammeter and the voltmeter readings. Record the reading in the table below.
 Repeat the above experiment by placing the sliding contact X at the point 40cm, 60cm, 70cm and 80cm from P. Record your readings and complete the table below.
(given that
Length, L(cm)  I(A)  p.d.(v)  I(mA)  p.d.(mv)  Log I(mA)  Log v(mv) 
20  
40  
60  
70  
800 
[10 marks]
 (i) plot a graph of log (y –axis) against log V (5 marks)
 Determine the slope of the graph (3 marks)
 The relationship between the current I(A) and p.d. (v) is given by the equation : where k and n are constants of the lamp
 Determine using your graph the value of
 K_________________________________ (1 mark)
 N_________________________________(1 mark)
 Determine using your graph the value of
SAMPLE 11
 You are provided with the following apparatus
– a metre rule
– a thin lens
– a lens holder
– a white cardboard screen
– a piece of placticine
– a lit candle
– a cross – wire ( fixed into a hole in a cardboard screen)
– a plane mirror
– a piece of cellotape.
PART I
(i) Attach the plane mirror carefully to the thin lens using cellotape such that the reflecting side faces the lens and then place the lens on the lens holder.
(ii) With the cross – wire at the zero centimeter mark of the meter rule, arrange the apparatus as shown below.
(The metre rule can be fixed on the bench using a piece of plasticine)
d 
Fig 1 
Candle 
Crosswire 
Approximate position of image 
Plane mirror 
Lens 
(iii) Move the lens along the metre rule until a sharp image of the cross wire is formed alongside the object cross wire.
(iv) Take at least two readings of the length, d, between the lens and the screen and determine the average
d = _________________________________m ( 2mks)
PART II
(i) Set up the apparatus as illustrated in Figure 2.
The flame of the candle should be approximately at the same height as the cross wire.
Fig 2 
Screen 
Lens 
Cross wire 
Candle 
(ii) Place the cross wire at the zero centimeter mark of the metre rule.
(iii) Set the object distance, u, by adjusting the lens position so that it is at 60cm.
(iv) Adjust the screen until a sharp image of the cross – wire is obtained on it. Note the
image distance v, between the screen and the lens
v = _______________________________________cm ( 1mk)
(v) Repeat the procedure above to obtain corresponding values of v when u = 70cm, 50cm,40cm,
35cm and 30cm.
(vi) Tabulate your results below. (6mks)
Object distance u (cm)  30  35  40  50  60  70 
Image distance v(cm)  
(u + v) (cm)  
uv(cm^{2}) 
(vii) Use the table to plot a graph of uv on y – axis against ( u + v) ( 5mks)
(vii) Determine the slope of the graph and hence the power of the lens. (4mks)
(ix) Explain how the quantity d in PART I and the power of the lens obtained in (viii)
above relate.
(2mks)
 PART I
Your are provided with the following apparatus:
 a metre rule
 a set of masses ( 10g, 20g,50g and 100g)
 a piece of thread
 a stop watch or stop clock
 a Gclamp
Proceed as follows:
(i) Hold the metre rule with a Gclamp at the extreme edge of the bench such that 10cm
Bench 
of the rule overlap with the bench as shown in Figure 3.
Fig.3 
Gclamp 
mass 
Metre rule 
(ii) Hang the mass of 50g using a thread, 5 cm from the free end of the rule. (The thread should be firmly tied to the metre rule) Displace the mass slightly downwards and set the rule and the mass into oscillation.
(iii) Determine the time for 20 complete oscillations of the rule and record the value in
the table below.
(iv) Repeat (iii) for masses of 60g,80g,100g,120g and 150g and complete table below. (7mks)
Mass (g)  Time for 20
Oscillations(s) 
Period,T (s)  (Period)^{2}, T^{2} (S^{2}) 
50  
60  
80  
100  
120  
150 
(v) Plot the graph of (Period)^{2} against mass, m(kg) in the grid provided. (5mks)
(vi) Given that the equation of the graph is T^{2} = km, where k is a constant determine
the value of the constant k for the system. (3mks)
PART II
You are provided with the following apparatus :
 dry cell
 a cell holder
 a switch
 nichrome wire mounted on a metre rule.
 Component C
 a centre zero galvanometer
 8 connecting wires, four of which with crocodile clips at both ends
 a resistor, R
 a 4 W
Proceed as follows.
(i) Arrange the apparatus as illustrated in figure 4
z 
Fig.4 
Component C 
4W 
l_{2} 
l_{1} 
Ensure that the switch is initially open. Connect the zero mark of the wire to x and 100cm mark at y. The crocodile clip on the wire connected from the galvanometer, G, should be free to move along the wire XY. (Precaution: Any rusty terminal can distort the results).
(ii) Put on the switch and move the crocodile clip, J, along the wire XY until the galvanometer, G, reads zero. This is achieved by placing gently the crocodile clip on the wire XY at one extreme end and then moving it along the wire carefully.
Repeat the procedure at least once and find the average reading of l_{1} and l_{2}.
l_{1} = __________________________________________ cm (1mk)
l_{2} = __________________________________________cm (1mk)
(iii) Using the values of l_{1}, and l_{2} and 4W resistor, determine the resistance of the component
 (3mks)
END 
SAMPLE 12
 You are provided with the following:
 3 dry cells
 A cell holder
 A switch
 An ammeter
 Five connecting wires
 Wire mounted on the metre rule labelled x
 A micrometer screw gauge [ to be shared J
 A Voltmeter
Proceed as follows
 Connect the circuit shown in figure 1.
Fig. 1
 Measure the voltage, E before closing the switch. E = ………………………….. (1mark)
 Adjust the length, of the wire to 0.2m, close the switch, S and read the value of current and record in the table below. ( 6 marks)
Length, (m)  0.2  0.3  0.4  0.5  0.6  0.7 
Current, I (A)  
 Repeat the procedure in (c) above for the values of lengths given. ( 6 marks)
 Calculate the value of and record in the table above.
 On the grid provided plot a graph of (y axis) against (5 marks)
 Determine the gradient of the graph. ( 3 marks )
 You are provided with the following apparatus;
 A pendulum bob.
 A 110 cm long cotton thread.
 A stop watch
 A vernier calliper
 A retord stand, a boss and a clamp
 A meter rule
 Two small pieces of wood.
Proceed as follows
 Use the vernier calliper to measure the diameter of the pendulum bob.
 (i) Diameter = ————————————————
 (ii) Calculate the radius , r , of the bob;
 Use a meter rule to measure the length, 0.2m of the pendulum = h + r and set the apparatus as shown in figure 2.
Figure 2
 While keeping the thread taut move the bob slightly a side and let go so that the amplitudes of oscillations are small and take place in the same vertical place.
Using a stopwatch, time 20 complete oscillations and record the time, t in the table below;
Length, [m]  Time, t for 20 oscillations (s)  Period [s] T [s]  ( m ½ ) 
0.5  
0.6  
0.7  
0.8  
0.9  
1.0 
(6marks)
 Repeat the procedure [c] above for the values of lengths given.
 Calculate the period, T for each length, and record in the table.
 Determine the values of . and record in the table.
 Plot a graph of T (y – axis) against (6marks)
 Determine the gradient of the graph. ( 3 marks)
 the equation for the graph is given by
T=
Use the graph to determine the values of z, take = 3.14 (3 marks)
SAMPLE 13
Question 1
You are provided with the following:
 Six steel balls
 Test tube
 Vernier Calipers (can be shared )
 Micrometer screw gauge (can be shared)
 Water in a beaker (at least 200ml)
 Retort stand and clamp
 Half meter rule or meter rule.
 A balance (to be shared)
Proceed as follows
 a) (i) Measure the diameter of the steel ball, using micrometer screw gauge.
The diameter of the steel ball,
d = cm ( 1mk )
( ii) Measure the mass of one steel ball.
The mass of the steel ball
M = g ( 1mk )
( iii ) Find p, if p = m (2mks)
0.52381d^{3}
 Measure the internal diameter of the testtube using a Vernier calipers. The internal diameter of the testtube.
D = cm ( 1mk )
 Clamp an empty testtube vertically as shown in the figure 1 below. The testtube should be in this position throughout the experiment)
h_{o} 
Fig. 1 
Test tube
Water 
Add water to the testtube up to halfway full at point X as shown in figure 1 above.
 Measure the vertical height h from the bench to the level of water at point X.
ho = cm ( 1mk )
Add one steel ball to the testtube and note the new vertical height h and the increase in height H. Add the other steel balls, each time recording the new vertical height from the bench and a corresponding increase in height. Hence fill the table below: (4mks)
No of steel balls added.  
Mass added m ( g)  
Vertical height from bench h (cm)  
Increase in height H = ( h h_{o} ) 
iii) Plot a graph of mass m, against increase in water height H ( 5mks )
 iv) Find the slope S of the graph. ( 3mks )
 v) Calculate T, (2mks)
T = slope x 1
D^{2} x 0.785
QUESTION 2.
You are provided with the following.
 1 dry cell and a cell holder.
 1 voltmeter
 1 ammeter
 A wire mounted on a mm scale labeled K
 7 connecting wires with at least 4 with crocodile clips.
 A micrometer screw gauge ( to be shared )
 Set up the apparatus as shown in figure 2.
Fig. 2 
Switch 
 Starting with L equal to 20 cm close the switch and record the readings of voltage (v) and respectively then open the switch.
 Repeat the procedure in ( b) above for the values of L equal to 30 cm, 40 cm 50 cm, 60cm, and 70cm and record your results in the table below.
Length  20  30  40  50  60  70 
Voltage v (v)  
Current I ( A)  
^{v}/_{I} ( ohms) 
( 6mks )
 d) Plot a graph of v/ L ( yaxis ) against ( 5mks )
 e) Find the slope S of your graph ( 3mks)
 f) Calculate the value of R
Given that R = 100 S ( 2 mks )
 g) Measure the diameter D of the wire.
Diameter D = meters ( 2mks )
 h) Calculate the resistivity ρ of the wire given by
ρ = 
pD^{2} R
4 ( 2mks
SAMPLE 14
 You are provided with the following:
– a glass prism
– a plain sheet of paper ( the last sheet of this question paper)
– a soft board
– 4 optical pins
– 4 paper pins
Proceed as follows;
 (i) Place the plain sheet of paper on the soft board and fix it there using the paper pins provided. Do not detach this sheet from the question paper.
Place the prism near the centre of the paper .
Use a pencil to trace the outline of the triangular surface in contact with the paper.
Remove the prism and label the vertices of the outline A,B and C.
(ii) Mark a point N on the side AB of the diagram and draw a normal ON at this point. Draw lines at angles i=30^{0}, 35^{0} and 40^{0} to the normal. See figure 1
N 
P_{2 i} 
30^{0}
35^{0}
40^{0} 
P_{2} 
Fig. 1
 (i) Replace the prism on the outline. Fix two pins, P_{1} and P_{2} vertically on the 30^{0} line such that they are about 4cm apart.
By viewing the images of the pins P_{1} and P_{2} through side AC, fix two other pins P_{3} and P_{4} in line with those images. Remove the prism.
Draw a line through the holes made by P_{3} and P_{4} and extend it into the outline. Now extend the 20^{0} line so that the two lines cross each other. See figure 2.
30^{0} 
P_{1 }

N 
P_{2} 
P_{4} 
P_{3} 
d 
Fig 2.
 Measure and record in the table below the acute angle d between the two line.
Angle i degrees  30  35  40  50  55  60  65  70 
Angle, d (degrees) 
(c) Repeat the procedure in b for other angles shown in the table. (You may find it necessary to draw a separate outline for angles 55^{0}, 60^{0}, 65^{0} and 70^{0} at the back of the plain paper or an extra plain paper to be provided by the school. (collect the extra paper used) . (7mks)
 d) On the grid provided, plot a graph of d(yaxis) against i. (5mks)
(e ) From the graph, determine the minimum value, d min of d.
dmin = ……………………………………………………………………………… (1mk)
(f) Determine the constant K for the prism from the formula.
K = Sin 30^{0} + dmin
2
Sin 30^{0} (3mks)
 You are provided with the following three dry cells.

 a cell holder
 a variable resistor labelled P
 a resistor M
 a component labelled F
 a switch labelled S
 a voltmeter
 a milliammeter
 connecting wires
Proceed as follows.
(a) Connect the apparatus provided as shown in fig. 3 below.
V 
Fig. 3
 Close the switch and adjust the variable resistor P until the milliametre reads 4.0mA. Read and record in table 2 the corresponding value of the voltmeter reading.
 Repeat the procedure in (b) for other values of milliammeter readings shown in the table. Complete the table.
N.B: The values of Log I have been worked out for you.
Table 2 (8mks)
Current, I (mA)  4.0  8.0  12.0  16.0  24.0  32.0  40.0 
Current, I(A)  
Voltage (V)  
R=^{v}/_{I}(W)  
Log R  
Log I  2.40  2.10  1.92  1.80  1.62  1.49  1.40 
(d) On the grid and axes provided, plot the graph of log R (yaxis) against log I ( x axis) 5mks)
 e) The relationship between R and I is given Log R = n log I + log K
Where n and k are constants. Use your graph to determine the
(i) Value of n (4mks)
(ii) Value of k. (3mks)
SAMPLE 15
 You are provided with the following
 Meter rule
 2 knife edges, thread
 needle or pin to act as pointer
 half meter rule
 400g mass or 4x100g masses
 complete retort stand
 Vernier calipers
 Proceed as follows
 Measure the width and the thickness t of meter rule provided.
d=________________________________ m (1 mark)
t=_________________________________m (1 mark)
 Given that
Work out the value of K (2 marks)
 (i) Attach a pointer at the 50cm mark of the meter rule provided.
(ii) Place the meter rule so that it lies horizontal on the two knife edges provided
(iii) Clamp the half meter rule vertically and place it near the 50cm mark of the meter rule and adjacent to the pointer as shown in diagram
(iv) Adjust the knife edges such that the distance between them is equal to 90 cm and is equidistant from the 50cm mark of the meter rule.
 Read and record the position of the pointer on the scale
(vi) Suspend a mass of 400g at the 50cm mark of the meter rule.
(vii) Read and record the position of the pointer on the scale. Hence find depression y of the meter rule at its mid point.
(viii) Remove the mass from the meter rule
 Repeat the procedure above for values of l equal to 80 cm.70cm, 60cm, 50cm and 40cm.
 Enter your results in table below.
l (cm)  90  80  70  60  50  40 
Depression y (cm)  
Log l  
Log y 
(7 marks)
 Plot a graph of log _{10}y along the Y axis against log_{10} (5 marks)
 Find the slope S of the graph (2 marks)
S=______________________________________
 Given that determine the value of E. (2 marks)
 You are provided with the following apparatus
 2 New size D dry cells + holder
 Switch S
 Jockey or crocodile clip.
 Voltmeter (03V) or (05V)
 5 connecting wires 3 with crocodile clips on one end and the third with crocodile clips on both ends and should be approximately 40cm long.
 Wire P fixed on bench
 Meter rule.
Proceed as follows
 (i) Set up the circuit as shown below.
(ii) Starting with a length X equal to 20cm, close the switch. Read and record the readings V of the voltmeter. Open the switch.
 Repeat the procedure (ii) for values of X equal to 20 cm, 30cm, 40cm, 50cm, and 60cm in each case read and record in table below the voltmeter readings (V).
 Fill the table for values of and .
Length x cm  20  30  40  50  60 
p.d v in Volts  
cm ^{1}  
V^{1} 
(8 marks)
 Plot a graph of y axes against . (5 marks)
 Determine the value of the intercept c on the (2 marks)
 Determine the slope S of the graph. (2 marks)
SAMPLE 16
QUESTION ONE
You are provided with the following:
 two dry cells and a cell holder
 one ammeter
 one voltmeter
 a variable resistor
 a switch
 connecting wires
Proceed as follows:
 Set up the apparatus as shown in the circuit diagram in figure 1.
Figure 3
Use the voltmeter provided to measure the p.d, V_{B} across the batteries when the switch, S is opened.
V_{B} =___________________________ volts (1mark)
 Reconnect the circuit as shown in figure 2.
 Close switch S and adjust the variable resistor until the voltmeter reads 2.9V ( if 2.9v is not obtainable, take the maximum possible value and insert it in the table in place of 2.9v)
Read and record the value of V and the corresponding value of I in table 1. Open the switch.
 Repeat the procedures in (c) above for other values of V shown in table 1. Complete the table. (Table 1)
Voltage, V (volts)  2.9  2.7  2.5  2.3  2.0  1.8  1.6 
Current, I (A)  
Table 1
(6 marks)
 (i) Plot the graph of against R (5 marks)
(ii) Determine the slope, S, of the graph (2 marks (iii) From the graph, determine A, the value of when A=_________________________________________________ (1mark)
(iv) From the graph, determine the e.m.f E, and the internal resistance, r of the battery given that
E = IR + Ir (5marks)
QUESTION TWO
This question has two parts A and B. Answer both parts.
PART A
You are provided with the following:
 Vernier callipers
 Transparent cylindrical vessel of external diameter at least 70mm
 Millimeter scale ( ½ m rule)
 A rectangular strip of manila paper fixed to a half meter rule.
Proceed as follows:
 Set up the apparatus as shown below [figure 3]
Figure 4
 Measure and record the width, X, of the rectangular manila paper strip.
X=_____________________________________________________cm (1mark)
 Using the vernier callipers, measure and record the external diameter of the vessel at two different parts and determine the average diameter, D.
D_{1}=________________________________________________cm
D_{2}=________________________________________________cm
Average diameter D=__________________________________cm (2mks)
(d) View the strip through the water in a direction perpendicular to the strip. The strip appears magnified and its apparent width y can be measured against a scale.
(e) Read and record the value of y corresponding to the value of L=1.5cm, where L is the perpendicular distance from the center of the strip to the front of the vessel, as show the diagram below
Top view of vessel 
Figure 5
(f) Repeat the procedure in (e) above for other value of L shown in table 2. Complete the table.
L (cm)  1.5  2.5  3.0  4.5  5.0  5.5  6.0  6.5 
y(cm)  
M=y/x 
Table 2 (5marks)
(g) (i) Plot a graph of m (yaxis) against L (5 marks) [You may use the following range on the axes: ]
(ii) Determine from the graph the value of m when (2 marks)
PART B
You are provided with the following:
 One spiral spring
 A strip of paper
 One retort stand with two clamps
 Two pieces of wood
 One meter rule
 Three 100g mass.
Proceed as follows:
(h) Wrap the strip of paper provided three times round the spiral spring. Measure and record the length X of the three turns in meters
X=_____________________________cm =____________________m (½ mark)
 Measure and record in meters the un stretched length L of the spring as shown below
L=_____________________cm =__________________m (½ mark)
 Find the value of K from (1mark)
 Clamp the spring along side a meter rule as shown in the figure below
 Hang the three masses of total mass m equal to 300g on the spring and record the extension, y produced in the table below.
 Remove a mass of 100g from the spring and record the new extension. Repeat the procedure until there is no mass left. Record the extension produced each time and complete the table.
Mass,m (g)  300  200  100 
Extension,y (cm)  
y/m (cmg^{1}) 
(1½ marks)
(n) (i) Find the average value of Let this value be S. ( ½ mark
(ii) Calculate the constant E of the spring from the formular. (1mark)
SAMPLE 17
 You are provided with the following apparatus.
Volt meter
Ammeter
Resistance wire mounted on a 100cm scale
Cell holder
2 dry cells
Switch
8 connecting wires and one with a Jockey.
The Jockey and mounted resistance wire will form a variable resistance.
Procedure
 Connect the circuit as shown in figure 1 below.
Figure 6
 Record reading G of the voltmeter with switch S open
G = —————— (1mk)
 Set the variable resistance at a length
 (i) Close the switch and take the reading of the ammeter I in Amperes and voltmeter reading V in volts.
 Repeat the procedure for other given values of and record the voltmeter and ammeter reading in the table 1 below.
Length  Ammeter reading I (A)  Voltmeter reading V (v) 
2  
3  
5  
10  
15  
20 
(8mks)
 Plot a graph of V (vertical axis) against I. (5mks)
 From your graph, find the slope S. (3mks)
 Given that V = – Ir + E. determine:
 (i) Internal resistance r. (2mks)
 (ii) The e.m.f. E of the cells. (1mk)
 You are provided with a meter rule, a lens holder, a concave lens, a candle, a mounted white screen.
Figure 7
Proceed as follows:
 (i) Set up the apparatus as shown in figure 2 above. (ensure that the candle and the lens are in the line)
 (ii) With the candle placed a distance from the screen, determine the position of a sharply focused magnified image of the candle on the screen by moving the lens.
 (iii) Determine the distance of the lens to the candle
u_{1} =———————————— cm (1mk)
 (iv) Now move the lens towards the screen until you get a sharply focused diminished image. Determine the new distance of the lens from the candle, u_{2}
u_{2 }= ————————————cm (1mk)
 (v) Calculate the displacement of the lens
(1mk)
 (vi) Given that , Calculate the value of f. (2mks)
(b) With the same set up ensuring that L = 100cm adjust the lens until you get a sharp diminished image on the screen. Measure the object distance u, and image distance v.
Figure 8
Repeat the procedure with L = 95cm, 90cm, 85cm, 80cm and 75cm each time recording the value of u and v and tabulating the results in the table II below.
L(cm)  100  95  90  85  80  75 
U(cm)  
V (cm)  
 (ii) Plot the graph of m against v. (5mks)
 (iii) Determine the slope of the graph (3mks)
 (iv) Given that , determine the focal length of the lens from the graph above.
(2mks)
SAMPLE 18
QUESTION 1
You are provided with the following apparatus.
 Two metre rules (one with a pin as a pointer)
 Two retort stands with clamps and bosses
 Two pieces of thread about 30cm and 1m long
 One helical spring
 One 200g mass
 A stop watch
 A convex lens and lens holder
 A candle
 A screen
 Four small pieces of wooden blocks
Part A
Proceed as follows
Fig. 1 
(i) Set up the apparatus as shown in fig. 1 below.
(ii) Suspend the ends of the metre rule with springs at 5cm mark from the end so that the metre rule with the pointer is horizontal.
Read the pointer position, L_{o} = ……………………………………………………… cm
(iii) Hang 200g on the horizontal metre rule at a length L=10cm from the spring. Record the extension, e, of the spring in the table.
e = ……………………………………………… cm
(iv) Displace the mass slightly downwards and release it to oscillate vertically. Time for 10 oscillations and record the results in the table.
(v) Repeat (iii) and (iv) for other positions of L of the mass
(
Length, L(cm)  10  20  30  40  50 
Extension, e(cm)  
Tiome for 10 oscillations (s)  
Periodic time, T(s)  
T^{2}(sec)^{2} 
(6mks)
 vi) Plot a graph of T^{2} (yaxis) against extension ‘e’ (4mks)
(viii) Determine the slope of the graph. (2mks)
 Given that
T^{2} = 4π^{2}e + c determine the value of k. (3mks
k)
Part B
Proceed as follows;
 Set up the apparatus as shown in fig. 2 below by placing a candle and the screen about 50cm apart. Place the convex lens between the screen and the candle but closer to the candle.
 Move the lens towards the screen from the candle until a sharp image is formed. This point is U_{1}^{.}
 Move the lens again until a second sharp image is formed on the screen of a smaller size. Mark this point U_{2}.
Fig. 2 
candle 
Screen 
 Measure the displacement X_{1}
X_{1}= ………………………………………. Cm (1mk)
 Repeat the procedure in (ii) and (iii) using a value of Y=40cm. Find the displacement X_{2}.
X_{2}= ……………………………………… cm (1mk)
(vi) Given that 4f = x^{2}_{1} – x^{2}_{2} (where Y_{1} = 45), find the value of f. (3mks)
y
Question 2
You are provided with the following:
 Voltmeter
 A dry cell
 Cell holder
 4 connecting wires, two with crocodile clips
 A jockey
 A resistance wire labelled S.
 Micrometer screw gauge
 Ammeter ( 0 – 0.1A)
Proceed as follows:
 Connect the apparatus provided as shown in circuit diagram below.
Measure voltages of the cell before you carry out the experiment.
Voltage, E = ………………………………………… V (1mk)
L 
Ammeter 
Jockey / Crocodile clip 
Cell 
 Adjust the length, L of the wire to 5cm using the jockey and record the ammeter reading in the table below.
Length (cm)  5  10  15  20  25  30 
Current, I (A)  
^{1}/_{I} (A^{1}) 
 c) Repeat the procedure (b) above for the lengths given. (3mks)
 d) Compute the values of ^{1}/_{I} (1mk)
 e) Plot a graph of ^{1}/_{I }(A^{1}) y axis against length L/cm (5mks)
 (i) Measure the diameter of the wire, d giving your answer in cm.
d = ………………………………………………….cm (1mk)
(ii) Determine the crosssectional area, A of the wire. (2mks)
 The relation between I and L is given by the expression
1 = KL + Q where K and Q
I EA E
are constants. Use your graph to determine.
(i) the value of K. (3mks)
END 
(ii) the value of Q. (2mks)
SAMPLE 19
 You are provided with the following apparatus
 One spiral with a pointer
 One stand, two bosses and 2 clamps
 One half metre rule
 One metre rule
 A piece of cotton thread
 A brick or some other heavy objects
 One 100g mass
Proceed as follows
 Set the apparatus as shown in fig 1 below
Fig. 1 
d 
Brick 
Retort stand 
Thread 
Spiral spring 
 Suspend the spring with its pointer against a mm scale as shown
 Place one end of the metre rule against a brick and suspend the other end or the spring using a piece of thread. Adjust the thread so that the height (h) above the table is 30cm.
 (i) Measure and record the distance L_{0 }in meters between the end of the rule pressing against the brick and the point of suspension of the metre rule
L_{0 }= ………………………………………………. m (1mk)
 ii) Note and record the position of the pointer reading in the table below for d= 0 (the pointer reading when there is no mass placed on metre rule )
iii) Place the mass M at a difference d= 20cm from the brick. Read and record the new position of the pointer reading.
 iv) Find the extension x of the spring and enter your value in the table below.
Distance d (cm)  0  20  30  40  50  60  70 
Pointer reading (cm)  
Extension x (cm) 
 v) Repeat parts (iii) to (iv) above for the other values of d shown in the table above.(7mks)
 e) (i) Plot a graph of extension X (y axis) against d (5mks)
(ii) Determine the slopes s of your graphs. (3mks)
(iii) Determine the value of constant K from. (2mks)
K = 0.98
S x L_{0}
(iv) Use the graph to determine the pointer reaching when d = 35 cm. (2mks)
 You are provided with the following
 Two dry cells
 A nichrome wire 1 m long labelled P Q
 Ten connecting wires one of length 70cm having a jockey.
 A micrometer screw gauge
 A torch bulb
 An ammeter
 Voltmeter
 Switch
Proceed as follows
a (i) Set up the circuit below.
Jockey 
Switch 
Voltmeter 
Ammeter 
Bulb 
 ii) With the jockey at P i.e L = 100 note and record the Voltmeter and ammeter reading
Voltmeter reading V = V
Ammeter reaching I = A (1mk)
Repeat the reading for L = 80, 60, 40, and 20 and enter your results in the table.
L (cm)  100  80  60  40  20 
P.d V (volts)  
Current I (amps) 
(4mks)
b (i) Plot the graph of p.d V (y axis) against current I (5mks)
(ii) Determine the slope of your graph when V= 0.3 volts (4mks)
(iii) What physical quantity does the slope in (ii) represent? (1mk)
(iv) What happens to this physical quantity named in (iii) above as the current increases. ( 1mk)
 c) (i) using the micrometer screw gauge measure the diameter of this wire;
d = ______________ m (1mk)
(ii) Calculate the quantity P where
P = pVd² take p = 3.142.
4 I L
And state the units of P. (3mks)
SAMPLE 20
Question 1
You are provided with the following apparatus a metre rule.
 a screen fitted with cross wires labelled o
 a mounted white screen labeled s
 a candle
 a lump of plasticine
 Two lenses labeled L_{1} and L_{2}
 A lens holder
 a plane mirror
 a piece of cellotape.
a). Arrange the apparatus as shown in Fig 1 so that the candle flame, the cross –wires and the centre of the lens on a straight line.
Fig. 1 
Mirror fixed on L_{1} with cellotape behind the lens holder 
Lens L_{1} 
Hole with cross wire 
Screen O 
Candle flame 
Adjust the position of the lens arrangement until a sharp image of the cross – wires is observed on the screen O.
Measure the distance d_{1}; between the screen and the centre of the lens L_{1}. (1mk)
…………………………………………………………………………………………….
Repeat the procedure with lens labelled B and measure the distance d_{2} between the screen and the centre of the lens L_{2}. (1mk)
d_{2} = ………………………………………………………………………………… Calculate the average of the two distances. (1mk)
d_{av} = —————————————–
 Fix together lens L_{1} and L_{2} using some plasticine place the combined lenses between the screen, O behind which there is a lit candle and the mounted white screen labeled as shown in fig 2.
Fig. 2 
Mounted screen labelled S 
Screen O with
cross wire 
With distance x equal to 12 cm, move the mounted screens, S until a sharp and inverted image is formed on it. Measure and record the distance , y , between the lens and the screens.
Repeat the same procedure when x = 15cm, 17cm, 22cm, 25cm and 30cm.
Record the readings in the table below
Distance from screen with crosswire to lens, x(cm)

Distance from lens to mounted screen,s, y (cm)  t=^{ y }/ x 
12
15 17 22 25 30 
(6mks)
 c) Plot a graph of y (y axis) against t on the grid provided below. ( 5mks)
 If the equation of the graph is given by y = at + b, determine.
(i) the value of a (3mks)
(ii) The value of b (1mk)
 e) Also, if ^{1}/_{a} = ^{1}/_{d av} + 1/c,
Find the value of c (2mks)
Question 2
Part 1
You are provided with the following apparatus.
 one new dry cell
 a cell holder
 a switch, s
 an ammeter
 resistance wire labeled R and length, L= 30cm, mounted on the bench top.
 six connecting wires, two with crocodile clips
 a micrometer screw gauge(to be shared)
 a voltmeter.
Proceed as follows
Set up the apparatus as shown in the circuit diagram in fig 3.
Fig 3 
Crocodile clip 
Crocodile clip 
 Close the switch and record the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
Ammeter reading, I=———————————— (1mk)
Voltmeter reading , V=——————————— (1mk)
 Determine the diameter, d, of the resistance wire labeled R using the micrometer screw provided.
d = ————————————————————– (1mk)
 Determine the value of the constant, k given that
k = pd^{2}V
4IL (2mks)
Part 2
You are provide with the following apparatus
 A boiling tube
 A thermometer
 Clamp, boss and stand
 A 250 ml beaker
 A source of heat ( a Bunsen burner)
Proceed as follows
 Use the beaker provided to heat water upto a temperature of about 95°C .using tissue paper or a handkerchief, quickly transfer some of the hot water into the boiling tube as shown in fig 4.
Thermometer 
Water 
Boiling tube 
Clamp and stand 
Fig. 4 
 Starting with a temperature of 80°C, note the temperature of the water at intervals of one minute.
temperature,°C  
time, t(min)  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10 
 Plot a graph of temperature, q ( y – axis) against time t on the grid provided. (5mks)
 Find the gradient, of your graph at the temperature of 70° (3mks)
 The rate of loss of heat to the surrounding by the hot water in the boiling tube is given by
R = k Dq , where k is 1.2 x 10^{4}
Dt
Find the rate of heat loss at the temperature of 70°C. (2mks)
SAMPLE 21
 You are provided with the following
– retord stand
– A wedge or pivot
– Two pieces of thread ( one 40cm and the other 100cm)
– 100g mass marked M
– Metre rule ( wooden )
– Masses 10g, 20g (2), 50g, 100g
– A single pulley
Proceed as follows
 Balance the metre rule on the pivot or wedge. Note the point G where the metre rule balances.
G …………………………………………………..cm (1mk)
 Arrange the apparatus as shown in the diagram.
10cm 
10cm 
 Hang mass M on the metre rule and adjust the position so that the metre rule is in Equilibrium.
NOTE: The thread over the pulley must be kept perpendicularly to the metre rule. Use the set square to check this
 Measure the distance X, between the point of suspension
X = …………………………………………………… (1mk)
Repeat procedure (iii) above for masses 80g, 90g, 100g, 110g, 120g and 130g and each time the distance x and tension T due the suspended mass.
Complete the table below
Table 1
Mass (g)  Tension T(N)  Distance x (m) 
70
80 90 100 110 120 130 
(5mks)
 v) Plot a graph of distance x yaxis against the tension T. (5mks)
 vi) Calculate the slope of the graph. (3mks)
vii) Measure the distance L, between G, centre of the rule and the vertical thread.
……………………………………………… cm
viii) Given that x = 0.8K + LP – 0.8T
K
Obtain the values of the constants K and P from the graph. (3mks)
 ix) Using the graph determine the maximum load the beam balance can measure. (2mks)
 You are provided with the following
– Ammeter ( 0 – 1A)
– Voltmeter ( 0 – 2.5v, or 0 – 3.0v)
– Resistance wire mounted on metre rule
– A switch
– A jockey attached to a long wire
– A dry cell ( size D)
– Six connecting wires.
– Micro meter screw gauge
Proceed as follows
 a) Measure diameter d of mounted wire
Diameter D = ……………………………………. mm (1mk)
 Set up the apparatus as shown below.
V 
A 
Resistance wire 
Metre rule 
 Close the switch S and tap the mounted wire with a jockey. Ensure both meters show positive deflection. Open the switch.
 Press the jockey in the mounted milliameter scale L=0.2m. Close the switch. Read and record in the table below the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
 Repeat the procedure ( c) for other values of L shown in the table below.
L(m)  Voltage (V)  Current A  Resistance 
0.2  
0.3  
0.4  
0.5  
0.6  
0.8 
(8mks)
(e) (i) Plot a graph of resistance (yaxis) against L(m) (5mks)
(ii) Determine the slope (s) of the graph. (3mks)
(iii) Given that K=SA where A is xsectional area of the wire. Find K. (3mks)
SAMPLE 22
Question 1
 You are provided with
– 2 new dry cells
– An ammeter ( 02.5 A or 05.0 A )
A voltmeter ( 0 – 2.5 v or 0 – 5.0 V )
– A switch
– 6 connecting wires
– Constantan wire 1m long on a mm scale
Switch 
 a) Set up the apparatus as shown in the circuit diagram below.
Constant wire 
Length (l) 
Crocodile clip 
 Starting with the length of the wire l = 2.5cm, close the switch and note the ammeter reading I and corresponding voltmeter reading V. Record the current ( I ) and p. d ( V ). Calculate the value VI and enter the results in the table.
 Vary the length of the wire, l , in steps of 2.5 cm at a time and repeat the procedure outlined in ( b ) above up to 20.0 cm.
 Vary the length of the wire ι, after 20.0 cm and in steps of 10.00 cm to 50.0 cm.
Fill the table below.
Length ι cm  2.5  5.0  7.5  10.0  12.5  15.0  17.5  20.0  30.0  40.0  50.0 
Current І ( A )  
p. d V ( v )  
VI ( w) 
(11 mks)
 e) Plot a graph of VI ( y axis ) against length ι. (5mks)
 f) Using the graph, find the value of length L_{0 }for which VI is maximum. (2mks)
 g) What is the maximum value of VI. (2mks)
QUESTION 2
 You Are provided with a spiral spring, micrometer screw gage, vernier calipers, metre rule, stand, clamp, boss, 6 – 100g masses and a stop watch.
(i) Determine the radius, a, of the wire of the spring. (1mk)
 ii) Determine the radius, R, of the coil of the spring. (1mk)
iii) Determine the number of turns of the spring. (1mk)
 b) Suspend the spring on the clamp of the stand. Load the spring with a 100g mass. Give the mass a small vertical displacement and allow the system to oscillate.
(i) Measure the time, t, for 20 oscillations.
 Calculate the period, T, in seconds
T …………………………………………………………………..
iii) Repeat the experiment for masses of 200g, 300g, 400g, 500g and 600g. In each case calculate T and T^{2} and present your results in the table below.
Mass m(kg)  Time for 20 oscillations t(sec)  Time period T(s)  T^{2}(S^{2}) 
0.0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 
(9mks)
 c) (i) On the grid provided, draw a graph of mass m(vertical) against T^{2} (horizontal).
 ii) Determine the slope, S, of the graph. (2mks)
 Use the slope obtained to determine the value of the constant,m, in the formula.
T^{2} = 16p^{2} MNR^{3}
ma^{4}
Where M is the total suspended. (3mks)
SAMPLE 23
You are provided with the following apparatus
 Two retort stands
 Two clamps
 Two bosses
 Inextensible thread (about 120cm long)
 One 50g mass
 One stop watch
Proceed as follows
(a) (i) Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure 1 below
Fig. 1
(ii) Attach the ends of the thread to the metre rule and fasten the loops tightly so that the distance between the loop d = 80cm
(iii) Tie the mass with a thread about 10cm long. Fasten the mass at the centre of the thread on the rule such that the length of the pendulum from the point of suspension is 5cm as shown in the figure 1 above
(b) (i) Measure angle 2
(ii) Give the mass a slight displacement towards you and release it to swing freely. The mass should oscillate perpendicular to the plane of the metre rule. Time 20 oscillations
(iii) Repeat procedure b(i) and (ii) for different values of d in the table and complete table 1 below
Table 1
d (cm)  0.8  0.7  0.6  0.5  0.4  0.3 
2 ^{0}  
^{0}  
Cos ^{0}  
Time for 20 oscillations  
Periodic time T (s)  
T^{2} (s^{2}) 
(10 marks)
(c) (i) Plot a graph of T^{2} against cos (5 marks)
(ii) Determine the slope S (3 marks)
(iii) Determine A, the value of T^{2} when cos = 0
A = ………………………. (S^{2}) (1 mark)
(iv) Given that A is given by
Find the value of K (1 mark)
 You are provided with the following
 A candle
 A metre rule
 A white screen labeled S
 A lens labeled L, mounted on a lens holder
 Cross – wire mounted on a cardboard
 A match box
 Plasticine
Proceed as follows:
(a) Place a metre rule on a bench and hold it in position using plasticine. Arrange the screen S, the lens L and cross wire along the metre rule as shown in figure 2. The cross – wire should be placed next to the zero mark of the metre rule as shown in the figure. The distance between cross – wire and lens is labeled U and the distance between the lens and screen is labeled V
Fig. 2
(b) Light the candle and place it next to the cross – wires such that the flame is at the same level with cross – wires
(c) Adjust the position of the lens so that U = 15cm. Now adjust the position of the screen S until a sharply focused image of the cross – wire is obtained on S. Record the value of V in the table below.
(d) Repeat the procedure in (c) above for other values of U in table 2 and complete the table
(8 marks)
Table 2
U (cm)  V (cm)  (U+V) cm 
15  
17  
19  
21  
23  
25  
27  
29 
(e) On the grid provided below plot a graph of (U+V) on the y – axis against V (5 marks)
(f) From the graph determine the values of V and U+V for which the graph has a minimum value
V _{minimum,} V_{m} = ……………………………………………. (cm) (1 mark)
(U+V) _{minimum}, (U+V)_{m} …………………………………….(cm) (1 mark)
(g) (i) Calculate the values of h_{1}, and h_{2 }from the equations below (2 mars) = ………………………………. cm
= ……………………………. (cm)
(ii) Determine h, the average of h_{1 }and h_{2}
_{ }h = ………………………….. (m) (2 marks)
(h) Using the graph determine V when U+V = 49.8cm (1 mark)
SAMPLE 24
QUESTION 1
You are provided with the following apparatus.
 A metre rule
 A wire of length at least 100cm
 A retort stand, boss and clamp.
 A stop watch or stop clock
 A micrometer screw gauge
 An overflow can
 A beaker at least 50ml or more.
 A 50ml measuring cylinder
 A piece of thread about 30cm
 Water in a 250ml beaker
 Two pieces of wood.
 Mass labelled m.
Proceed as follows:
(a) (i) Fill the overflow can with water to overflowing and then allow it to drain.
Overflow can 
Thread 
Mass (m) 
Beaker 
 Immerse the mass m into the can. Collect the overflow in a beaker as shown below in figure 1.
Fig. 1
(iii) Using the measuring cylinder provided determine the volume V of the water collected in the beaker.
V = cm^{3} (1mark)
(iv) Calculate I given that I = Where m = 0.30kg (2 marks)
Boss 
Pieces of wood 
Mass (m) 
Bench 
(b) Set up the apparatus as shown in figure 2 below. Ensure that the wire is free of kinks and the end tied to the hook is firm and the hook does not move.
Fig 2.
(c) Adjust the length L, of the wire so that L = 70cm, Give the mass m, a slight twist such that when released it oscillates about the vertical axis as shown by the arrows in figure 2. Measure the time for twenty oscillations and record in table 1.
(d) Repeat the procedure in (c) above for other values of L shown in table 1. Complete the table.
Table 1
Length L (cm)  70  60  50  40  30  20 
Length L
(m)


Time for 20 oscillations
(s)


Period T
(s)


T^{2} (S^{2}) 
(e) On the grid provided, plot the graph of T^{2} (S^{2}) (y – axis) against L (m) (5 marks)
(f) Measure the diameter d of the wire. (1 mark)
d = ………………………. metres
(g) (i) Determine the slope of the graph. (2 marks)
(ii) Given that T^{2} = where G is a constant, use the graph to determine the value of G. (3 marks)
QUESTION 2
You are provided with the following apparatus.
 Two new dry cells
 A resistor labeled Q
 Wire mounted on a millimeter scale
 6 connecting wires with crocodile clips on one end of at least three
 A voltmeter
 An ammeter
 A switch
Proceed as Follows:
(a) Connect the apparatus provided as shown in figure 3 below.
Fig 3
(i) Take the voltmeter reading when the switch S is open.
V_{1} = ……………………………… volts (1 mark)
(ii) Close the switch S, and take the voltmeter reading V_{2} and the ammeter reading I
V_{2} = ………………………………… volts (1 mark)
I = …………………………………… Amperes (1 mark)
(iii) Calculate the quantity P = (2 marks)
(b) Set up the circuit as shown in figure 4.
Fig 4
(i) Take the voltmeter reading V and the ammeter reading I. (2 marks)
V = ………………………….
I = ……………………………
(ii) Determine the resistance R of Q given that (1 mark)
R =
(c) Set up the circuit shown in figure 5.
Fig 5
(d) Move the crocodile clip along the wire AB to a point such that L = 100cm
Note: the voltmeter reading and record in table 2.
(e) Repeat (d) above for values of L = 80cm, 60cm, 40cm, 20cm and 0 cm, tabulate your results. (5 marks)
Table 2
Length L
(cm) 
100  80  60  40  20  0 
Voltmeter Reading
(V) 

( ) 
(f) Plot the graph of against . (5 marks)
END 
 g) Find the slope of the graph. (2 marks)
SAMPLE 25
QUESTION 1
You are provided with the following apparatus.
– Two new dry cells
– An ammeter (0 – 1.0A)
– A voltmeter (0 – 5V)
A resistance wire AB, mounted on a mm scale.
– Jockey
– Cell holder
– A switch
– Six connecting wires with crocodile clips on one end. Proceed as follows.
 a) Set up the electrical circuit as shown in figure 1 below.
 b) Close the switch. Connect the leads with the crocodile clips from the switch and the
voltmeter to the wire AB such that the length, L, of the wire AB = 0.20m. Measure and record, I, the current through the wire AB and the p.d.V. across it. Enter your results in
Table 1.
 c) Repeat part (b) above for the other values of L. Record the corresponding values
of I and V. (5mks)
L (m)  0.2  0.4  0.5  0.6  0.8  1.0 
p.d (v)  
I (A)  
(A^{1}) 
 d) On the grid provided, plot a graph of (A^{1}) against R ( ) (5mks)
 e) Determine the slope, S of the graph (3mks)
 f) Given that the graph obeys the equation
Determine:
 i) The value of E (1mk)
 ii) The value of r (3mks)
QUESTION 2
PART I
You are provided with the following:
– A converging lens
– A lens holder
– A cross wire
– A metre rule
– A white screen
– Candle
Proceed as follows:
 Set up the apparatus as shown in fig 2.
 b) Let the distance, u, be 30cm. By adjusting the distance of the screen from the lens, determine the distance V that will give the sharpest image of the crosswires on the screen.
Record the value of V.
 c) Repeat (b) above for other values of u. (6mks)
u (cm)  30  32  35  50  55  60 
v (cm)  
(u + v) cm 
 d) On the grid provided, plot a graph of (u + v)cm (y – axis) against u(cm) (5mks)
 e) From the graph, state the value of
 i) V, where the graph is at a minimum
V min = __________________ cm (1mk)
 ii) u + v, where the graph is at a minimum
(u + v)min = ______________ cm (1mk)
 f) Given that (2mks)
determine the average value of F.
 PART II
You are provided with the following;
– Complete retord stand
– Two pieces of strings
– A meter rule used in part A
– Three coins
– One mass labeled M
– A Piece of cellotape
Proceed a follows:
 a) Suspend the metre rule as shown in figure 3, so as to balance. Fix the balance point by
using the cellotape.
 b) Place one coin at a distance x = 10cm from the balance point.
 c) Adjust the position of mass M until equilibrium is attained. Measure and record the
distance Y.
 d) Repeat procedure (b) and (c) for the number of coins, N, given in the table below and
calculate the value of M. (4mks)
No. of coins N  1  2  3 
Length, y (cm)  
P = ^{Y}/_{N} 
 e) Find the average value of P, from the table (1mk)
SAMPLE 26
 You are provided with the following;
– Mounted convex lens
– White screen
– Metre rule
– Retort stand and clamp
– Loose graph paper
– Cellotape
Proceed as follows;
 Find the approximate focal length by focusing a sharp image of a distant object onto a screen. The object must be outside the laboratory at least 10m away. Repeat this procedure twice.
Figure 1
 i) f_{1} = (1mk)
 ii) f_{2} = (1mk)
iii) Average = (1mk)
 b) Now set up the lens above a sheet of graph paper so that you can look through the lens at the graph paper as shown in figure 2 below. Figure 2
Start with the lens close to the graph paper. Look through the lens at the graph paper squares. They appear magnified. Now adjust the height of the lens by moving the clamp up and down in retort stand until 5 small (2mm) squares seen through the lens take the same length as 6 small squares on the graph paper as shown below in figure 3.
fig 3
 c) With the metre or half metre rule provided, measure the height h of the lens above the graph paper ab in fig 2 above. Now slowly raise the lens which will increase magnification. Find the height h when 5 squares seen through the lens take the same length as 7 squares seen direct.
Repeat the procedure for increasing magnification up to 5 squares seen through the lens occupying the length of 12 squares seen direct.
Complete the table 1 below (7mks)
Table 1
Number of squares seen through lens  Number of squares seen direct (N)  Height, h (cm) 
5  6  
5  7  
5  8  
5  9  
5  10  
5  11  
5  12 
 d) Plot a graph of h against N on the grid provided. (6mks)
 The magnification is twice when 10 squares are seen direct for 5 squares through the lens. From your graph find h which gives magnification of:
 a) 5 h = (2mks)
 b) 7 h = (2mks)
PART A
 You are provided with the following
– A 250cm^{3} beaker
– Water
– Screen
– A meter rule
– Candle
 a) Add 200cm of water to the beaker and measure its height, h in cm. (1mk)
Determine the approximate value of R, the internal radius in cm from the formular
R =
R = (1mk)
This experiment uses a cylindrical vessel filled with water as lens and compares its radius with the effective focal length.
 b) Set the apparatus as shown in Figure 4 below.
 c) Set U to be about 10R away from the centre of the ‘lens’ and use the screen to locate the
image formed. The image is a sharp vertical line. Measure U and V from the centre of the
vessel.
Repeat the experiment with the following multiples of R and record the corresponding values of U and V in table 2 below. (4mks)
Table 2
10R  9R  8R  7R  6R  5R  4R  3R  
U (cm)  
V (cm) 
 d) Plot a graph of U (yaxis) against V. (4mks)
 e) From the graph determine
 i) ‘V’ the value of V for which V = U
‘V’ = ___________________ (½mk)
 ii) ‘U’ the value of U for which U = 2v
‘U’ = __________________cm (½mk)
 f) Determine the effective focal length of the ‘lens’ from the formular
(1mk)
 g) Give the appropriate value of ^{R}/_{F} (1mk)
PART B
You require
 Two dry cells (size D)
 Two cell holder
 A voltmeter
 An ammeter
 A bulb
 Mounted wire on a mm scale
 7 connecting wires (3 with clips)
Procedured as follows:
 i) Set the circuit as shown in figure 5 below.
 ii) With the crocodile clip at P (i.e L = 100cm) take the voltmeter reading V and the ammeter reading I. Repeat the procedure for values of L = 90, 70,50, 40 and 20cm respectively.
Record your readings in table 3 below. (3mks)
Table 3.
Length L (cm)  100  90  70  50  40  20 
Voltmeter reading (V)  
Ammeter reading (A) 
iii) What changes do you observe on the bulb as L decreases from P. (2mks)
 iv) Given the apparatus in (i) above, draw a diagram of a circuit you would use to determine the
END 
current through the resistance wire and the potential difference across it. (2mks)
SAMPLE 27
You are provided with the following:
 250 cm^{3} plastic beaker, B.
 100 cm^{3} measuring cylinder.
 300 cm^{3} of a liquid in a beaker labelled L.
 100 g mass with a hook.
 A knife edge (wedge which is at least 20 cm tall).
 Metre rule.
Proceed as follows:
(a) Balance the metre rule on the knife edge as shown in Fig. 1 and record the balance point 0.
O……………………..…………………… (1 mark)
(b) Hang the plastic beaker B from the meter rule so that it is 20 cm from O. Hang the 100 g mass from the other side and move it until the metre rule balances horizontally. Record its distance, d_{0} from the point O.
d_{0}………………..………………………… (1 mark)
(c) Measure 50 cm^{3} of liquid using the measuring cylinder and pour it into B.
Move the 100 g mass until the metre rule balances horizontally. Measure and record the distance d from the point O.
(d) Add 20 cm^{3} more of liquid into B so that the total volume of liquid is 70 cm^{3}. Move the 100g mass until the metre rule balances horizontally. Measure and record the distance d from the point O.
(e) Repeat for 90, 110, 130 150 and 170 cm^{3} of liquid. Tabulate the results.
Table 1
Volume, V (cm^{3})  50  70  90  110  130  150  170 
Distance, d(cm) 
(3mks)
(f) Plot a graph of V (yaxis) against d. (6mks)
(g) Determine the slope, k of the graph. (4marks)
(h) Given the equation p = ^{k}/_{3.5,} determine p. (3marks)
(i) From the graph determine the distance d when the beaker B is empty. (2marks)
 Part A
You are provided with the following:
 Lens
 Plane mirror.
 Half metre rule.
 An optical pin mounted on a cork
 100 g mass with a hook.
 A retort stand with clamp
 A liquid dropper
 Some water
Proceed as follows:
(a) Place the lens on the mirror as shown in Fig.3
(b) Move the pin up or down until there is no parallax between the pin and its image.
Measure the distance Y_{0}.
Y_{0} = ……………………………………………….cm (1 mark)
(c) Repeat procedure in (b) to obtain two more values of Y_{0} and find the average value.
Average = ……………………………………………….cm (2marks)
(d) Remove the lens from the mirror and add a few drops of water on the mirror.
(e) Place the lens gently back as shown in Fig. 4. Measure the distance Y_{1}.
Y_{1}……………………………………………….cm (1mark)
(f) Obtain two more values of Y_{1}and find the average value.
Average = ……………………………………….cm (2 marks)
(g) Find the value of K, given that:
K = 2 – (Y_{0}/Y_{1}) (3 marks)
Part B
You are provided the following:
 The lens in part A
 Metre rule
 A torch bulb in a bulb holder
 2 new dry cells in a cell holder
 Switch
 Retort stand in part A
 White screen
 Lens holder
 Three connecting wires
Proceed as follows:
(h) Arrange the apparatus as in Fig. 5
(i) Place the lens so that object distance u=20 cm and move the screen until a sharp image of the bulb is obtained. Measure and record the image distance, v.
(j) Repeat the procedure in (b) for u =25, 30, 35, 40 and 45cm.
(k) Tabulate your results in table 2. (3mks)
U(cm)  20  25  30  35  40  45 
V(cm) 
(l) Plot a graph of u (yaxis) against v in the grid provided. (5marks)
(m) Determine the focal length of the lens. (3marks)
SAMPLE 28
 You are provided with the following:
 Metre rule
 Helical spring (hooked)
 Clamp, boss and stand
 Two small pieces of wood to help in clamping
 2 masses of 10g each, 2 masses of 20g each
 One mass of 50g
Proceed as follows: –
 i) Arrange the apparatus as shown. The pointer should be very close to the metre rule but not touching or rubbing it.
 ii) Read and record the pointer position, P, when no mass hangs from it
P = ____________________________ cm mark (1mk)
 i) Hang the mass of 10g from the hook of the spring and note down the new position of the pointer.
Repeat the experiment for masses of 20g, 30g, 40g, 50g, 60g and 80g in turns
Complete the table
Mass (g)  Weight w(N)  Pointer position (cm)  Extension X (cm) 
0  
10  
20  
30  
40  
50  
60  
80 
(2mks) (3mks) (4mks)
 c) i) Plot a graph of extension X against weight W (5mks)
 ii) Calculate the slope ‘S’ (3mks)
 ii) Given that X = w/p where P is a constant, find the value of P (3mks)
 You are provided with the following
 Metre rule
 Convex lens
 Supported screen
 Candle
 Lens holder
 Mirror holder
 Concave mirror
Procedure
 a) i) Set up the apparatus as shown
With the distance between the candle and lens X – 17cm move the screen towards and away from the candle and move it to and fro until a clear inverted image of the candle is formed on the screen.
(ii) Without changing the positions of the screen, lens and candle, place the concave mirror behind the candle and move it to and fro until a clear UPRIGHT image of the flame is formed on the screen besides the first image in (i). Measure the distance, d cm, between the lens and the mirror.
iii) Repeat a i) and ii) for values of X = 20cm, 23cm, 26cm, 29 cm, 32cm and complete the table.
X cm  17  20  23  26  29  32 
V cm  
d (cm)  
30 – d (cm)  
i/v (M^{1}  
1/30 – d (M^{1}) 
(11mks)
 b) Plot a graph of ^{i}/_{v} against ^{1}/_{30} – d (5mks)
 c) Given that ^{1}/_{f} =^{1}/_{v} + ^{1}/_{30d, }Use your graph to determine the value of f (focal length) (4mks)
SAMPLE 29
 You are provided with the following
 A meter rule
 A vernier calliper
 50 g mass and 100g mass
 Two pieces of thread
 Paraffin in a beaker
 A beaker
 Knife edge
 Tissue paper at least 30cm long
PART 1:
 Using the vernier callipers measure:
 The diameter of the 100g mass (1mk)
(ii) The length of the 100g mass cylinder (1mk)
(b) Determine the volume, V, of the 100g mass in cubic metres. (2mks)
PART II: Proceed as follows:
 Balance the metre rule on knife edge as shown in 1 below.
Fig.9
NB: The balance point should be maintained throughout the experiment.
 Hang the 100g mass at distance L_{1}=10cm from the pivot and hang the 50g mass on the other side to balance the 100g mass.
 Place a beaker such that the 100g mass hangs inside the beaker in (b) above.
 Pour into the beaker paraffin until the 100g mass is fully immersed in the paraffin. NB: Support the rule to avoid toppling. Then move the 50g mass to balance the immersed 100g mass.
Fig.10
 Record the distance L_{2} of 50g mass from the pivot in table 1 below.
 By adjusting L_{1} repeat the procedure for values of L_{1} = 12cm, 15cm, 20cm, 25cm, 28cm, and complete table 1.
Table 1
L_{1}(m)  0.10  0.12  0.15  0.20  0.25  0.26 
L_{2}(m) 
(6mks)
 On the grid provided plot the graph of L_{2} (y – axis) against L_{1}. (5mks)
 Determine the slope S, of the graph (3mks)
 Given that 20 = S + 2000Vρ determine ρ the density of the liquid. (2mks)
Q2. You are provided with the following; an ammeter, a voltmeter, two dry cells, a mounted resistance wire, connecting wires, a torch bulb in a bulb holder, a cell holder, a switch and a jockey or crocodile clip.
 Connect the apparatus provided as shown in the circuit diagram below.
 With the jockey or crocodile clip at C, 10cm from A, record the voltmeter reading V, in the table below.
 Repeat the experiment in (b) above for the following lengths, L = 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90cm respectively. (2mks)
Length(l cm)  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90 
p.d (v) 
(d) Plot a graph of potential difference V against length, L (cm) (5mks)
(e) Determine the slope, s, of the graph. (3mks)
(f) Replace the voltmeter with a torch bulb and an ammeter, connect in series as
shown in the circuit diagram below.
 Read and record the ammeter reading i, i_{2} and i_{3} for the corresponding values of lengths: ` (3mks)
L_{1} = 30cm l_{1} =………………………………………………………………………………..
L_{2} = 50cm l_{2} =………………………………………………………………………………..
L_{3} = 70cm l_{3} =………………………………………………………………………………..
 Given that V = ls where V is the P.d across the length AC of the wire, S is the slope of the graph in (d) above and ℓ the length of resistance wire. Determine the potential differences V_{1}, V_{2} and V_{3}, across the length Ac of the wire for the lengths l_{1}, l_{2} and l_{3} in (g) above. (3mks)
(i) Using the values of V_{1}, V_{2} and V_{3}, and the corresponding currents l_{1}, l_{2} and l_{3} calculate the corresponding resistance R_{1}, R_{2} and R_{3} of the bulb. (3mks)
 Compute the average of the resistance of the bulb.
SAMPLE 30
You are provided with the following:
 retort stand, one boss and one clamp
 a half meter rule
 a 100 cm^{3} measuring cylinder containing coloured liquid
 a 10 cm^{3} measuring cylinder
 about 20cm^{3} of water in a beaker
 a test tube
Proceed as follows:
 Set up the apparatus as shown in figure 1
 Put the test tube inside the 1000cm^{3} measuring cylinder as shown in figure 2. Note the reading L_{o} of the level of the coloured liquid in the measuring cylinder.
L_{o }——————————————————————cm (1mk)
 Using the 10cm^{3} measuring cylinder, measure 2cm^{3} of water and pour it into the test tube while the test tube is inside the measuring cylinder.Record the new reading, L, of the level of the coloured liquid.
 Repeat the procedure in (c) above for values of volume V = 2cm^{3}, 4cm^{3}, 6cm^{3}, 8cm^{3} and 10cm^{3}. Record your values for L in table I and complete the table.
Table 1
Volume. V (cm3)

2

4

6

8

10

L(cm)






h = L – LO (cm)






(6mks)
 i) On the grid provided plot a graph of h(cm) against V(cm^{3}) (5mks)
 ii) Calculate the slope S_{1 }of the graph.
iii) Given that where S is the slope, calculate the value of R. (3mks)
 From the graph, determine the reading of the level of the coloured liquid in the measuring cylinder when 7 cm^{3} of water is put in the test tube. (2mks)
 This question consists of two parts A and B.
PART A
You are provided with the following:
 2 Dry cells and a cell holder
 Voltmeter (02.5V)
 Ammeter (0 – 1A)
 Potentiometer, P, 50 ohms
 5V bulb abd a bulb holder
 7 connecting wires, 2 with crocodile clips at one end.
 Switch
Proceed as follows:
 Set up the circuit as shown in figure 3
 Close the switch S, and adjust the potentiometer P, until the voltmeter reads 2.0V. Record the corresponding ammeter reading.
 Repeat the procedure in (b) above for other values o voltage as in the table 2 and then complete the table.
Voltage (V)

2,0

1.6

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.5

Current, I(A)







 (i). Plot a graph of voltage, V (yaxis) against current, I. (5mks)
ii). From the graph,
Determine the resistance of the bulb when the voltage is 0.8 volts. (3mks)
iii). Explain the shape of the graph. (1mk)
PART B:
 i). Clamp the cork so that the optical pin rests horizontally as shown in the set up below.
ii). Position the mirror on a flat surface so that the tip of the pin is directly above the centre of the curved mirror. Measure the distance OA.
OA =………………………………………………………………………… (1mk)
iii). By viewing directly from above the tip of the pin move the Boss and Clamp, up and down the stand until a clear, image of the pin is seen. Position the pin at this point (p) and clamp firmly.
Describe the image observed fully
Use the rule to measure the distance OP. OP = …………………………………………………… (2mks)
iv). Fill the mirror to the brim using liquid L and then adjust the position of the pin until a clear image of the pin is observed. Position the pin at this point R and measure the distance OR (1m
v). Use the values obtained above to determine the value of AP/AR, hence state itssignificance.
Significance ………………………………………………………………………… (3mks)
vi). What is the focal length of the mirror you have used? (3 Marks)