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  1. Identify five occasions in which Abraham’s faith in God was demonstrated.       (5mks)
  2. Give secular reasons for the coming of missionaries to Africa.                                       (5mks)
  3. State five roles played by Africans in spreading Christianity in East Africa.       (5mks)
  4. Identify five contributions of the church in the society today.       (5mks)
  5. List down five taboos and regulations that were observed by an expectant mother in African traditional

society.                                                                                                                         (5mks)

  1. Give five ways in which the covenant foretold by Jeremiah is different from Sinai’s covenant. (5mks)
  2. State five ways in which the living benefited from the living dead.       (5mks)
  3. Identify five ways in which names were given to children in African traditional society.       (5mks)
  4. Give five contributions of Krapf in establishing Christianity.       (5mks)
  5. Outline five teachings of Jesus about God’s Kingdom. (5mks)
  6. Identify five social conditions condemned by Amos. (5mks)
  7. State five teachings of Paul to the Corinthians on the issue of marriage. (5mks)
  8. State five reasons why David is important. (5mks)
  9. Identify five effects of the process of colonisation on missionary work in Kenya. (5mks)
  10. Outline five causes of childlessness in the society. (5mks)
  11. State five motives that drive people to misuse drugs.                 (5mks)
  12. Identify five problems of leisure in Kenya today. (5mks)
  13. Outline five occasions when Jesus prayed. (5mks)
  14. Identify five effects of Bible translation.       (5mks)
  15. State five reasons why Christians accept suffering as part of discipleship in this world. (5mks)
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  1. a) Explain the Biblical origin of sin and it’s consequences in Genesis chapter 3.           (14mks)
  2. b) Outline the traditional African understanding about evil.                                                     (5mks)
  3. c)   What are the great evils that face mankind today?                                                   (6mks)
  4. a) What are the Christian teaching about work both in the Old and New testament                  (8mks)
  5. b)   Why was work seen as very important in the traditional African society.                              (7mks)
  6. c)   i) List any six causes of unemployment in Kenya today.                                                      (6mks)
  7. ii) Give the solutions to the problems mentioned above.                                                      (4mks)
  8. a) Why is divorce common in East Africa today.                                                          (10mks)
  9. b)   Why was divorce not common in Africa traditional community.                                          (8mks)
  10. c)   Identify some of the remedies to be applied to slow the high rate of divorce nowadays.      (10mks)
  11. a) Give a comparison between the call of Samuel with that of Moses.                          (12mks)
  12. b)   State reasons that made the Israelites to demand for a king.                                     (5mks)
  13. c)   Give ways in which leaders of nations misuse their positions today.                         (8mks)
  14. a) Relate the miracle of the healing of the man born blind.                                                      (12mks)
  15. b)   What lessons do Christians learn from this miracle.                                                        (10mks)
  16. c)   List three other miracles of Jesus.                                                                                    (3mks)






  1. Abraham’s faith in God was demonstrated in the following ways:

–     His readiness to begin God’s plan of salvation when called though he had not seen that  God .

–     His readiness to leave his ancestral land for a new land.

–     His readiness to offer Isaac as a sacrifice yet he was the only son.

–     His faith on the birth of Isaac yet they were aging.

–     Offered sacrifices to God when he reached Canaan.

–     His readiness to offer sacrifices as commanded.


  1. Secular reason for the coming of the missionaries:

–     To civilize Africans.

–     To stop slave trade.

–     To explore new lands.

–     For adventure i.e find out what was happening outside.

–     To establish legitimate trade.

–     To rehabilitate freed slaves.


  1. Role played by Africans in spreading Christianity in East Africa:

–     Taught the missionaries their vernacular language.

–     Preached to their fellow Africans.

–     Acted as guides & porters.

–     Provided material support to the missionaries.

–     Provided land for building of schools, hospitals & mission churches e.g chief Kaneni of Muranga.

–     Became catechists who denounced African customs.


  1. Contributions of the church in the society today.

–     Helping refugees.

–     Provision of food in the famine striken areas.

–     Establishing homes for the destitute, the disabled and the aged (Thogoto).

–     Provision of medical in various parts of Kenya.

–     Providing security to clash victims.

–     Providing education through their mission schools.

–     Evangelising so as to enhance virtues in the society.


  1. Taboos & regulations that were observed by an expectant mother in the African traditional society:

–     Abstain from sexual intercourse till after birth.

–     Forbidden to eat certain foods & and encouraged to eat others.

–     Returns to the home of her parents when the time of giving birth draws near.

–     Not allowed to do heavy work and handle certain tools like metals.

–     Not allowed to speak to her husband directly.

–     May carry protective charms.

–     Prayers for the mother and child are made to God.


  1. Ways in which the covenant foretold by Jeremiah is different from Sinai’s covenant.

–     Jeremiah’s covenant emphasized on forgiveness of sins unlike Sinaitic covenant .

–     Jeremiah’s covenant emphasized individual / personal responsibility.

–     The laws to be followed would be written in peoples hearts unlike Sinaitic covenant which was written on stone -tablets.

–     Jeremiah’s covenant would be permanent and would be fulfilled unlike the Sinai covenant which had repeatedly failed.

–     In the new covenant there will be personal knowledge of God, while in the Sinaitic, there would be need for a -mediator.

–     In the new covenant there would be spontaneous forgiveness of sins, whereas in the old covenant sins were called -forward to the next generation.


  1. Ways in which the living benefited from the living dead:

–   Communicate the wishes of the relatives to ancestors.

–   Welcome the dying into the spiritual world.

–    Pass the request of the living to god.

–   Help to sustain community standards / values.

–   Help in controlling the behaviour of the living.

–   Bless the living.

–   Avert the consequences of curses from anywhere.

–  Help them recover lost property.


  1. Ways in which names were given to children in African traditional society:

–     Given according to the prevailing circumstances at the time of the birth.

–     Given ancestral names in honour of the dead.

–     Named after elder members of the community.

–     Given according to the experience of the parents.

–     Given during adolescence to describe observed characteristics of the young man or woman    .

–     Name would be fixed before the child is born.

–     Name given according to the season of births.


  1. Contribution of Krapf in establishing Christianity:

–     Wrote the first Kiswahili dictionary i.e participated in Bible translation.

–     Translated St Luke’s Gospel into Taita language.

–     Translated the New Testament in to Kiswahili.

–     Assisted in setting up mission stations in Ribe, and part of Ukambani.

–     Converted various people e.g Akamba & established churches that were used in worship.


  1. Teachings of Jesus about God’s kingdom:

–     The kingdom of God meant the rule of God.

–     Had already come for Jesus had obeyed the will of God.

–     It was present in the worlds & words of Jesus.

–     The kingdom will not be joyful event for everyone in future.

–     Kingdom belongs to the humble, poor e.t.c.

–     The rich cannot buy their way.

–     The kingdom goes on growing and spreading quietly e.t.c


  1. Social conditions condemned by Amos:

–     Oppression and exploitation of the poor by the rich.

–     Social injustice & luxury.

–     Disorder & unfair practices like harshness.

–     Wealth derived from slave labour.

–     Exorbitant rents.


  1. Teachings of paul to the Corinthians on the issue of marriage:

–     Paul advised the Corinthians to copy his example of remaining celibate if they wished to serve God better.

–     Paul advised those who’d lost their partners to remain so as to avoid being immoral.

–     Warned that marriage was permanent and therefore those who married would not separate.

–     Paul advised those who separated for neighbours reasons not to remarry.

–     He warned Xtians not to marry non-Christians.


  1. Reasons why David is important:

–     Was chosen by God.

–     Was filled with the spirit from the time he was anointed.

–     Had outstanding leadership qualities.

–     Knew and obeyed God.

–     Was acclaimed & publicly anointed king by the whole nation.

–     Captured Jerusalem from the Jebusites & made it the capital.

–     United the people.

–     Established a most powerful state.

–     Encouraged trade with other nations e.g Tyre.

–     Brilliant military commander.


  1. Effects of the process of colonization on missionary work in Kenya:

–     Establishment of British authority in the interior resulted in law & order.

–     Colonial administration encouraged some missionaries to work in the country.

–     The building of the Kenya – Uganda railway enabled the missionaries to move to the interior

–     Land given to the British was given to the missionaries to build mission stations.

–     Colonial government gave financial aid to the missionaries.

–     Freedom of worship was granted by the British government led to rivalry amongst churches.

–     Missionaries were not accepted where the colonial administration used punitive expeditions.

–     African teachers in missionary schools left to join the army due to reasonable salaries in the forces.


  1. Causes of childlessness in the society:

–     Infertility of one partner or both.

–    Accidents for example, war & natural disasters.

–     Use or misuse of certain drugs.

–    Abortion.

–     Biological, psychological & health problems.


  1. Motives that drive people to misuse drugs:

–     To escape frustration

–     Influence from the others

–     Curiosity

–     Commercial advertisements

–     Idleness

–     Search of identity (show – off)

–      Prevention or cure of diseases.


  1. Problems of leisure in kenya today:

–     Drug-Taking

–    Theft

–     Fighting

–    Rape

–    Gossip

–    Reading Or Watching Pornographic Materials

–     Drinking Alcohol & smoking.


  1. Occasions when Jesus prayed:

–     After baptism at river Jordan.

–     Prayed alone away from the crowd.

–     During the feeding of the five thousand.

–     Before asking his disciples what people said about him.

–     Just before the transfiguration.

–    After the return of the 72 disciples.

–     When he taught his disciples how to pray.

–    During the last supper.

–     At the garden of Gethesemane just before his arrest

–     Prayed to his father when he was on the cross.


  1. Effects of bible translation in Kenya:

–     More Africans became Xtians.

–     Missionaries were able to easily evangelise the local people.

–     African Xtians were able to have a clear understanding of the Holy scriptures.

–     Led to the formation of schools where the African Xtians could be taught.

–     African Xtians re-discovered their own cultural identity.


  1. Reasons why Christians accept suffering as part of discipleship in this world:

–     Suffering is a necessary part of a Xtian’s life.

–     It brings eternal life.

–     Suffering brings salvation / redemption.

–     A sign of true commitment to Jesus.

–     Christ suffered – they emulate Him as their model

–     Enables one to carry out the cross of Christ on account of the gospel

–     Trains a Xtian in endurance

–     A manifestation of God’s glory

–     A preparation for eternal glory.






1(a)      i) Biblical origin of sin:

– Sin is understood to mean rebellion against God.

– Sin originated with the devil or Satan in heaven.

– The serpent came to the woman & told her to eat fruits of the tree that God had forbidden – –   –   – —

Adam & Eve to eat.


  1. ii) Consequences of Sin:

– The whole Adamic race became alienated from God.

– Man changed and became prone to sin.

– The sentence of death was passed upon all men.

– The ground was cursed on account of man.

– Childbirth and work became associated with hardship.

– Sin entered into the world.

– Man began to take life of fellow men.

– The life span of man was reduced.

– The language of mankind was confused after the flood.


(b)  Traditional African understanding of evil:

–     Most African communities believe that god did not create evil nor is the temptation to do evil.

–     Some African communities attribute the origin of evil to spiritual beings that is evil spirits.

–     Others believe that evil is caused by bad magicians.

–     If someone broke an established community taboo, he would suffer some form of evil like sickness or bareness.

–     Dead ancestors, if offended by the living were also believed to cause / send evil to the offender.

–     Some African communities have myths which show that God created the would with a possibility of evil.


(c)  What are the great evils that face mankind today:

–     Poverty

–    Ignorance / illiteracy

–     Diseases e.g A.I.Ds

–    Corruption / bribery

–     Wars & fighting’s

–    Natural calamities (floods, – El-nino, famines).



  1. (a) Christian teaching about work both in the old and New Testament:

–     God’s creation is talked of as work.

–     Man was to work in order to subdue the earth.

–     God himself worked in the creation story so man should work.

–     In the commandments both work and rest are shown as part of God’s plan for mankind.

–     Work is good & can be fulfilling & enjoyable – proverbs, laziness is condemned.

–     Although work is good man should not be overworked & exploited.

–     Jesus was a worker (carpenter).

–     Jesus gave his examples from the world of work e.g sower, shepherd, fishermen, tax collectors e.t.c.

–     Paul used to work (tent maker) .

–     He who does not work should not eat.


(b) Work was seen as very important in the traditional African society.

–     Work is the basis of wealth.

–     Work was obligatory.

–     Division of labour – age, sex & status.

–     Kept people physically fit.

–     One feels proud due to achievement through work.

–     Work as a means of basic needs.

–     Brought people to share talks and media of instruction.


(c) i)     Causes of unemployment in Kenya today:

–     High population.                                                                 –

–     Inappropriate education system rapid growth in labour force.

–     Industrial seasonality.

–     Job selectivity.

–     Skill imbalance.

–     Unappropriate technology.

–     Shortage of foreign exchange.

–     Unfavourable terms of trade.


  1. ii) Solutions to the problems mentioned above:

–     Mobilisation of national resources

–     Discouragement from white collar jobs

–     Technical education

–     N.Y.S

–     Informal sector – Jua Kali

–    8-4-4


3    (a) Why divorce is common in East Africa today:

–     Unfaithfulness

–    Long separation – job opportunities

–     Drunkenness

–    Cruelity

–     Feminist liberation

–    Random choice of partners

–     No room for polygamy

–    One who earns can manage without a husband

–     Lack of parental consultation

–    Couple break marriage due to hearsay

–     Individual affairs

–    No go-between hence reconciliation after disagreement



–     Permissiveness

–    If  dowry is not fully paid.


(b)  Why was divorce not common in African traditional community:

–     Dowry acted as cement

–     Divorce not allowed – marriage was permanent

–     Was a communal affair

–     Both parents consulted

–     Women substituted for second marriage

–    Women were subordinate

–     Took place at a mature age

–      Unfaithfulness was not there and if, then one was given severe punishment.

–     Always a go-between in all marriages.


(c)  Possible solutions to the above problems:

–     Partners to pray.

–     Forgive each other as Jesus advocated for love and forgiveness.

–     Marriage counsellors.

–     Monogamy should be upheld to avoid divorce that occurred because of polygamous marriages.

–     Should avoid immorality.

–     Couples to adhere to their oaths.

–     Couples to stay together.


  1. (a) Compare the call of Samuel with that of Moses:

–     Both were called by their names by God.

–     Both were called to serve God.

–     Both were called to be leaders of their people.

–     Both were to be prophets to the Israelites.

–     Both were called to be settling disputes among individuals or groups.

–     Both were away from their home by the time they were called.

–     They were to lead people in worship & prayer.

–     Moses was sent to Egypt while Samuel was sent to Eli by God.

–     Moses was herding animals while Samuel was ministering unto the Lord.

–     Moses received the call in the wilderness while Samuel received the call at Shiloh staying with priest Eli.

–     God appeared to Moses in a vision of burning bush but to Samuel in a dream.

–     Samuel was young & unmarried but Moses was mature & married.


(b)  Israelites demanded for a king because:

–     Samuel’s sons had failed as leaders due to their being corrupt.

–     Israelites wanted to be equal to other nations.

–     Wanted a king to lead them to war against philistines.

–     Wanted a stable hereditary leadership.

–     Needed a human leader with national authority.

–     Wanted a political government for law & order.


(c)  Ways in which leaders of nations misuse their positions today:

–     Taxing citizens heavily.

–     Practicing tribalism.

–     Grabbing fertile pieces of land from their subjects.

–     Harassing religious leaders.

–     Murdering their political opponents.

–     Suppressing weaker nations.

–     Imposing his religion (Islam) to all citizens.

–     Detaining people without trial.

–     Misusing public funds.


5    (a)  Relate the story of the man born blind:

–     Jesus saw a man blind from birth.

–     His disciples asked him “Rabbi” who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind.

–     It was not that this man sinned or his parents, but that the work of God might be made manifested in him.

–     He must work of him who sent me, while it is day, night comes when no one can work.

–     Jesus said, I am the light of the world.

–     Jesus spat on the ground and made clay of the spittle & anointed the man’s eyes with the clay.

–     Told him to go & wash in the pool of Siloam .

–     He went & washed & came back seeing.

–     People doubted his identity.

–     He confessed he was the one (blind man).

–     He was asked how his eyes were opened.

–     He answered, the man called Jesus made clay & anointed my eyes & said to me “Go to Siloam & wash, so I went & washed & received my sight.

–     The pharisees said “This man is not from God, for he does not keep the sabbath”

–     He was again asked to testify about the man who healed – He said, he is a prophet

–     The parents were also asked if he was their son.


(b)  Lessons Christians can learn from this miracle:

–     The suffering of man gives Jesus an opportunity of showing the glory & the power of God on earth.

–     By working on the Sabbath day Jesus meant to show us that there is no limit of day or time for doing god’s work.

–     The use of spittle shows us that Jesus was keeping conformity with the curative methods & customs of the Jews of his time.

–     Obedience to god’s will brings us remarks.

–     The account of this healing also show us the gradual development of faith in the disciple of Jesus

–     Jesus affirms that those who might reject his healing are spiritually blind.


(c)  Give three other miracles performed by Jesus:

–     Jesus cast out the spirits of the unclean demon at Carpenaum          –  Feeding of five thousand

–     Raising of Jairus daughter                                       –  Transfiguration

–     Jesus calms a storm                                                –  Healing of a paralysed man

–     Raising a window’s son at nain                               –  Healing of centurion’s servant

–     Unexpected catch of fish                                         –  Healing of ten lepers

–     Healing a man full of leprosy                                  –  Heals a man possessed by demons

–     A child seized by convulsing demon                                    –  Jesus, son of a virgin without a father.





  1. Give five reasons why it was difficult for the apostles to believe that Jesus arose from death.       5mks
  2. Give five reasons why Christians should forgive       5mks
  3. Write down five occasions when Jesus prayed.             5mks
  4. Write down five qualities of God found in the Lords Prayer.             5mks
  5. Write down five reasons why Christians should accept suffering as part of discipleship.      5mks
  6. Write down five priviledges of a young initiated African man. 5mks
  7. Give five reasons why burial rites are important.             5mks
  8. Write down five reasons why children were important among the Africans.             5mks
  9. Give five reasons for decline of female initiation.       5mks
  10. Mention five factors which make (made) Africans to feel at home in independent churches. 5mks
  11. Suggest five ways in which a Christian might test whether a person claiming to be Gods Prophet is

telling the truth.                                                                                                           5mks

  1. Write down five reasons why unemployment was rare in Traditional African Society
  2. Write down five reasons why Christians are opposed to child labour. 5mks
  3. Identify five causes of death in traditional African Society. 5mks
  4. List down five teachings about Jesus from Peters speech on the day of Pentecost. 5mks
  5. State five effects of the conversation of Paul on the early church. 5mks
  6. Give five qualities of the servant of Yahweh according to prophet Isaiah.   5mks
  7. Give five duties of ordained people in the church. 5mks
  8. Write down five motives that drive people to misuse drugs. 5mks
  9. List down five reasons why people get married. 5mks






  1. – It was an extra – ordinary event, outside their experience

–  The story of resurrection was fore told by women, the disciples being Jews thought  that it was idle  tale

from women

–  The disciples lacked faith and understanding,  they had not understood, Jesus when he told them about

his resurrection.

–  Their concept of a messiah was not a suffering Messiah, but a victorious one.

–  Jesus helplessness during the arrest and crucifixion ruled out any possibility of resurrection.

–  Conflicting stories confused them.  Some were saying that Jesus arose, others said that the apostles  stole

the body

–   Events leading to his death, denial by Peter, betrayal by Judas made the disciples to question his


–  Things happened so fast, death, burial, resurrection, too much for human mind to  comprehend.

–  The disciples had witnessed the death and the burial of Jesus hence convinced that he  was dead /   gone

completely                                                                                                                           5mks


  1. – We are forgiven by God, hence we should forgive

–     So as to receive a reward from the father

–     Others do forgive us

–     God is perfect and Christians should be like him and that is why Christians should forgive.


3.-  During the temptations.

–     During transfigurations

–     During the feeding of the 5 thousand

–     During the pass over (prayer on the Mt. Of Olives garden of Gethsemene)

–     On the cross                                                                                                             5mks


  1. – God is loving, caring and good

–      God is transcendent ie beyond human beings (who is in heaven)

–      God is holy and worthy of worship (hallowed be thy name)

–      God is eminent (near)

–      Giver and provider ( give us our daily bread)

–      God is protective (protects us from devil)

–      God is forgiving, merciful and compassionate (forgive us our sins.)

–      God delivers and deliberates (deliver us from evil)

–      God is glorious (for thine is the glory)

–      God is powerful (for thine is the power)

–      God is eternal (everlasting)                                                                                    5mks



–     True commitment involves suffering , Lk 9:57 – 62 suffering brings salvation and redemption’s).

–     Choosing eternal life involves suffering Mt 8:34 – 38 (leads one to heaven)

–     Christ suffered hence Christians should suffer to emulate his mode of life

–     It strengthens faith and develops endurance.

–     Endurance manifests the glory of God

–       Following Christ means self – denial and carrying the cross                                   5mks


  1. – Could marry

–      Could inherit

–      Could be told the secrets of the community

–     Could join adults

–     Could become a worrior                                                                              5mks


  1. – Give people a chance to release their grief and suitable rituals

–      Enabled people to appease the ancestors

–      Enables people to normalize life (life has to go on)

–      Enabled people to bid farewell to the departed.

–      United people (both the living and the dead)                                                          5mks


8.-    Inheritance

–     Provision of labour

–     Accumulation of wealth

–     Enhancing ones social status

–     Helping parents at old age

–     Carry on with the lineage

–     Sign of protection / security                                                                                      5mks


  1. – Western culture

–     Christianity condemns it

–     Medical reasons

–     Modern education

–     Modern ways of life                                                                                                5mks


  1. – Africans are allowed to carry on some of their cultural practices e.g circumcision / polygamy

–     Africans use their language

–     Africans have an opportunity to become leaders

–     Africans use local tunes and instruments

–     Africans generate finance locally

–     Africans are led by fellow Africans.                                                                         5mks


  1. – He must be holy

–     Must be willing to take risks and self – sacrifices

–     He must speak with authority

–     Must be righteous

–     His prophecies must be fulfilled

–     Must be fearless                                                                                                      5mks


12.-      There were no white collar jobs

–     No paid jobs

–     All aspects of life were integrated

–     There was division of labour




–     People accepted and appreciated any kind of work

–     There was no need for training or professional skills/ no specializations

–     No corruption / evils that can cause unemployment.                                                5mks


13.-  Children are gifts from God

–  Children should not be exploited

–  Should be loved and taken care of

–  Children are not objects, they are in a state of development physically, socially, mentally and   morally.

–  A child made to labour at the expense of his freedom to a better training employment will hate whoever caused this inconvenience when he grows up

–  Children should be considered as human beings who are supposed to enjoy same rights and   priviledges.                                                                                                                                           5mks.


  1. – Sorcery / witchcraft

–  Insulting deity

–  Curse

–  Natural causes / old age

–  Capital punishment.                                                                                                     5mks.


–     Jesus was Lord

–     Jesus was the son of God

–     Jesus was Christ

–     Jesus was from Nazareth

–     Jesus  had divine/ human nature

–     Jesus was sent by God to work miracles

–     Jesus conquered death

–     Jesus ascended into heaven

–     Holy spirit is a gift from Jesus

–     God had made Jesus both Lord and Christ

–     Jesus is a descendant of David

–     Jesus death and resurrection was a fulfilment of prophecy.

–     Jesus was exalted and seated at the right hand of God.                                             5mks



–     Good news spread to the gentile world.

–     Persecution of Christians decreased /  hence increase in Christians

–     Paul wrote letters of advice and encouragement to Christians

–     Helped to set up structure of the church

–     Spelt out the relationship between the church and the state

–     Set a model for other Christians

–     Defended the gospel against attacks

–     Expanded new faith

–     Interpreted Christian doctrines

–     He became an apostle hence spread the good news                                       5mks



–     Chosen one of God / anointed / Messiah

–     Will be a good shepherd

–     Pleasing to God

–     Gods spirit is in him

–     Man of justice

–     Patient, tolerant, endurance

–     Humility/ non violent / weaker / gentle

–     Courageous

–     Righteous

–     Liberator from oppression

–     Knowledgeable, ready to learn, teacher

–     God is glorified in him/ reflects Gods glory                                                  5mks



–     Organize church services

–     Incharge of offering sacrament

–     Run church affairs

–     Organize finances in the church

–           Settle disputes among Christians and solve any problems that would arise

–     Officiate in matters of marriage baptism and burial.                                                 5mks.



–     Escape frustration

–     Influence from others / peer pressure

–     Curiosity

–     Commercial advertisements

–     Idleness

–     Search for identity – showing off / a feeling of self importance.

–     Prevention / cure of diseases.                                                                                   5mks



–     For procreation

–     Strengthening social relationship

–     Get permission for legitimate use of sex

–     In obedience to gods command and ancestors

–     To avoid temptation of prostitution

–     Acquire status in the society.                                                                                  5mks





  1. a. Why did the Israelites demand for a king                                                                    10mks
  2. Why was Samuel against the idea of a king                                                                      10mks
  3. What was the significance of the fact that the youngest son of Jesse’s eight sons was chosen to

become a king                                                                                                          5mks


  1. a. Mention various factors which caused disunity in the early church and what  possible solutions were

offered by Paul.                                                                                                         15mks

  1. What causes disunity in the church in Kenya today and what are the solutions to these.            10mks.
  2. a. Discuss the cause of high incidences of divorce in our modern society.                             15mks
  3. What problems are encountered by victims of divorce or separation                                  10mks
  4. a. Outline the meaning and significance of initiation rites                                             15mks
  5. Why are Christians baptised?                                                                                          10mks
  6. a. Both Jeremiah and Ezekiel had message of hope to the exiles.  Narrate specific the message of

hope given by Jeremiah and Ezekiel to the exiles                                                                 15mks

  1. What do you consider to be good qualities of a religious leader eg.  Pastor                       10mks
  2. a. What is the biblical teaching on alcohol.
  3. Give different reasons as to why people take alcohol.









1.a.   To be like the other nations surrounding them

–  Wanted a viable king instead of their unseen king.

–   Needed an army leader to inspire his people to rebel against their oppressors who had become more powerful and technologically more advanced than them.

–   Needed a king to lead them to war.

–      Samuel had grown old and his sons whom he had appointed to be judges for Israel did not walk his

ways / they had become corrupt and accepted bribes and prevented justice.


  1. – They had rejected Yahweh as their king

–  The King will take their sons and make themselves with his chariots / make them run infront of his


–   Will take their daughters to be performers and cooks and bakers

–   Will take the best of your fields and vineyards and give them to his attendants.

–   Take a 1/10 of their grains and vintage and give them to his attendants

–   Will take their maidservants and menservants and best of their cattle for his own

–   Will become his slaves.



  1. Man looks at the outward appearance but God looks at the Inward appearance and that is why he

choose the youngest.


  1. a.
  2. Distribution of food: Greek speaking Jews (Hellemst)  complained that during

distribution of food their widows were being discriminated because they were not pure Jews.

   Solution:   Paul appointed seven deacons to be responsible for the distribution of food so that

    everybody was cartered for.


  1. Leadership: Some claimed to be followers of Apollos who was a theologian, others followers

of Peter, others followed Paul because he was the founder of the church at Corrinth.

Paul was unhappy with these divisions and he adviced them to be united since the church is led by the power of the holy spirit.  It was not the cleverness of the preacher that mattered, but all preached  about Jesus who suffered and had been crucified. The personalities they rallied behind were messengers of God.  Christ died for everybody.  The should avoid dividing Christ into groups.


iii.   Idolatry:   Some Christians were eating meat offered to idols.  These were the ones who had strong

faith and knew idols were powerless such actions misled others who were weak in faith.  Paul that

enlightened Christians were free to buy and eat meat offered to idols but for the sake of weak

Christians they were to refrain from the practice lest they led the weak ones astray.

–    He advised Christians to keep away from idol worship so as to avoid being joined to the actual  idol.


iv  Spiritual gifts:  Some Christians thought speaking in tongues was great gift and started boasting about

it, this made other believers with other gifts to dry and  prove there was the best and this created

disunity among the Christians.


Solution:  Paul discouraged them from boasting and reminded them that all these gifts  come from God and were to be used for strengthening the church and the common good of believers.  He urged them to aspire for the greatest gift of all which is love.


  1. Lords Supper:

Christians in corinth grouped themselves according to their status in society hence an abuse to the Lords supper.

–  The rich ate plenty of food and got drunk while the poor watched.  This made the Lords supper

loose its meaning and were concentrating more on social status.

–  Purpose of Lords supper was for all to come together as believers to share the Lords supper.

– It reminded them of great love Jesus had for them by dying on the cross.

       Solution:  They were to approach Lords supper with honour and respect in order to  avoid Gods


  1. Resurrection of the body: Some believed in resurrection of the body while others doubted it and it

created different feelings among them.

–     Paul confirmed the resurrection of the body as proved by the fact that Jesus  rose from the dead  and

appeared to his disciples.


2b.   Causes of disunity in the church today.

  1. Leadership: Those who are power thirst want the top seats in the church for  recognition purposes   but not delivering the message.

Solution:    All should have a call to be leaders in the church and should not aspire to show off.

Need purity of their hearts.

  1. Misuse of church funds: this can lead to disunity in church.

       Solution:    Church funds should be accounted for and tabled so that all believers could know

how their funds were used.

iii.  Backbiting:  Some leaders backbite others thinking that they are better preachers and have many followers.

       Solution:   What matters is your faith in Christian but not fame.  Since all are preaching the same


  1. Education: Those more educated than the others, tend to undermine those with lower education.  What matters is the message, no matter what tactics are used, hence the truth must be preached without misleading.    When pastors demand too much money from the congregation the freedom to offer what they want without dictating.

      Solution:  Should give the congregation the freedom to offer what they want without  dictating.

  1. Incitement caused by other churches towards another about their undertakings.

      Solution:   Each church to set their own priorities and not compete with other churches.

  1. Social status –  high class and low class those rich associating with the rich in the church and  the poor with the poor hence no unity.

      Solution:  all are equal and should mix freely since they are all in the church for one                  purpose.

vii.  Political influence.

3 a.  Causes of high incidences of divorce in our modern society.

–     Adultery and unfaithfulness / Extra marital affairs

–     Childlessness / impotence / infertility

–     Difficult and handicapped children

–     Separation due to work/ careers, may lead others to divorce their wives

–     Poor communication

–     Finances:  If there is no proper budgeting or open discussion about finances this can lead to


–     Level of education when one has higher education than the others, defending on how they handle

it may lead to inferiority / superiority complex hence divorce.

–     Cultural differences.

–     Impotence.

–     Diseases eg. STDs

–     Domestic violence

–     Religious differences.

1 mark for mention

2 mark for elaboration (10mks)


  1. b.

–     Become social misfits in the society

–     Sexual un-fulfilment

–     Psychological torture which can lead one to committing suicide

–     Financial problems especially if one was not working and was relying on the other one.

–     Jealousy – when you see other couples together

–     Children lack both parental love

–     Bitterness towards the other party can lead one party to kill the other.

–     Children might seek other sources of love

–     Lack of trust – you wouldn’t trust anyone again

–     Promotes homosexuality / lesbianism

–     Psychological stress leading to insanity / suicide

–     Promotes diseases eg. multiple personality disorder.

–     Makes children hate one parent or be against them because of influence from other parents

–     Deterioration in physical health.

  1. a.

–     Initiation introduced the youth virtually to the life in the community.

–     Initiate became a member of a specific age group

–     The initiate was allowed to participate in various responsible roles in society

–     Initiation ceremony allowed communion with ancestors to take place

–     The rites enabled the society to select future age-group leaders

–     The rites acquainted the initiates with the rules and regulations regarding the  social relationships

between men and women.

–     After initiation, the parents of the initiates were promoted to higher social status in society.

–     During and immediately after initiation, the initiates were temporary separated from other people

and they lived either in fields forest or in other specially prepared houses away from their homes.

–    Initiates went through a period of withdrawal from society, during which they received secret

instructions before they were allowed to rejoin their relatives

–   It appears the initiates experienced the process of dying and being reborn.

–   Integration into their families meant that they were new members with new personality traits

–   They cast off their childhood and become adults, in some societies they acquired new names.

–   Introduction to adult life meant the initiates were allowed to share in privileges and duties of the

society. Ie  Allowed to marry and acquire property.

–   Initiation prepared the youth in matters of sexual life, procreation and other domestic roles

–   Initiation rites were educative.  They marked the beginning of acquiring society, wisdom which is

hidden from the youth.

–   Initiates learn to endure pain and hardships live with one another, obey their seniors.

  1. a.

–   Accept their present state which resulted from their disobedience, but God would need them

–   Make new life for themselves in babylon by building houses, settling down, planting gardens,

marrying and having children Jer: 29: 4 – 6.

–   Not to allow themselves to be destroyed or rebel against city and its inhabitants

–     Encouraged to work for  the good of the rulers and people in babylon and pray for their prosperity

so that they may also prosper Jer. 29:7.

–   Not to listen or be influenced by false prophets or future tellers.

–   That God would gather His people and bring them back to their land.

–   The remnant will be restored and live in prosperity and peace.

–   During their return God would guide them as a father or as a shepherd guides his children or flock

–   Descendant of king David would be enthroned as king and would rule them with justice forever

(Jer. 23: 5 – 6; Ez. 34: 23 – 24)

–   Jerusalem would be rebuilt and would be a source of Joy and pride (Jer 30: 18 – 22)

–   Jeremiah bought a piece of land in Jerusalem to signify that exiles would return to Jerusalem and be

able to buy fields there (Jer: 32:36 – 44).

–   Ezekiels call to repentance was because God does not take pleasure in the suffering of a sinner

(Ez 18:23)

5b. –   Must speak the truth regardless the consequences

–     Be ready to suffer for the truth.

–     Set a good example to the people he is handling / others

–     Must have a call from God

–     Should not expect praises from people

–     Must not be money conscious

–     Must deliver the message (true) to the people as directed by God

–     Should think of others before himself / herself spirit (love, joy, peace)

–     Should not be an hypocrite.

  1. a. – Alcoholism brings poverty prov 23:20

–   Alcoholics suffer depression and they are miserable prov. 23: 29-30.

–   Alcoholics cause trouble because they engage in violence, suffer from illusions and hallucinations

–   Wine makes a person incapable of thinking clearly (hos 4:11)

–   Isaiah condemns people who spent their time drinking ( is. 5:11 – 12)

–   Wine leads people astray (prov 20:11)

–   Wine is a gift from God (Deutro. 7: 13)

–   Paul speaks against drunkenness (Eph 5: 18) Romans 13:13: 1cor 5:11)

–   Wine like all Gods creation is a gift from God and is good but it becomes bad if misused.


–   Escape frustration / release tension

–   Influence from others

–   Curiosity (to know the effects it has

–   Due to advertisement / influence from advertisement

–   Idleness

–   To show off / prestige

–   For pleasure

–   Better digestion especially wine

–   For social status.






  1. State the five social and religious evils condemned by Jeremiah at the Temple Gate of Jerusalem.                                                                                                                                           (5 mks)
  2. State five religious conditions that existed in Israel before King Josiah carried out the
    religious reforms.                                                                                                   (5 mks)
  3. What are the causes of unfaithfulness among married couples today? (5 mks)
  4. Mention five practices by Christians carried over from Judaism. (5 mks)
  5. What were the causes of death in African Traditional Societies? (5 mks)
  6. How was law and order maintained in African Traditional Societies? (5 mks)
  7. How can a Christian show responsibility to others in the community? (5 mks)
  8. What was the significance of dowry in Traditional African Society? (5 mks)
  9. What qualities made Peter to be a successful leader of the first apostolic church?  (5 mks)
  10. What do you think were the terms of Saul’s conversion? (5 mks)
  11. What are the causes of evils as found in Genesis 3 – 11? (5 mks)
  12. State five teachings of Jesus on forgiveness. (5 mks)
  13. Why are Jesus’ miracles regarded as His saving works? (5 mks)
  14. What factors helped to maintain Harmony and mutual responsibility in African traditional
    communities? (5 mks)
  15. What can Christians learn from the feeding of the five thousand people? (5 mks)
  16. What features of worship were observable in the early Christian community? (5 mks)
  17. How has Christianity helped in transforming the African Society? (5 mks)
  18. Give five examples of independent churches in Kenya. (5 mks)
  19. Why do you think it was mandatory for everyone to marry in traditional African communities? (5 mks)
  20. List five evils committed by King Ahab according to Prophet Elijah. (5 mks)





  1. (a) Explain the origin of sin and its consequences as found in Genesis chapters 1-11.           (13 mks)

(b)  What was Jeremiah’s understanding of suffering?                                              (7 mks)

(c)  What is the Christian understanding of suffering today?                                                (5 mks)

  1. (a) Explain the New Testament’s understanding of the death of Jesus Christ.                       (10 mks)

(b)  How was death understood in African Traditional community?                          (8 mks)

  • Compare and contrast the destiny of the soul in African Traditional Religion and Christianity?             (7 mks)
  1. (a) Why do you think there should be co-operation between the church and the state?

(8 mks)

(b)  Explain the areas of ecumenical co-operation among churches in Kenya today?

(9 mks)

(c)  Explain the effects of translating the Bible into local African languages.            (8 mks)

  1. (a) What was the significance of Abraham’s call for him and his descendants?         (8 mks)

(b)  What is the relevance of God’s promises to Christians today?                             (8 mks)

  • What lessons can Christians learn from Abraham’s faith? (9 mks)
  1. (a) How has modern Technology and Economy changed the Traditional African attitude to work?                                                                                                                                             (9 mks)

(b)  Explain in detail why a Christian should work.                                                  (8 mks)

(c)  What are the effects of alcoholism on career?                                                    (8 mks)






  1. Five social and religious evils condemned by Jeremiah at Temple gate:

(i)   Stealing.

(ii) Murder.

(iii) Following other gods.

(iv) Committing adultery.

(v) Perjury – cheating especially in Law Courts.

(vi) Burning incense to Baal.

(vii)Oppression of the alien, fatherless and widow.                           (5 x 1 marks)

  1. Five religious conditions that existed in Israel before King Josiah carried out the religious reforms:
  • Temple prostitution.
  • There were many high places for worship of Baal and Asherah.
  • There was practice of human sacrifice which was done to idols.
  • Idol worship was even carried out in Jerusalem Temple.
  • The covenant way of life was abandoned.
  • There were many wizards who were consulted by the people. (5×1 marks)
  1. Causes of unfaithfulness among married couples today:
  • Unfulfilled sexual desires.
  • Need for revenge. A man may have extra marital sex because the wife has it or the other way


  • Craving sexual adventure.
  • Bad Company/ influence.
  • Temptations due to long periods of separation.
  • Drunkenness especially in the man.
  • When a woman is not supported financially she may turn to prostitution to earn money.
  • If a woman denies a man his conjugal rights he may turn to other women.

(Any 5×1 = 5 marks)

  1. Five practices done by Christians which are carried over for Judaism:
  • Use of Psalms in worship.
  • Reading of Old Testament scriptures.
  • Communal prayers.
  • Giving of offerings to God.
  • Attending church services
  • Dedication of children to God.
  • Worship is conducted by Priests/Pastors.

(Any 5×1 = 5 marks)

  1. Causes of death in African Traditional societies:
  • Divine will.
  • Insulting or dishonoring God.
  • Breaking a binding oath.
  • Breaking a taboo. (Any 5×1 = 5 marks)
  1. How Law and Order was maintained in Traditional African societies:
  • Through oathing.
  • Through making covenants.
  • Through supervision by clan elders or Chiefs, Priests.
  • Through punishment of wrong doers (e.g. fines, caning, curses, ex-communication).
  • Through keeping customary beliefs and regulations.

(Any 5×1 = 5 marks)

  1. How a Christian can show responsibility in the community:
  • Visiting and praying for the sick.
  • Caring for the needy.
  • Sharing in the problems of others.
  • Helping the needy in the society.
  • Evangelizing to the non-Christians. (5×1 = 5 marks)
  1. Significance of dowry in African Traditional society:
  • It acted as marriage seal.
  • It was a show of appreciation by the boy’s family to the girl’s family.
  • It was a compensation to the loss of the girl.
  • It acted as constant reminder that the girl was not cheap.
  • Dowry served as a sign of the girl’s presence in her home.

(5×1  = 5 marks)

  1. Qualities that made Peter to be a successful leader of the first apostolic church.
  • He was a good orator.
  • Peter had great courage – he spoke without fear even when he was sure he would face a persecution.
  • He was full of Holy Spirit that enabled him to speak as he did on the Pentecost day.
  • He performed miracles e.g. healed a cripple and raised Dorcas.
  • He would make right judgements under influence of Holy Spirit e.g. judged Ananias and Saphira.
  • Peter was ready to die for his faith – He accepted death by crucifixion.

(vii) He was a man of great faith.                                                          (Any 5×1 = 5 marks)

  1. The terms for Saul’s conversion:
  • He was to preach to Kings and other men of high social status.
  • Saul was to be a messenger to the gentiles.
  • He was to be a chosen instrument set aside by the Lord himself.
  • Saul was to be made an example of Jesus Christ’s suffering for Christ’s sake.
  • Saul was to be a messenger to gentiles but also to Jews because he was a good Pharisee.                                                                                                 (5×1 = 5 marks)
  1. Causes of evil as found in Genesis 3-11:
  • Desire for worldly glory.
  • Temptation by Satan.
  • Disobedience to God.
  • Human weakness.

(vii) Jealousy.                                                                                       (Any 5×1 = 5 marks)

  1. Jesus’ teaching on forgiveness:
  • We should forgive everybody even our enemies.
  • It is never too late to ask.
  • One should seek for God’s
  • God forgives those who repent.
  • Forgiveness should be unlimited.
  • God forgives those who forgive others.

(Any 5×1 = 5 marks)

  1. Why the miracles of Jesus are regarded as his saving works:
  • The miracles show that Jesus is the Messiah who has come to set mankind free from sin.
  • Driving out of demons shows liberation of people from the power of Satan
  • The miracles of Jesus manifested God’s saving power.
  • Miracles of Jesus manifested god’s saving power.
  • Raising people from the dead shows that Jesus has conquered pain and death.                                                 (5×1 = 5 marks)
  1. Factors that helped to maintain harmony and mutual responsibility in African traditional communities:
  • Observance of moral values or taboos and customs.
  • Belief in common ancestry.
  • Common ownership of land.
  • Common religious beliefs.
  • Communal work.

(vii)Concern for others shown through sharing.

(viii)Respecting the rights of others as defined by rules and regulations.

(Any 5×1 = 5 marks)

  1. What Christians can learn from the feeding of the five thousand:
  • Should seek the imperishable food the word of God.
  • Should be able to share what they have with others.
  • Recall the Old Testament prophecies about the Messianic Banquet.
  • Jesus is the bread of life.
  • Not to be anxious about material and physical needs.
  • Should show concern for the needs of others.
  • Jesus has power over nature. (Any 5×1 = 5 marks)
  1. Features of worship observable in the early Christian community:
  • They attended Temple worship.
  • There was the anointing with oil.
  • They had special hours for prayers.
  • They had fellowship in their private houses.
  • Baptism was a must for those who were to join the new people of God.
  • They underwent the Apostles’ instructions. (Any 5×1 = 5 marks)




  1. How Christianity has helped in transforming the African society:
  • The church offers recreational facilities.
  • Reduced fear of witchcraft, sorcery and magic.
  • Helped in dropping rituals which were a threat to health.
  • Formal education brought by Christian missionaries has changed African lifestyles.
  • Polygamy is dying out giving room to Christian monogamy.
  • Formal education replaced informal education.
  • Traditional beliefs have been replaced by Christian beliefs. (Any 5×1 = 5 marks)
  1. Examples of Independent Churches in Kenya:
  • Church of the Holy Spirit (Dini ya Roho).
  • African Independent Pentecost Church.
  • African Greek Orthodox Church.
  • Legio Maria of Africa.
  • Pentecostal Assemblies of God.
  • African Brotherhood. (Any 5×1 = 5 marks)
  1. Why it was mandatory for everyone to marry in Traditional African Communities:
  • To continue family and clan through procreation.
  • To prove one’s fertility.
  • So as to be remembered after death through naming by their children.
  • To have many relatives and friends because African marriages joined families.
  • To earn respect as unmarried people were never respected in African traditional societies. (5×1 = 5 marks)
  1. Evils committed by King Ahab according to Prophet Elijah:
  • Worshipped Baal and Asherah.
  • Built temples for Baal and Asherah.
  • Married Jezebel who was not an Israelite contrary to Old Testament teachings.
  • Killing Naboth and his family;
  • Taking Naboth’s vineyard. (5×1 = 5 marks)






  1. (a) The Origin of Sin:
  • Man was created good and innocent.
  • His relationship with the Creator was perfect.
  • He was endowed with the will to choose between good and evil.
  • The man and woman were tempted by the serpent/Satan to eat the forbidden tree/tempted to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge.
  • Both rebelled against God/Creator, willfully disobeyed God.
  • Man sinned when he desired to be like the Creator which was not the intention of God.
  • It was because of his pride and desertion of God’s love and guidance that he violated the will of the Creator. (Any 4×1 = 4 marks)


The consequences of sin:

(i)   Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Paradise/Aden where they lived under God’s great


(ii)  Man no longer could communicate with his Creator, for the communication was broken.

(iii) Man and woman became ashamed of their nakedness or a feeling of guilt resulted.

(iii) Sex, which was blessed by God, became a shameful act.

(iv) Life became a matter of struggle for man now has to eat from his sweat or toil to survive.

(v)  Work became  an unpleasant engagement.

(vi) Man was to populate the world with his offspring. However child bearing became a fearful and painful


(vii)The woman became subordinate to man because she has to do his will.

(viii) Man was to struggle against hostile nature full of thorns/hardship.

(ix) Sin spread all over the world (Gen. 4-11).

(x)  Man struggled to reach the Creator with no success.

(xi) Death resulted.                                                       (Any 9×1 = 9 marks)


(b)  Jeremiah’s understanding of suffering:

  • The theme of suffering starts with Jeremiah’s call whose mission was to deliver an unpleasant message to the people.
  • Judah suffers because of her failure to live to the ideas of the covenant way of life or their rejection of Yahweh’s love for them.
  • The home of David had to suffer because of the unfaithfulness of her custodians or rulers who did not portray the character of their forefather David.
  • His life is a good example of an innocent person suffering because of the evils of his society. He suffered greatly even to the point of accusing God of betraying him.
  • The massive defeat of Judah by foreigners which was God’s judgement was aimed at warning the people of their religious and moral failures.
  • Jeremiah experienced a terrible conflict in himself almost wanting to give up his prophetic mission.

(vii) God shared his agony of suffering when his people rejected Him and persue evils.

(viii) The innocent could suffer not because of punishment from God as the Israelites believed but due to   existence of evil.

(ix) After the suffering, those who accept it in the right spirit, a great era of great joy will replace it.   Judgement and suffering of God’s people keep a ray of hope.

(Any 7×1 = 7 marks)

  • Christian understanding of suffering:
  • Jesus gave a good example of suffering and he taught his disciples suffering was part of their being followers of Christ. True followers are those who accept suffering.
  • Innocent suffering is part of the redemptive purpose of God.
  • Peter says that it is through suffering that the faith of the believer is strengthened.
  • Those who are not discouraged and endure suffering, will be made perfect.
  • It is through trials and temptations that man seeks God’s guidance and protection. It makes Christians rely on the divine love of God.
  • They are assured that the end of suffering and evil is promised in the final victory of God.

(vii) It is in this suffering that Christians share in the glory of God  through Jesus Christ.

(viii) When Christians suffer, they witness  to Christ in the world.

(ix) Suffering can be as a result of social, political, moral and economic situations surrounding the Christian community.

  1. (a) The New Testament understanding of the death of Christ.:
  • The death/the cross is the means by which the Kingdom of God is established.
  • In the gospels, Jesus spoke with his disciples about his coming death which was doing the will of God.
  • In John’s gospel, the death is the ‘hour’ when the son glorifies the father and the father glorifies the son.
  • The blood shed on the cross is the blood that seals the New covenant.
  • The death is a sacrifice that atones man’s sin/the pascal lamb which liberates man from the bondage of sin.
  • Since God’s loved the world, he gave his only beloved son whose death is the sign of God’s love for sacrifice of Christ.
  • It is the meeting point between the divine and the human – Jesus sealed the gap that separated

man with God – direct communication between man and God (e.g. the cutting of the temple


(viii) The Roman soldier at the time of Jesus’ death confessed that Jesus was            surely the son of God.

(ix) The death symbolized the day of God’s judgement and the beginning of a new age (e.g. the criminals crucified with Jesus and the dark that covered the whole world at the time of his death).

(x)  Jesus is both the suffering servant Messiah and a universal Messiah.

  • His death broke the hard hearts of men – the crowd that jeered at him was moved when Jesus died.
  • It symbolized the victory of good over evil.
  • The death was the source of boldness during the apostolic preaching since they believed that they

had already been saved and incorporated in the risen Lord.      (Any 10×1 = 10 marks)

  • Death in African Traditional Community:
  • Death was one of the stages of life/a link between the physical and the spirit world.
  • Death normally was not associated with natural happening but always has a religious or mystical explanation.
  • It was not a very welcomed occurrence and especially when one died while young, it was feared.
  • It could be a punishment from the spirits or God for misbehavior in society.
  • Could be a warning or activities of an evil spirit.
  • The Africans believed that the spirit left a person when he died to join the spirit of those who had died before.
  • The dead still continued to link with the living.
  • The death of an old person was taken as being called by God to join the spirit world.
  • Death brought sadness to the bereaved and neighbours.
  • It was a phenomena after which people had to be purified to ward off more deaths.
  • The Destiny of the soul in African Traditional Religion and Christianity:
  • Both believe that at death the soul separates with the body.
  • Both African Traditional Religion and Christianity believe that there is transformation and change in state.
  • In Christianity the soul goes to purgatory(Roman Catholicism) to wait for final judgement whereas in ATR it joins the spirit world.
  • While Christians talk of final resurrection, this concept is lacking in African belief systems.
  • In African Traditional societies the soul goes in the sky or underground, for Christians it goes to heaven.
  • The living dead exercise powers over the physically living while such concept is not in
  • Both traditions believe that the fate of the soul is determined by the life led by the individual when he was alive.
  • In traditional African beliefs the spirits of the dead were feared, a belief that does not exist among Christians.
  • African communities poured libation to appease the departed, a practice that is not encouraged by Christians.
  • After a certain period of time, the spirits of the dead fade away in the world but in Christianity the soul awaits the final judgement.
  • The ancestral spirits acted as messengers between the living and the spirit world whereas in Christianity the communication is by the Holy Spirit.
  • In both traditions the spirits of the dead are nearer to God than those physically living. (Any 7×1 = 7 marks)
  1. (a) Why there should be co-operation between the church and the state:
  • The state and the church belong to one Nation hence they have similar goals – National goals.
  • Both the state and the church meet at fund raisings for the church as well as in state ceremonies i.e. politicians attend church functions and Christians attend state functions.
  • The state provides security for all people including Christians e.g. police are called upon to maintain order when we have functions in the church , while the church takes care of spiritual needs of the people.
  • Today some Government officials hold important positions in the church while also some Christians hold important positions in the Government
  • The church and the state co-operate in condemning immoral and criminal activities in the society.
  • Both must co-operate because they serve the same community.
  • Christianity teaches that all Authority comes from God and all Christians must obey state laws.
  • Both church and state co-operate in the provision of health, education and other social needs of the community. (8×1 = 8 marks)
  • Areas of ecumenical co-operation among churches in Kenya today:
  • Different churches are involved in provision of medical services throughout Kenya.
  • Today we have some Theological colleges training church ministers from different churches e.g. Pan African Christian College, which trains pastors from all Protestant churches.
  • Nearly all churches lead religious programmes on Sundays on the Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC).
  • The Bible Society of Kenya is made up of many churches and its main function is translation of the Bible into local languages.
  • Different churches join hands in Harambee functions to build churches and schools.
  • Many churches come together and give food relief in areas that are seriously hit by famine like North Eastern Kenya.
  • Today different churches hold joint prayers in schools.

(viii) Today the church helps the government in preparation of C.R.E. curriculum,

syllabuses and text books.

  • Inter-church marriage is a major area of co-operation among churches in Kenya. (9×1 = 9 mks)

      (c)  Effects of translating the Bible into local African languages:

  • It is possible for Africans to participate actively in preaching the gospel.
  • The Bible became a learning resource.
  • As a result of translation of the Bible into local languages many people can read the Bible in their own vernacular.
  • It promoted revival movements.
  • It became the first book to be written in African languages.
  • Translation of the Bible into African languages led to the development of some African languages.
  • It encouraged people to learn how to read and write so that they could read the Bible for themselves.
  • It led to the development of the spirits of ecumenism as many churches came together in the translation of the Bible in African languages.
  • Translation of the Bible in African languages contributed to the development of African Theology. (8×1 = 8 marks)


  1. (a) The significance of Abraham’s call for him and his descendants:
  • They are expected to emulate Abraham’s example (Heb. 8:9-19)
  • God’s promise was not a personal reward to Abraham. It was part of a grand plan through which all mankind would benefit. (Gen. 12:3). He is the ancestor of Jesus who brought salvation to all men (Acts , Gal. 3:16, 29).
  • The willingness of Abraham to leave his motherland and go to a strange land signified an act of faith.
  • To Abraham’s unquestionable act of faith, the chosen people (Abraham’s descendants) owe their existence and destiny.
  • Abraham ‘s descendants must note that physical descent from Abraham it not enough to guarantee them God’s blessing. (Mt. 3:9). (Any 4×2 = 8 marks)
  • Relevance of God’s promises to Christians today:
  • Abraham was promised that his descendants will be delivered from physical oppression while Christians are promised deliverance from spiritual oppression.
  • While to Abraham circumcision was a physical sign of inner faith, baptism is the physical sign of inner faith.
  • Just as Abraham was promised protection by God, so also are Christians assured of God’s protection.
  • While Abraham was promised the land of Canaan, the Christians are promised eternal life/kingdom of God.
  • Abraham was promised fame/greatness. The Christian leaders (some of them) are great.
  • While Abraham was promised a heir, the Christians are expected to be heirs of the kingdom of God.
  • Christians are beneficiaries of Abraham’s promise that all mankind will receive God’s blessing.
  • As Abraham was promised that his descendants will be many in number Christians too expect to be many in number. (Any 8×1 = 8 marks)
  • Lessons that Christians can learn from Abraham’s faith:
  • They should be ready to accept God’s call as Abraham did.
  • They should be prepared to inherit.
  • They should be ready to accept they will always have God’s protection as Abraham believed.
  • They should accept to be sent anywhere as Abraham did when he was to move from the known land to unknown land.
  • They should be confident/trust in all God’s promises.
  • As Abraham was essentially chosen by God because of his faith, so also are Christians chosen.
  • They should have trust that God will always answer their prayers/their requests.
  • They should have faith that God is not ready to destroy life but rather save it as he did to Isaac.
  • They should be ready to sacrifice anything that God requires from them as Abraham was ready even to offer his son as a sacrifice.
  • They accept that they will be great in serving God just as Abraham accepted to become great.
  1. (a)   How modern technology and economy changed the Traditional African Attitude to work:
  • Today there is change of roles. Duties which were done by man only are being done by women and also duties which were done by women only are also being done by men.
  • One’s talents are not fully utilized because of job specialization.
  • Today some people have machines to work for them as opposed to the idea that everyone was a worker in Traditional African societies.
  • In modern society some people do not want to work but they want to earn a living through begging, stealing and playing games like gambling.
  • Today people view work in terms of career, which one gets into after work as part and parcel of entire life process. That is work begun at youthful stage upto old age till one was too old to work.
  • In traditional African communities, age, sex and inheritance determined the work one did but today the choice of the occupation one does is determined by the education he has received.
  • In traditional African communities there was co-operation in work, but in modern society there is steep competition that may lead to rivalry.
  • Today some people are doing unacceptable jobs like prostitution just to earn a living.
  • In modern society work is meant to benefit an individual whilst in traditional African communities work benefited the entire community.
  • Unemployment was unheard of in traditional African communities because everyone was employed but today it is a common problem.
  • Today job inheritance is rare but in traditional African communities many jobs were inherited from parents e.g. blacksmith, craftsmanship.

(8×1 = 8 marks)

  • Why Christians should work:
  • To Christian work is a way of furthering the creation activity of God.
  • Christian work because Paul said that those who do not work should not eat.
  • Through work Christians avoid parasitic life.
  • Through work Christians avoid idleness, which lead to sin.
  • Christians work to protect or care for God’s creation.
  • Through work a Christian can serve his community.
  • In work a Christian provides for life’s
  • Christians who work can share their incomes with the less fortunate members of the community.
  • It is necessary for a Christian to work because God blesses the hardworking. See Psalms 128;1.
  • Christians work because God instituted work during creation. God commanded human beings that they must work. (8×1=8 marks)


  • Effects of alcoholism on career:
  • Alcoholism affects one’s efficiency at work. Infact it reduces performance significantly.
  • Alcoholism can easily lead one to embezzle public funds, which are entrusted to him.
  • Alcoholics may have great risks in their career especially drivers, who cause accidents when they drive under the influence of alcohol.
  • A lot of money is spent on drinking at the expense of the basic necessities like food, shelter, and clothing.
  • Drunkards may collide with fellow workmates hence affecting one’s career.
  • Alcoholism affects the health of a person rendering one ineffective at work.
  • Alcoholism may lead to break-up of one’s family and this adversely affects one’s performance at work.
  • Alcoholism may make one to absent himself from work..

(8×1 = 8 marks)





  1. Give FIVE occasions when Jesus prayed           (5mks)
  2. Give teachings Christians can learn from the parable of the good Samaritan           (5mks)
  3. State FIVE methods used by missionaries to improve the living standards of the Africans. (5mks)
  4. State any FIVE moral obligations of the state to her citizens           (5mks)
  5. List FIVE occasions when Jesus appeared to his disciples after resurrection           (5mks)
  6. Outline any FIVE modern idols that threaten the worship of God in Kenya today.           (5mks)
  7. Outline any FIVE factors promoting prostitution in Kenya today.           (5mks)
  8. State FIVE gifts of the holy spirit           (5mks)
  9. Outline any FIVE social injustices, which were condemned by prophet Isaiah.           5mks)
  10. What FIVE factors united African traditional community           (5mks)
  11. Identify FIVE rights of an employer           (5mks)
  12. State FIVE ways in which the church continues with the mission of Jesus.           (5mks)
  13. Outline any FIVE evidences that Jesus arose from the dead.           (5mks)
  14. State FIVE lessons that Christians learn from the repentant THIEF during the crucifixion of Jesus.           (5mks)
  15. State FIVE effects of the conversion of Paul on the early Church.
  16. Mention FIVE problems Christian churches face in Ecumenical co-operation.           (5mks)
  17. Mention FIVE Christian alternatives to marriage.           (5mks)
  18. List FIVE characteristics of independent churches           (5mks)
  19. Mention FIVE ways through which people misuse wealth.           (5mks)
  20. With reference to Gen. 3:11, state FIVE causes of evil           (5mks)







  1. Five occasions when Jesus prayed.
  • After his baptism in the wilderness.
  • At a table in Emmaus after resurrection.
  • Before choosing the twelve apostles
  • When he taught his disciples how to pray
  • Before/during the transfiguration
  • On the cross
  • Before feeding the 5,000 and 4,000 men.
  • During the last supper.
  • In the garden of Gethseman

Any 5 pts 1×5=5mks


  1. Teaching Christians can learn from the parable of the good Samaritan
  • Concern for others
  • Readiness to help one in need
  • Eternal life is for those considered unworthy
  • Faith without deed is dead
  • Ceremonial laws do not put us right before God
  • They should not have a holier than the attitude
  • They should not discriminate. Any 5 pts 5×1=kmks


  1. Methods used by missionaries to improve African living standards.
  • Educating the Africans
  • Introduction of cash crops
  • Opening up of hospitals to improve their health
  • Teaching them hygiene
  • Studying legitimate trades
  • Vocational training
  • Introducing western culture e.g

Any 5 points 1mk each = (5)

  1. Moral obligations of the state to her citizens. (5)
  • Protect the citizens from eternal aggression
  • Maintain and uphold bill of rights.
  • Provision of essential services
  • Developing economic policies e.g. creation of employment.
  • Upholding justice.
  • Maintaining law and order/stability.

–    Provision of fair tax system.

Any five 5×1 =5


  1. Occasions when Jesus appeared to his disciples after Resurrection. (5)
  • To Peter
  • Disciples on the way to Emmaus
  • Disciples in a closed room
  • Disciples fishing
  • To Thomas Any other relevant point 5×1=5


  1. Modern idols threatening worship to God.
  • Wealth –  Power politics – State personalities
  • Fame –  Beauty/Glamour  – Sex
  • Sports –  Education/Career/Profession           Any other relevant point 5×1=5


  1. Factors promoting prostitution in Kenya. (5)
  • Unfulfilled sexual desires
  • Uncontrollable sexual craving
  • Economic difficulties
  • Sugar daddies/mummies
  • Rural/ urban migration
  • Divorce
  • Poor upbringing
  • Peer influence
  • Pornography/films

Any five pts 5×1=5


  1. Gifts of the holy spirit (5)

–   Miracles                           – Tongues

–   Healing                             –  Decrement of spirits

  • Faith
  • Word of wisdom’s –   Interpretations of tongues
  • Prophecy
  • Word o knowledge

Any 5 points 5×1 =5


  1. Social injustice condemned by Isaiah (5)
  • Oppression of the wisdom and orphans
  • Greed that led to exploitation of the week
  • Practices of library
  • Cursing those who can no longer distinguish good from evil


  1. Factors uniting African traditional communities (5)

–       Sharing            – Communal work

–        Marriage          –  Virtues

–       Children            – Religious beliefs and practices.

–       Roles

–       Observation of social norms.        Any 5pts 5x = 5


  1. Rights of an employer. (5)
  • Obtaining business without undue interference from the government
  • A right to enjoy the fruits of their business
  • Getting a fair days work from their employees
  • Forming associations of their own choice
  • Protection from unfair competition
  • Fair taxation
  • Repatriation of their profits abroad Any other relevant point 5×1=5


  1. Ways in which the church continue with the mission of Jesus
  • Through medical work/ establishment of hospitals.
  • Participation in Education in order to contribute to the welfare of people
  • Providing pastoral care
  • Administration of sacraments
  • Worship/praying for the sick
  • Provisions of employment opportunities in their institutions.
  • Involvement in social/communal work
  • Involvement in agriculture/technical/industrial work to improve the standard of living of the people.
  • Living exemplary life for others to emulate.

   Any other relevant point 5×1=5


  1. Evidences that Jesus arose from the dead.
  • The angel told the woman that Jesus had risen
  • Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalene
  • The woman who visited the tomb found it empty
  • His appearance to the disciples at Jerusalem
  • Jesus appeared to the two disciples of Emmaus.
  • Jesus shared a meal with his disciples after resurrection in Jerusalem.
  • Thomas felt the scars of Jesus hand.
  • The disciples witnessed Jesus ascend to heaven after his death

     Any five points 5×1=5


  1. Lessons learned from the testimony of the repentant thief. (5)
  • It is important to correct erring brother .sister the way the repentant thief did
  • Recognition of ones sinful condition so as to repent.
  • Jesus had no sin/did not deserve death
  • Jesus had power to overcome death /would resurrect.
  • Jesus is the Messiah /Lord.
  • Jesus is the savoir of mankind.
  • Jesus would establish Gods kingdom for the saved.

–  Jesus is merciful to the repentant sinners.                               Any 5 pts 5×1=5


  1. Effects to the convertion of Paul on the early church. (5)
  • Establishment of Jerusalem council
  • The first apostolic council
  • Establishment of churches in the gentile world e.g corrinth. Gallatia
  • Solving the nagging problems in Corinth eg marriage, Lords supper, food offered to idols
  • Writing the epistles of exhortation/ encouragement to the established churches eg. Rome, Titus.
  • Led to the spread of the gospel in the gentile world/ tribulations to his ministry eg imprisonment,


Any 5 pts 5×1=5


  1. Problems of ecumenism (5)
  • Some churches have withdrawn their cooperation.
  • Some churches fear loosing their identity
  • Theological differences/interpretation of the Bible /day of worship
  • African Christians have strong denominational loyalties
  • Accusation of fellow church ministers before high authorities
  • Failure to involve Africans in formation of church unity
  • Controversy over female circumcision
  • Inferiority complex due to semi –education/illiterate leaders.
  • Religious prejudice/filling of superiority by some churches.
  • Racialism /tribalism
  • Culture differences/language differences.

Any 5×1=5

  1. Christian alternatives to marriage.
  • Consideration of oneself as eunach for the kingdom of God

–                                                        Remaining unmarried to serve God.

–  The claim by some Christian to have received a call to lead a celibate life.

–  The claim by some Christians to have married Jesus and thus not accepting  matrimonial relationships.

–  Some church leaders are required not to marry eg Catholic Priest, bishop pope.

–  Some Christian choose to devote all their time in serving the community and so don’t marry eg

catholic nuns.

Any 5×1=5


  1. Characteristics of independence churches

– African leadership/controlled by Africans

– Member  were mostly local people

– More allowances are given for the integration of African traditions into the church.

– Emphasis in on spiritual experience

– They all confess Christ as saviour and lord.

– They are Christian churches

– They use local language in their worship

– Emphasis is on church as community closer communities.

Any 5×1=5


  1. Five ways through which people misuse wealth

– By over indulging in alcohol / drugs

– By indulging in immoral practices some of prostitution, sex tourism, extra marital sex.

– Use of wealth in gambling which might lead to loss of it.

– By buying luxuries e.g expensive clothes, cars which are not necessary

– Using wealth to frustrate – exploit others

– Using wealth to bribe to get out of problems

– Using wealth to buy positions, power status, votes or get employment.

– Use wealth to show off.

                                                                                                            Any other relevant 5×1=5


  1. Causes of evil (Gen . 3-11.)

– Disobedience to the will of God (Adam and Eve)

– Temptation by satan (Adam and Eve yield)

– Desire for worldly glory (the tower of Babel) or pride.

– Human weakness/ violence / drunkenness

– Jealousy /rivalry (as in the case of Cain and Abel)

– Anger (Cain)

– Lack of self control/lust

Any 5 pts 5×1=5





  1. a) Discuss the teaching of Jesus on the role of the holy spirit. (9mks)
  2. b) Explain how the power of the Holy Spirit is seen at work in the independent churche in         (16 mks)
  3.   a) Describe the call of  Abraham.                                                                                                   (9mks)
  4. b) What was the significance of this call in relation to his future life and that of his                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (12 mks)
  5. c) What does circumcision mean to the descendants of Abraham.         (5 mks)
  6. a) Describe the activities which took place on the day of  Pentecost.                         (12mks)
  7. b) Explain the teachings of Jesus on the coast of discipleship.                (8 mks)
  8. c) Outline the significance of suffering to a Christian today.       (5 mks)
  9. a) Explain the factors that have affected the traditional African responsibilities to God, spirits and

ancestors.                                                                                                                         (14 mks)

  1. b) What problems do contemporary parents encounter in guiding and counseling their Children,.

(11 mks)

  1. a) Why were Josiah`s reforms necessary during the time of the prophet Jeremiah . 8 mks)
  2. b) How were the reforms carried out.      (12mks)
  3. c) What were the results of the reforms    (5 mks)
  4. a) Show how a persons work may be another persons leisure activity.      (10 mks)
  5. b) Explain ways in which an employer can motivate his employees.       (7 mks)
  6. c) Why is it important for a worker to be allowed to have a rest.       (8 mks)











Q1. The teaching of Jesus on the role of the holy spirit.

  • The Holy Spirit will take the place of Jesus after physical departure.
  • The role of the Holy Spirit was to represent and glorify Christ in the church. i.e to encourage build, edify etc.
  • The holy spirit reveals truth about God .
  • To be helper who stays forever
  • To make the world aware of its sins and the judgement of sin.
  • To continue to guide and teach the disciples about God .
  • To continue with the work of Jesus witnesses
  • To speak on behalf of God the Father i.e.the messenger of God.
  • To make the world aware of the righteousness of Christ.
  • To make the world aware of the overthrow of the devil.
  • To work as wise counselor.

Any 9 points @1mk= 9mks


  1. How the power of the holy spirit works in independent churches.

–     Their evangelists are inspired by the Holy Spirit to preach.

–     Their evangelists preach with power, courage  and boldness.

  • The Holy Spirit leads them to predict /prophecy) certain future events.
  • They cast out demons by the power of the holy spirit / in Jesus name
  • It leads members to publicly repent their sins/ask for forgiveness
  • It guides them to make right decisions.
  • They are led to speak in tongues
  • Leads them to dedicate themselves to Gods work e.g evangelism.
  • The Holy Spirit helps them to overcome temptations.
  • It gives them love, joy/happiness/mutual understanding.
  • It helps them pray for the sick/heal the sick /perform miracles.
  • It assists them in interpreting the tongues.

Any 8 ponits @ 2mks = 16 mks


Q 2. a) The call of Abraham.

  • It was through a dream / vision/an inner voice
  • God told him to leave his home/familiar land/haran to unknown land/Canaan.
  • He obeyed /trusted God
  • He was 75 years /an old man
  • On the way he set up two alters at Shechem and Bethel

                        Any 4 pts 2@ = 8mks


  1. The significance of Abraham`s call
  • Abraham would be the founder /father of a great nation.
  • Abraham would be blessed
  • Abraham would be a blessing to others
  • Abraham’s name would be great
  • His descendants would be given a land of Canaan
  • His own son by Sara would inherit his property
  • Their names were changed to Abraham and Sara from Abram and Sarai
  • Circumcision was to serve as a sign of covenant between God and Abraham.

Any  6 pts 2mks @ = 12mks



  1. Meaning of circumcision to Abraham’s descendants.
  • A sign of covenant with God
  • A bound of relationship as the people of God
  • The initiates are joined to God
  • The initiates are joined to ancestors (Abraham’s)
  • A mark to identify Abraham’s people.
  • It was compulsory. Any 5pts @ 1mk = 1×5 = 5mks.

 Q.3 a) Activities which took place on the day of the Pentecost .

  • The disciples gathered together in Jerusalem.
  • They prayed
  • A sound came from heaven and filled the room like a rush of a mighty wind
  • Tongues like of fire appeared and touched them
  • They were filled with the power of the holy spirit
  • They (the disciples) talked in foreign languages / tongues,.
  • The on lookers were amazed
  • Those who observed them said they were drunk
  • Peter stood and explained the case of the disciples as being the work of the holy spirit
  • Peter told the Jews around that the lord they rejected and crucified had filled them.
  • People asked Peter what to do
  • Peter told the people to repent and be baptised
  • On that day 3000 people joined the Christian church

                                                                                       Any 12 pts @ 1mk = 12mks.


  1. b) Teaching of Jesus on the cost of discipleship.
  • One must self deny himself/take up the cross and follow Christ/accept suffering

(Mark 8: 34-38)

  • One must be totally committed to Christ /his work/preaching/teaching the word of God / No turning back (Luke 9: 57 – 62)
  • One must cost to persevere (Luke 14 :25-33)
  • One must renounce all that one has in order to follow Christ and be a disciple  (LK 18:18-30)
  • One must deny all in order to follow Christ e.g hate brothers/ Mothers/ Sister/ Wife for Christ’s                                                                         Any 4 pts  2 mks = 8mks.
  1. c) Significance of suffering to a Christian today.
  • To emulate Christ’s sufferings
  • It leads to eternal life
  • It brings redemption
  • It trains one to endure / prepare for hard times/ persecutions
  • It is a sign of true commitment Christ / God creator
  • It manifests Gods  glory
  • It acts as a test of ones faith
  • It act as a test of ones faith
  • It strengthens a Christians faith.

Any 5 pts 1mk @ = 5mks


Q4. Factors that have affected the traditional African responsibilities to God, Spirits and ancestors.

  • Money economy i.e success depends on money / wealth
  • Science and technology ie relying on interpretation of catastrophes and epidemics etc
  • Witchcraft
  • Worship of power
  • Christianity and its teachings
  • Western cultures
  • Western education
  • Fame /heroship
  • Competition among people in all fields i.e business.

                                                                               Any 7 pts @ 2mks = 14mks.


  1. b) Problems contemporary parents encounter in guiding and counseling their children
  • Influence of modern education
  • Different religions / religious denominations and traditions.
  • Lack of forums for parents and their children for teaching traditional values.
  • The school systems
  • Pluralism exposure to other cultures/ lifestyles
  • Differences in traditional and Christian teachings.
  • Ignorance of some parents differences of beliefs/ traditions of educators.
  • Intermarriages
  • Freedom of worship in the country
  • Influence of mass media
  • Money economy and salaried employment
  • Urbanization
  • Changing roles in leadership patterns
  • Communication barriers between the youth and parents.

Any 11 pts @ 1mk = 11mks.


Q5.  Why Josiah`s reforms were necessary.

  • They were aimed at bringing Israelites back to the worship of Yahweh.
  • The found scroll by the high priest had laws of God which had been forgotten
  • King Josiah in examining the scroll discovered that Mosaic law /the covenant way of life long forgotten were very important to the people of Israel.
  • The teaching in the scroll was new to the king made him troubled and he had to improve the situation.
  • God was bringing back his people to the covenant way of life.

                                                                  Any 4 pts @ 2mks = 8mks


  1. How the reforms were carried out.
  • He searched for a prophet for guidance
  • Josiah commanded all the people of Jerusalem to come to the Temple
  • Prophetess had prophesied doom for those who had turned away from the covenant way of life/ Gods mercy for the repentant
  • Josiah read to the people all the words of the book of the covenant.
  • He performed a ceremony of the renewal of the covenant on behalf of the people.
  • The people and the king pledged themselves publicly to walk after the Lord/ keep God`s commandments
  • The king ordered for the cleansing of the temple/ Jerusalem/ all places
  • The king destroyed all high places Canaanite gods/idols were worshiped.
  • He burnt all objects for the worship of baals /Ashesah
  • He executed the pagan priests
  • He drove wizard /evil doors out of Jerusalem into hiding
  • He pulled down places where Temple prostitution was carried out.

Any 6 pts @ 2mks = 12mks.


  1. The results of the reforms
  • The reforms did not change the heart of the people
  • The people did not understand the words of the reforms/laws
  • However, they stopped worship of caanite gods in public
  • The old evils of Israel were immediately revived
  • There had been no return to the covenant way of life

Any 5pts @ 1mk = 5mks

 Q6. a) How a persons work is another s leisure activity

  • Playing a game like football
  • Reading a novel/magazines compared to reading for examinations.
  • Fishing / shamba work
  • Eating / drinking to satisfy hunger/ thirst and going for dinner/ wedding parties
  • Sleeping as a body function and sleeping after lunch

Any 5 pts @ 2mks = 10mks


  1. Ways in which an employer can motivate his employees
  • By incorporating them as partners in business/ allowing them to buy shares.
  • Sharing profits with them
  • Appreciating their work
  • By setting good example / being respectful/hardworking/punctuate
  • Practice of charity /good will
  • By paying terminal benefits
  • Allow employees leave/ rest with their families
  • Allow them time for entertainment’s/ leisure /worship etc
  • Treating the employed humanly

Any 7 pts @ 1mk = 7mks


  1. Reasons why it is important for a worker to be allowed to have a rest.
  • To worship/ fellowship/ counseling /preaching.
  • For family union
  • To socialise with others in activities such as harambees.
  • For cultural development eg dances
  • For personal development e.g reading /farming.
  • For hobby activities
  • To attend celebrations e.g. Moi Day
  • To travel
  • To regain lost energy
  • To explore nature appreciate Gods work
  • To improve on ones talents
  • To allow one to meditate over ones problems/short comings

                                                              Any 6 pts @ 1mk = 8mks





  1. Give five advantages of polygamous marriages in Traditional African Society.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  2. State five revelations of the angel about Jesus during his birth annunciation. (5mks)
  3. State five factors that lead people to sin today.              (5mks)
  4. State five occasions when God protected and guided Moses before and during the exodus.                                                                                                                                  (5mks)
  5. State five reasons why Jesus used parables in this teachings.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  6. State five advantages of translating of the Bible into African languages       (5mks)
  7. Identify five rights of an employee.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  8. State five ways through which a Christian can use wealth to serve God.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  9. State five significance of Jesus resurrection to Christians                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  10. State five roles of a citizen to the state.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  11. State five importance of suffering to a Christian today.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  12. Mention five costs of discipleship.
  13. List five importance of circumcision in African traditional society.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  14. State five problems which face those who are self employed in Kenya today.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  15. State five consequences of separation in a family.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  16. Give five symbols used to express unity of believers in the New Testament.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  17. Name five forms of modern leisure.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  18. Give five obstacles to complete church unity in Kenya.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  19. Give five factors which a Christian seeking a vocation will consider.                                                                                                                               (5mks)
  20. State five reasons why some people in the society abstain from marriage.                                                                                                                               (5mks)






  1. Advantages of polygamous marriages in T.A.S.
    – Many children were considered as wealth.
    – Polygamy was a show of wealth.
    – Many children provided abundant labour
    – It acted as a marriage security to a husband e.g death of one of the women.
    – It guaranteed family existence and continuity.
    – Children acted as a source of security to the family.                                              (5marks)
  2. The angels revelation about Jesus during his birth annunciation:
    – That Jesus will be great.
    –     Jesus will be called the son of the most high God.
    –     God will make Jesus a king as his ancestor David.
    –     The kingdom of Jesse will never end.
    –     His name was given as Jesus.                                                                            (5mks)
  3. Factors which lead people to sin
    – Power struggle
    –     Greed/Materialism
    –     Jealousy
    –     Egoism
    –     Lack of morals and character formation.
    –     Insecurity
    –     Extreme poverty                                                                                               (5mks)
  4. Occasions when God guided and protected Moses.
    – God guided Moses to elect his successor
    –     When Moses was leading the Israelites in the desert. (Desert enemies )
    –     When being given the ten commandments to help him guide his people.
    –     During the crossing of the Red Sea.
    –     When he performed miracles
    –     The rescue of Moses by pharaohs daughter
    –     When Moses grew up in the Egyptian palace, he escaped death after killing the Egyptian.
  5. Reasons why Jesus used parables
    –  To create interest and to hold the attention of his listeners.
    –     To avoid arousing the anger of his enemies
    –     In order to render his listeners less capable of resisting the known truth.
    –     To separate the true seekers of the kingdom of God from those who were not.
    –     To raise the minds of his listeners to heavenly things from a consideration of ordinary

experiences of life.
–     To present abstract and spiritual ideals in a simple way to help his heavens retain them.

  1. Advantages of the translation of the Bible into African Languages.
    – Better appreciation of the African culture which reduced suspicion.
    –     Led to participation of Africans in church leadership.
    –     More Africans showed interest in Education
    –     More printing presses were established
    –     Christianity spread faster and more Africans were able to read and write.
    –     Led to greater understanding between the missionaries and Africans.                 (5mks)
  2. Identify five rights of an employee
    – Entitled to a good working conditions
    –     A fair salary and reasonable workload
    –     rested and time off.
    –     Safety in his or her place of work and protection.
    –     Entitled to promotion in a fair way.
    –     To be respected as a human being.
    –     Furthering his training and developing of productive skills
    –     Protecting his labour interests.
  3. Ways in which wealth can be used to serve God.
    – Contributing to the poor and the less privileged in society.
    – Donating church
    – Building homes for the destitute.
    – Sponsoring church activities
    – Contributing to charitable organisations, relief. (any other relevant point.)
  4. Significance of Jesus resurrection to Christians.
    – It is the basis/foundation of Christianity
    –  Because Jesus resurrected we shall resurrect.
    –  There is life after death
    –  The resurrection of Christ conquers death
    –  It give us hope of re-union with our lost loved ones.
    (  Any other relevant point.)
  5. Roles of citizens to the state.
    – Abide by the state law’s (be law abiding)
    –   Defend the state when called upon.
    –   Reporting law breakers to the authority
    –   Participating in electoral process
    –  Taking children to school
    –   To engage in gainful activities that are beneficial to the state e.g Teaching, Treating,
    Any other relevant point.
  6. Importance of suffering to a Christian.
    – It strengthens a Christians faith
    –  To emulate Christ’s sufferings
    –   It leads to eternal life
    –   It brings redemption
    –   It trains ones to endure/prepares one for hard times.
    –   It is a sign of true commitment to God/Christ
    –   It acts as a test of one’s faith.
  7. Costs of discipleship.
    – Denying oneself/sacrificing for others
    –  Total commitment to Christ/work
    –   Perseverance
    –   Renouncing of all that one has in order to follow Christ to be a disciple.
    –   Denying and forsaking earthly materials e.g brothers, mothers.
    Any other relevant.


  1. Importance of circumcision in A.T.S
    – A sign of identity with a community
    –   A rite of passage
    –   It unites the initiates or age groups
    –   Gave one a right to own property e.g land
    –   It entitled one societies secrets.



  1. Problems of self-employment.
    – Financial constraints
    –   Inability to identify proper market for goods produced.
    –   Lack of managerial skills
    –   Fearless competition from similar firms
    –   Extended family commitments
    –   Theft and fine risks
    –   High income tax charges
     Any other relevant point
  2. Consequences of separation in the family.

    –   It robs the couple the opportunity to live together, develop closeness, etc and builds a  meaningful

–    Marriage ceases to serve the purpose
–    It was intended for companionship and partnership
–    It stretches man’s resources
–    It can also cause sexual strain and unfaithfulness which may lead to  concubinage.
–    Physical strain eg house work duties for man and woman forced to do duties of a  man.
–    Separating damages children who need to grow up seeing both parents.


  1. Symbols used to express unity of believer in the New Testament.
    – The people of God
    –     The body of Christ
    –     The vine and the branches
    –     The church/assembly of God
    –     The bride.
  2. Forms of modern leisure.
    – Worship on Sunday for normal Christians
    –     Drinking
    –     Going to films, theatre videos, dances
    –     Playing music and games
    –     Reading for leisure – story book, magazines
    –     Arts, painting, knitting, curving, weaving
    –     Touring, travelling and visiting places


  1. Obstacles to complete church unity in Kenya.
    – Discrimination eg tribalism/racism
    –     Leadership differences ; greed for power
    –     Competition among denomination
    –     Interference from outside the church e.g politics being brought to the churches by politicians.


  1. Factors to be considered by a Christian when seeking a vocation.
    – Ability and talent
    –     Attraction to certain kinds of work
    –     The available opportunity
    –     The need of the churches and the society
    –     Incompatibility with his/her Christian faith.


  1. Reasons why some people in the society abstain from marriage.
    – Discouragement from failing families in the community.
    –     Religious reasons ; set aside to work for God; nuns, priests.
    –     Some careers do not allow people to marry eg. military women corps, etc
    –     Infertility
    –     Due to burdens/responsibilities at home.
    –     Early pregnancies among young girls can lead to single parenthood.




  1. (a) Explain the teachings of prophets Hosea and Isaiah on idolatry.                                       (10mks)
    (b) Identify and explain any five forms of idolatry that threatens Christianity today.                (15mks)
  2. (a) Discuss the contribution of the catechists in the expansion of Christianity in Kenya.        (10mks)
    (b)   Why were the catechists successful in their work.                                                      (10mks)
    (c)    Show how the missionaries and the government have improved education in Kenya.           (5mks)
  3. (a) How does baptism qualify to be a covenant.                                                               (4mks)
    (b)   Describe the teaching of prophet Jeremiah on the new covenant.                               (9mks)
    (c)    How was the new covenant foreseen by Jeremiah, different from the Sinaic Covenant.        (12mks)
  4. State the circumstances that allowed:-
    (a) Divorce in African Traditional Society.                                                                      (12mks)
    (b)   What are the consequences of divorce in modern society.                                           (8mks)
    (c)    What five problems hinder family planning practices in Kenya.                                  (5mks)
  5. (a) What lessons can a Christian learn from the feeding of the five thousand.                  (9mks)
    (b)   With reference to four incidences in the life and works of Jesus, show how Jesus tried to  change

the traditional Jewish attitudes towards the poor and the despised.                                   (8mks)

(c)   Show the importance of Jesus’s miracles with reference to his personality and ministry.               (8mks)

  1. (a) Explain five purposes of law in society.                                                                     (5mks)
    (b)   Explain how law and order is maintained in Kenya today.                                          (14mks)
    (c)    What are the forms of punishment in Kenya today.                                                   (6mks)







  1. Teaching of prophets Hosea and Isaiah on Idolatry.
    – Hosea condemned idolatry comparing it to prostitution/harlotry.
    –    He accused the Israelites for assuming that their prosperity had come from the  worship of Baals.

(Hosea 2:2-13)
–    Hosea’s broken relationship symbolised God’s relationship with unfaithful Israel in Idolatry.

(Hosea 1 –2)
–     Hosea emphasised that the covenant law forbade yet Israel had assumed/ignored the prohibitions.
–    Hosea condemned Baal worship in bull/calf forms and pronounced judgement, punishment on idol

–     Hosea prophesised that just as Gomer was to wait to resume her marriage relationship with her

husband, Israel must be punished before she is restored to favour.                                                               (any 5 x 1 = 10mks)

–    He held that idols are not gods, but were works of human hands, thus powerless.
–    He challenged the nations to prove that their gods had been able to announce plan in history and

carry it through.
–    Isaiah ridicules idol worshippers by making fun of the idol making industry.
–     Isaiah proved that idols are powerless to save people.
–    By contrast Isaiah emphasised that there is one God alone creator of all things (Isaiah 43:10)                                                                     (Any 5 x 1 = 5mks)




(b) Modern forms of idolatry that threaten Christianity today.
–    Desire for power
–    Status
–    Desire for material things
–    Love for money
–    Love of pleasure/sex
                               ( For identification 5 x 1 = 5mks

            (for explanation  =5 x 1 = 10mks)


  1. Contribution of the Catechists in the expansion of Christianity.
    – Preaching in open air places
    –    Had to visit houses
    –    Taught Catechism
    –    Travelled long distances to preach
    –    Helped in church services
    –    Administered sacraments
    –    Acted as intermediaries between missionaries and the people.
    –    Converted relatives to Christianity.
    –    They acted as God fathers/mothers.
    –    Administered Christian rituals.
    –    Played role models for Christian lives.
    –    Helped translate the Bible/helped missionaries in translating what was preached to  the

–    Taught formal education to the people.
(Any 10 x 1 = 10mks)

(b) Reasons why Catechists succeeded.
– They had the initiative to lead others
– They used the African language, own language as a medium of expression
– They were well equipped with the knowledge/message
– They understood the Bible better than the other local people in their areas.
– They were aware of local customs of the people /found it easier to preach/move.
– They were strong and steadfast in their faith.
(Any 5 x 2 = 10mks)

(c) Ways in which the missionaries and government have improved Education in Kenya.
– Supervision of schools/Education
– Training of teachers
– Provincial personnel to Education trustees
– Give grants to schools/aid schools
– Setting up Education commission/review the role of education in the country.
– Setting standards e.g. uniform
– Raising the level of education by building institutes of higher learning.
– Missionaries started technical training.
(any 5 x 1 = 5mks)

  1. (a) How baptism qualify to be a covenant.
    – Promises are made during baptism
    – There are witnesses e.g. sponsors/congregation/clergy.
    – The ritual of pouring water/immersion/sprinkling
    – There are signs e.g. baptismal certificate/lit candles/wrapping in white garment/new name is given                                                                                  (any 4 x 1 = 4mks)

(b)  Teachings of prophet Jeremiah on the new covenant.
–    The new covenant fulfilled the original play/intention of Sinaic covenant.
Gods law would be written in peoples hearts not on stones.
–    Everyone would know God in his own personal knowledge/experience.
–    It would involve all mankind(universal) covenant.
–    It would include spontaneous forgiveness of sin.
–     There will be individual responsibility and retribution.
–    The new covenant would be through the promised messiah.
–    The new covenant would be sealed by the blood of Jesus.
_    A marriage relationship between God and Israel.
(Any 9 @1mk= 9mks)


(c)  How the new covenant differs from the Sinaic covenant.
      New                                                                             Old
–    Meant for new Israel

–     Meant for old Israel
–    Given through Jesus                                                     – Given through Moses
–    Everlasting                                                                   – Was broken
–    Written in hearts                                                          – Written on stones
–    Individually punished                                                   – Communal/collective punishment
–    Sealed by the blood of Jesus

  • Sealed by the blood of sacrificial animal
    (Any 4 well compared points 3mks = 12mks)


  1. (a) Circumstances that allowed divorce in ATS.
    – A case of a witch/wizard in one partner.
    – Extreme cases of selfishness/cruelty/greed.
    – Failure to pay/complete dowry.
    – A case of a thief in a family of non- Thieves
    – Habitual adultery/unfaithfulness.
    – Incase of blood relationship.
    – Where a girl had broken virginity.
    – Deliberate/repeated acts of disrespect to the in-laws.

( 6 x 2 = 12mks)


(b)  Consequences of divorce in modern society.
– Mental suffering to the couple/parents/children
– Hatred between the family to family/couple/children.
– Divorcees are exposed to the greater sexual temptation leading to prostitution
– Feelings of insecurity
– Poverty/economic constraints.
– Poor upbringing of children                                                          (Any 4 x 2 = 8mks)


(c) Five problems that hinder family planning practices in Kenya.
– Disagreement as the number of children a family should have.
– Those on contraceptives might resort to extra – marital relations.
– Fear of side effects that go with contraceptive.
– Poverty and ignorance of family planning methods.
– Traditional beliefs e.g. taboos against taking medicine
– Partners disagree on the methods to adopt for family planning.
(Any 5 x 1 = 5mks)

  1. (a) Lessons Christians learn from the feeding of the 5000.
    – Recall of the Old Testament prophecies about the Messianic Banquet.
    –    The Messianic age had dawned/the Messiah has come/ is among them.
    –    Not to be anxious about material and physical needs.
    –    God cares for man physically, mentally and spiritually.
    –     Christians should show concern for the needs of others
    –    Jesus has power over nature
    –    Jesus is the bread of life
    –    Man should be willing to share what he has with others.
    –    Christians should seek the imperishable food i.e. the word of God.
    –    With prayer everything is possible                                 (Any 9 x 1 = 9mks)

(b)        Four incidences in the life and work of Jesus in which he tried to change traditional

Jewish attitudes towards the poor and the despised.
–     Associating with the poor and the despised e.g calling the fishermen and tax collectors to be his

–    He commended the widows contribution in the Temple
–    He ate with sinners e.g. Zachaus, Simon the Pharisee, Sinful woman, and ate in Levi’s house.
–    He associated with the Gentiles
–    Use of parables in favour of the poor and despised e.g. the good Samaritan.
–    He touched and healed the lepers, blind, etc.
–  Giving women prominent positions e.g. Mary and Martha.
(Any 6 x 1 = 6mks)

(c)        Importance of Jesus miracles
– His miracles revealed his divine power over diseases and nature
–   Miracles showed Jesus love/compassion/pity
–   They depicted Jesus as caring shepherd
–  They revealed Jesus understanding of human weakness.
–  They proved Jesus was the son of God.
–   They manifested that the kingdom of God was present in Jesus
–   They showed that Jesus had power over evil work e.g cure of the demoniac.
(Any 5 x 2 = 10mks)

  1. (a) Purposes of law in Society.
    – Meant to direct/guide human behaviour
    – Regulate people’s regulations/limits for those in power
    –     Meant to maintain order and harmony in society.
    –     Law protects individuals property/lives
    –     Assist persons to have right attitudes towards God/fellowman i.e Ten commandments.
    (Any  other relevant point 5 x 1 = 5mks)


     (b)   How  Law and order is maintained in Kenya.
–      Courts administer justice to protect the offended.
–      Fear of God (supreme) makes people orderly
–      Customary/Islamic laws govern issues related to marriages/Land inheritance, etc.
–      The youth are instructed on the social norms.
–      Offenders are punished to teach them respect for the law.
–      People today still fear curses/wrath of ancestors.
–      Rites of passages/kinship system is still upheld hence regulate human behaviour.
–      Oaths are still administered to unveil prove unknown truth to maintain justice.
(Any other relevant point 7 x 2 = 14mks)
(c)   Forms of punishment.
–      Fines
–      Punishment e.g exile
–      Mob Justice/beatings
–      Detention
–      Imprisonment
–      Canning/strokes                                                            (Any 6 x 1 = 6mks)







  1. Give five characteristics which are important in making a covenant.      5mks
  2. Give five reasons why Hebrews left Egypt      5mks
  3. List five aims of Evangelical revival      5mks
  4. State any five reasons why Mutesa persecuted Christians      5mks
  5. Outline any five factors which led to the rise of independent churches      5mks
  6. State five major divisions of the Old Testament Books      5mks
  7. State five attributes of God as shown in the traditional African community      5mks
  8. What lessons can Christians learn from the parable of the Good Samaritan      5mks
  9. Mention five characteristics of God in the prophecy of Micah      5mks
  10. Mention five causes of death in African Traditional society      5mks
  11. Mention five things Christians can learn from God from the call of prophet Isaiah      5mks
  12. State five areas of conflict between the youth and the church      5mks
  13. Mention any five common ideas in African creation myths      5mks
  14. Mention any five causes of disunity in the church today      5mks
  15. Outline five ways through which Jesus showed responsibility for others      5mks





  1. a) Outline the meaning of the visions of prophet Amos in relation to his message to the people of

Israel.                                                                                                                     10mks

  1. b) Explain why prophet Jeremiah is regarded as a suffering prophet                              5mks
  2. c)  Show how John the Baptist served as a link between the Old Testament and the New Testament.


  1. d) Identify the titles used by prophet Isaiah to describe the Messiah                               5mks
  2. a) Explain five sources of conflict in the Corinthian church                                           10mks
  3. b) What was Paul’s suggestion towards solving the Corinthian conflicts in the church               15mks
  4. a) Describe how God punished people in the Traditional African community                             5mks
  5. b) What were the reasons for those punishments                                                          5mks
  6. c) What are the causes of war today                                                                              7mks
  7. d) How can a Christian leader prevent war today                                                           8mks
  8. a) What type of people were prophets sent to in Israel                                                   5mks
  9. b) What sins had they committed                                                                                 2mks
  10. c) Explain the similarities between the Jewish and traditional African prophets              8mks
  11. a) Explain the holy spirit’s contribution in the growth of Christianity during the apostolic age 7mks
  12. b) What part did the Africans play in the growth of the church in Kenya                        8mks
  13. c) In what ways does the church continue God’s saving work today                               10mks






1.Characteristics in making a covenant.

  • Promise / responsibilities / obligations
  • Ritual / ceremony
  • Signs / symbols
  • Shedding of blood from animals/ self
  • Exchange of property (any other relevant point.  any 5pts x 1 = 5mks)




  1. Reasons why Hebrews left Egypt.
  • The new pharaoh did not know the good deeds of Joseph
  • The Hebrews grew powerful/ influential / threatened Egyptians
  • Increased number of Hebrews posed a threat to Egypt
  • Egyptian subjected Hebrews to forced labour / enslaved them/ killed their baby boys
  • Increased oppression of the Hebrews by the Egyptians
  • God heard Hebrew prayers / cry for help
  • God sent Moses to rescue them from bondage
  • God had promised it to Abraham their ancestor

Any 5pts x 1 = 5mks


  1. Five aims of evangelical revival
  • Spreading the gospel / word of God / the Kingdom of God
  • Spiritual renewal of the Christians church
  • Concern for abolition of slavery / help stop slavery
  • To spread western culture
  • Concern for the suffering poor / poverty.

Any 5pts x 1 = 5mks


  1. Five reasons why Mutesa persecuted Christians.
  • Suspicion of Europeans / their followers
  • Problems with pages/ insubordination / refusal to obey him
  • Influence of traditionalists in his court
  • Fear of foreign interference
  • Misadvise by different religious leaders
  • Christians refused to comply with his demand
  • Christians critiscised his evil ways
  • Christianity increased popularity threatened him

Any 5pts x 1 = 5mks


  1. Factors that led to the rise of independent churches.
  • Need to incorporate African beliefs and practices
  • The Africans rebelled against the missionary feelings that Africans were children who needed guidance.
  • Desire for church leadership
  • African dissatisfaction with use of funds collected for the church
  • Disagreement over use and interpretation of the Bible
  • Some of the churches had political motivation

       Any 5pts x 1 = 5mks


  1. Five major divisions of the Old Testament books
  • Law Books
  • Lamentations
  • Songs and Hymns
  • Historical books
  • Prophecy and Prophets

Any 5pts x 1 = 5mks


  1. Five Bible versions used in Kenya today.
  • New English version
  • American version
  • Revised standard version
  • King James version
  • International English version.


  1. Five characteristics of God in the prophecy of Micah.
  • God of judgement
  • God is righteous
  • God is just
  • God is faithful
  • God is loving
  • God is forgiving. Any 5 x 1 = 5mks


  1. Causes of death in African traditional society.
  • Neglect of a person by relatives
  • Curse
  • Poisoned food
  • Breach of taboos
  • Neglect of ancestors
  • Disrespect of elders and parent customs / neglect of communal responsibilities.
  • Lack of reverence of God
  • Failure to respect communal shrines
  • Witchcraft / sorcery / magic
  • Old age. Any 5 x 1 = 5mks


  1. What Christians learn from the call of prophet Isaiah.
  • That God is powerful / able God
  • That God is holy / require holiness
  • God is just
  • God is considerate / concerned / merciful / loving
  • God is divine / pure
  • God condemns pride / social injustices / oppression/ corruption from religious leaders
  • That mans life depends on God

Any 5 x 1 = 5mks


  1. Areas of conflict between the youth and the church
  • Modern education gives the youth values which conflict with those of the church e.g man and universe
  • Different interpretations of the use of leisure e.g dancing, watching movies
  • The churches pre-occupation with the other worldliness at the expense of youths immediate needs
  • The youth is quick in accepting new ideas
  • Questioning of the church’s authority by the youth

Any other relevant point.  any 5 x 1 = 5mks


  1. Common ideas in African creation myths.
  • God is the creator of the universe
  • God is the creator of man
  • Man was created in order to complete God’s plan
  • Man was created with a mate
  • The creation of man came after most things had been made
  • Creation did not stop completely in the distant past but continues.

Any other relevant point                         5 x 2 = 5mks


  1. Causes of disunity in the church today.
  • Moral degeneration within the church
  • Lack of charity among Christians
  • Love of money and dishonest use of church collections / greed / unfaithfulness.

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