• Wed. Jul 17th, 2024

Grade 7 CBC Free Social Notes

Jul 16, 2024


a. Career and entrepreneurial opportunities in Social Studies

The main goal of teaching social studies is to teach students to becomegood citizens. We are living in a diverse society — one that requiresknowledge of social studies to succeed. With a social studies background,children become adults that can participate civilly in our democraticsociety.Socialstudiesconnectstudentswiththerealworld.

Specific topics within social studies that are studied in schoolcourseworkinclude:

  1. geography,
  2. anthropology,
  3. economics,
  4. history,
  5. sociology,
  6. politicalscience,and


  1. BetterReadingAndLearning

Social studies is one area in education where content integration is key.Studentsaregivenreadingmaterialthatcorrespondswiththecurrent


learning topics. Giving reading materials in context helps students becomebetter readers. They also become better learners because they are asked touseanalysis,critical thinking,andwritingtoshowunderstanding.

  1. CitizenResponsibilitiesAndValues

How can we expect young people to contribute positively to society, engagein discourse, and thrive in a democratic society if they are not exposed tothetopicsand aspectsofhistoryandlifethatmadesocietythewayitis?

Studentsneedanunderstandingofhistory,politicalscience,culture,andallhumanities to be able to understand why it is important to be a goodcitizen.

  1. CulturalUnderstanding

Students should be exposed to cultures far beyond what they experiencepersonally every day. Not every student has the opportunity to interactwith other cultures on a daily basis. We need students to learn about,understand, and appreciate cultural differences if we expect them to havemeaningfulinteractionswith peopleofallbackgroundsinthefuture.

  1. EconomicEducation

Economics is a crucial part of social studies, whether studied on its own, oras a part of history, anthropology, or political science. By learningeconomics, young people understand how their financial decisions have animpactontheir future,aswellasthe futureofsociety.

  1. CriticalThinking

Critical thinking is a part of social studies — students are taught to evaluateothers’decisionsand makeconnections betweeninfluences and

circumstances. Young people get the opportunity to learn from others’mistakesthroughsocialsciences.

  1. Real-WorldUnderstanding

Studying social sciences gives students an understanding of the real worldaroundthem.Studentslearnaboutplaces,cultures,andeventsaroundthe


world,whatconspiredtomakethemthewaytheyare,andcanmakeinferencesabouthowtherestofthe worldworks.

Also get;

Business Studies Grade 7 CBC Free Schemes of Work

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Grade 7 CBC Free Notes and Schemes of work pdf; Junior Secondary

Grade 7 Free Exams: Junior Secondary Termly Exams and Answers

JSS Grade 7 CBC Novel list (Kiswahili and English set books)

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Grade 7 CBC Performing Arts Complete Schemes of Work Free

Official Grade 7 CBC Assessment Report For Junior Secondary Schools

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Junior Secondary Core Subjects (Mandatory Subjects) in grade 7,8 and 9

Grade 7 Free CBC Schemes of Work {Updated Version}

Social Studies Grade 7 CBC Schemes of Work For Junior Secondary



  1. PoliticalSkills

From social studies classes, students learn about government, politicalideas, country economy and resources, and more. Students gain politicalskills by analyzing and evaluating existing systems and imaging the futureoftheplaceinwhichthey live.

  1. RespectHistory

History is what made the world the way it is, and it is essential that peoplestudy it in order to have an appreciation for and understanding of the waythe world works. Learning about history is what makes it possible to learnfromthepast andplanfor the future.




Another popular career option for Social Studies graduates is to completesomefurthereducationand come acounsellor.


As part of your Social Studies degree you’ll look at the legal system and askimportant questions aboutcrime andpunishment.

If you have a particular interest in this area then a career in the probationor prison service might appeal to you. Roles could be administrative or youcouldbeworkingindirectcontactwithoffendersandthoseonprobation.



This is similar to jobs in social work but you’ll be dealing with thecommunityonalargerscaleratherthanon anindividualorfamilybasis.

Roles in community development have the overall goal of improving thelives of a larger group, sometimes within a specific geographical area orpeoplewhohave specific needs.












Some career opportunities that one would pursue from studying SocialStudies inKenya andglobally include

  • teaching,
  • surveying,
  • law,
  • archeology,
  • politicalscience,































Therefore, we can state with conviction that the social entrepreneurs(individuals, organizations, or groups) are innovative and proactive risk-takers who attempt to create a sustainable community, social, or industry-wide change to address endemic problems. These entrepreneurs identify,assess,andexploitopportunitiesinanattempttocreatesocialvalue.

Further, they use a wide range of market-driven resources (and otherresources)to createthistransformation.

  • Inthese markets, the profit margins are very low and the risks are high.Further, in certain sectors like microfinance, there is a constant debateas to whether a commercial operation can fulfil the needs of thepoorest client groups more effectively than modified NGO models. Inthisniche,some examples ofsocialentrepreneurshiporganizationsare micro-clinics in low-income zones, affordable irrigation tools topoorfarmers,etc.


  • New and challenging markets where the entrepreneur is required toincur heavy expenses to stimulate demand and create opportunities.This is due to the prevalent stigma and the challenges faced inacclimatizing people to newer and more complex technologies as wellas challenging perceptions about certain services which need to beprovided by the state. Some examples are offering counselling servicesto people living with HIV/AIDS or other socially marginalized groups,microinsuranceproductsforfarmers, etc.
  • Markets for products which offer environmental benefits but are notfully commercially competitive. Many environment-friendly businesslines are completely commercially viable. However, there are manyotherswhicharesuitable for hybridsocialentrepreneurship.


A gender stereotype is a generalized view or preconception aboutattributes, or characteristics that are or ought to be possessed by womenand men or the roles that are or should be performed by men and women.Gender stereotypes can be both positive and negative for example, “womenarenurturing”or“womenare weak”.

Gender stereotyping is the practice of ascribing to an individual woman orman specific attributes, characteristics, or roles by reason only of her or hismembershipin the socialgroup ofwomen or men.

  • revisingtextbooks;
  • ensuringthatteachersreceivegendertraining;
  • implementing programmes to encourage girls to pursue education andemploymentin non-traditionalfields;
  • undertaking public information and education programmes to changeattitudesconcerningtherolesandstatusofmenandwomen;
  • taking measures to train public officials and the judiciary to ensure thatstereotypicalprejudicesandvaluesdo notaffectdecision-making;


  • emphasizing through awareness raising activities the importance ofwomen’sparticipation indecisionmakingroles;
  • adopting measures, including temporary special measures, to eliminateoccupationalsegregationbasedon genderstereotypes;
  • adopting positive measures to expose and modify harmful gendersstereotypeswithinthehealth sector;
  • addressing gender stereotypes/ing that impairs or nullify equality inmarriage and family relations, including through implementingcomprehensivepolicy

and awareness raising initiatives designed to overcome stereotypicalattitudes about the roles and responsibilities of women and men in familyandsociety


  • Promotionof equalityfor everyoneinthesociety
  • Enhancingjusticeforeveryoneinthesociety
  • Respectforoneself,andothersintheiropinionsandchoices
  • Promotingunityofthesocietyregardlessofthedifferences
  • Introducingactivitiesthatpromotesocialcohesion



a.MapsandMap work

A map is a representation of the whole or part of the earth’s surface drawntoscale.

  • Showsoutlineofobjectsontheground
  • Drawnas ifthedrawerwasabovetheground
  • Itshowsdetails
  • Most of the features are indicated by symbols.Position,shape and SizeofAfrica







Size: Africa is the world’s second-largest and second-most populouscontinent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 millionsquare miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth’s totalsurface area and 20% of its land area. [7] With 1.4 billion people as of 2021,it accounts for about 18% of the world’s human population. Africa’spopulationistheyoungest amongstallthe continent





























































11 |Page                                       “R e-InventingCBC  for  possible  solutions”




LatitudesareimaginarylinesthatrunsfromEasttoWestonamap.Thelatitudeofa place is the angular distance from the equator to that place. The latitude whichdivides the globe into two equal parts is called the Equator or Latitude 0°. Majorlatitudes are:


  1. Tropicofcancer-23.5°North
  2. TropicofCapricorn-23.5°South
  3. Equator-0°
  4. Articcircle-66.5°North
  5. Antarcticcircle-66.5°South



Latitudesareusedtolocateplacesontheearthsurface.Theyarealsoimportantincalculating straight line distances or longitudinal straight line distance betweenplaces.Inorderto calculatethe distanceBetweentwoplaces.


  1. Multiplythedistancethroughonedegreeoflatitudebythenumberoflatitudesbetween the two places.


Example:FindthelongitudinalstraightlinedistancebetweenplaceA45°NandplaceB 11°N.





Longitude Longitudes areimaginarylines that runfrom North to Southon a map. The longitude of a place is the angular distance of that placemeasured in degrees. This distance is measured from the centre of theearthtotheEastorWestoftheGreenwichmeridiancalledlongitude0°.LongitudesarealsocalledMeridians.TheymeetattheNorthandSouthpoles.Thereare360°oflongitudewhichisequalto360°ofa



  1. Longitude0°-GreenwichMeridian
  2. Longitude180°EastorWest-Internationaldateline




  • Theyrunfrom NorthtoSouth.
  • Theyaremeasuredindegrees,EastorWest ofthe Greenwichmeridian.
  • Lowest longitude is longitude 0° and the highest longitude is longitude180




Step2:Convertorchangethedifferenceinlongitudetotime,ifthedifferenceindegreesis morethan15°,multiplyit by4 minutes.

Step3:Adjustthetimeaccordingtothepositionofthelongitudeifitiseast,weaddbutif it is west,wesubtracttime.

Example1:WhatisthelocaltimeatMadresinIndiaonlongitude80°E,iflocaltimeinYokadoumain Cameroon on longitude15°E is 4p.m.?


Step2:Convertlongitudedifferencetotime:65°*4mins=260mins=4hrs20minsStep3:Add orsubtracttime

4hrs20mins + 4pm = 8:20pmBecauselongitude80°EisintheEast.



1)75°-45°= 30°


  • 12noon -2hrs=10am



  1. If the time in Accra (Ghana) on longitude 0° is 12noon. What will be the localtimein Philadelphia(U.S.A)onlongitude70°W.?
  2. WhatisthelocaltimeofYaoundé15°Eand5°N,whenG.M.Tis8:00am?


ThelongitudedifferenceforatownintheEastand anotherinthewestisobtainedby addingthe longitudes.


TheyrunfromEtoW TheyrunfromNtoS
Theyareparallellines Theymetatthepoles
Theyare complete circles Theyaresemi-circles


Length of latitudes vary with the equatordistance Longitudeshaveequallength
Equaldistancesof111km Distancedecreasestowardsthepoles
Onlytheequatoris agreatcircle Alllongitudesaregreatcircles
Rangesfrom0°to 90° Rangesfrom0°to 180°


Longitudes and latitudes are used to locate places on a map. TheGreenwich meridian is the starting point for al longitude readings. Linesto the East of Greenwich meridian are measured in degrees and readingsare followed by letter E, example: 35°E and vice-versa. All latitudes abovethe equator are measured in degrees north of the Equator and readingsare followed by letter N. example: 15°N. Readings measured to the southof the equator are followed by letter S. example: 15°S. To be moreaccurate,weusedegreesandminutes     .

1 degree is equal to 60 minutes.Forexample;




-Douala -4°05’Nand9°45’E.


– A map is a representation of the whole or part of the earth’s surface drawn toscale.


  • Itisanimage ofarealobject.
  • Givesdetails intheirvisible shapesandsizes
  • Canbeinformoffreehand,drawing,paintingoraphotograph
  • Notdrawntoscale



  • Outlineofsomething drawntoscale.
  • Alsodrawnasifapersonwasdirectlyabovetheground
  • Itrepresents averysmallplace
  • g.houseplan
  • Givesspecificinformation


Classifiedaccordingtothepurposeforwhicheachmapis drawn.



Sketchmaps:mapswhichareroughlydrawn.Agoodsketchmapshouldhavethe followingcharacteristics:

  • Neatandclear
  • Title
  • Frame
  • Key
  • Compassdirection


  1. Give information on distribution of geographical phenomena e.g.vegetationon theearth’s surface.
  2. Usedtocalculatedistance ofacertainplace.




Thesolarsystemismadeupofthesunandthe8planets.Itisalsocalledaplanetary system. These planets include; Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus, Neptune.

Recent discoveries prove that Pluto is now a dwarf planet. These planetsrevolve around the sun in a path called Elliptical orbit. The sun is at thecenter of the solar system. It is made up of burning gases and has atemperature of about 6000°C. Some planets have smaller heavenly bodiesthat move around them called satellites. The smallest planet is Mercury. Itisthehottestandnearestplanettothesun.Marswhichisthefourthplanethas2satellites.Jupiteristhelargestplanetandhas13satellites.

The Earth is the third planet from the sun and the only planet where lifeexists. It has one natural satellite called the moon. The moon takes 29 daysto go round the earth. The Earth rotates on its axis and revolves on its orbit.Stars are heavenly bodies that produce their own light. The solar systemand a collection of otherstarsform thegalaxy.Thegalaxyin which oursolarsystem isfoundiscalledthe Milky Way.


The total area of the earth is about 510,100,779 km². The distancemeasured round the edge of the equator is about 40,085km. It is called theEquatorial circumference. The polar circumference is 39,995km. TheEquatorial diameter is the straight line distance that crosses the earththrough the equator. It is about 12,762km. The polar diameter is about12,722km.




  • SunriseandSunset



  • Ship’sVisibility


  • EclipseoftheMoon

whentheearthcomesbetweenthesunandthemoon,theearth’sshadowthat falls on the moon is a dark circle. If the earth was flat, its shadow wouldbecircular.

  • TravellingroundtheWorld

When somebody travels from a particular point A to the same direction, theperson will come back to the same point. If the earth was flat, this could notbepossible.

  • AerialPhotograph

Photographs takenfromrockets,show thatthe earth is sphericalin shape.

  • ProvesfromotherHeavenly Bodies

Other heavenly bodies like the sun, the stars, and the planets are spherical inshape.Theseshowthattheearthisalsospherical.



  1. The Passingstar theory

A star with a greater gravitational pull than the sun passed by the sun. Itdrewoffa streamofgaseous material fromthesun.


The material split, cooled and condenses to form planets set in orbit aroundthesun.


  1. Nebulacloudtheory

The nebular theory is an explanation for the formation of solar systems.The word “nebula” is Latin for “cloud,” and according to the explanation,stars are born from clouds of interstellar gas and dust. The transitionfrom an undifferentiated cloud to a star system complete with planetsandmoons takes about100millionyears.

All planets revolve around the sun in the same direction. This would bepossible if they all formed from a cloud of debris around a star (protosun)

The model of the sun is mainly made of hydrogen. The composition ofsun can be measured using helioseismology which agrees with thetheory that star is formed as a giant ball of hydrogen generating heat bynuclearfusioninthecore.



Rotation of the earth is the spinning of the earth on its axis from W to E.The earth moves in a clockwise direction once every 24hs. That is ittakes one full day for the earth to turn from the International Date Lineand back to it. The earth rotates once through 360° in 24 hours, 180° in12hours, 15° in1hourand1°in4 minutes.


  • Rotationoftheearthcauses
  • Dayandnight
  • Deflectionofwindsandoceancurrents
  • Therisingandfallingoftides
  • Differenceintime
  • DayandNight

As the earth rotates from W to E, places in the east experiences daylightbefore places in the west. This is because places in the east are undersunlight, while places in the west are away from the sun when rotationstarts.



Rotation of the earth causes winds and ocean currents to be deflected.They are deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to theleftintheSouthernHemisphere.

The Risingand Falling ofTides

Tide is the rising and falling of sea level during the day. It is caused bythe earth’s rotation. During rotation, the sun and the moon attract someparts of the earth due to gravitational force. Where the force of gravity ismuch, the ocean bulges along the coast causing high tides. Where theforceofgravity isless lowtidesareproduced.


The earth takes 24 hours to complete a rotation of 360°, and 1 hour toturn 15°. Longitudes which are 15° apart will therefore take 1 hourdifference in time. The time in the east is always ahead of the time in thewest. This is because, places in the east experience sunlight before thoseinthewest.

Example; during the 2014 world cup competition in Brazil footballmatches were been played there during the day, but they were watchedatthe sametime,onCameroontelevisionintheevening.



VaryingLengthsofDayand Night

Duetotheinclinationoftheearth’saxis,therearechangesinthelengthofdays andnightstimeduringtheyear.

On the 21st of June the sun is directly on the tropic of cancer in the NorthPole at midday. During this period, the length of day light increases aslatitude increases. In the south, length of day decreases because the sundoesnorisethere. Thisperiod is calledsummersolstice.


On March 21st and September 23rd at noon, the sun is directly on theequator. During this time, the earth has equal hours of daylight and equalhoursofdarkness.ThisperiodiscalledEquinox(equaldaysandnights.)

On the 22nd of December, the sun is directly on the tropic of Capricorn.This is called winter solstice. During this period, the length of day light inthe southern hemisphere increases as latitude increases. In the Northernhemispherethereisdarkness.


As a result of the earth’s inclination, there are changes in the altitude ofthe midday sun on the 21st of June at midday; the sun is directly on thetropicof cancer in theNorth Pole.

Onthe23rdofSeptember,thesunisonthe equatoratmidday.

On the 22nd of December, the sun is on the tropic of Capricorn atmidday.




Changes in the length of day and night time and the altitude of themidday sun cause a rise and fall in temperature during the year. Theperiodoftheyear,whentemperaturerisesiscalledsummerwhiletheperiodwhentemperature fallsis calledwinter.

In summer, temperature increases the weather is bright and days arelongerthannights.Fromthe23rdofJunetothe23rdofSeptember,itissummer in the Northern hemisphere. In Cameroon, it is the warm rainyseason.The northis directlyunderthesun.

Inwinter,fromthe22ndDecemberto21stMarchtemperaturefallsandplaces are colder. During this time, nights are longer than days and lessheatarereceived. InCameroon, itisthecold dry season.

From the 23rd of September to the 23rd of December, it is autumn in theNorthernhemisphere.



Spring season begins from the 21st of March to 21st June in the Southernhemisphere.During thisperiod,nightsanddays areequal.





Internalstructureof theearthinthesolarsystem













The earth’s structure is made up of several layers. These layers consistof;

The earth’s crust or lithosphere,The mantle or the mesosphere andThecoreor thebryosphere.



This is the outermost layer of the earth made up of solid hard rocks. Itsthickness varies from 6km to 40km. It is divided into two layers. Theselayersare;

Sial (Continental crust)Sima (Oceanic crust)Sial

Asialisthecontinentalcrustthatmovesupthecontinents.Itismadeupof igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks with minerals such assilicaand aluminum.It islighterwithanaveragedensity of1.7.



This is the oceanic crust that makes up the ocean floor. It is heavier withanaveragedensityof3.0.Ithasmainlybasalticrockswithmineralssuchas silica and magnesium. The lighter continental crust seems to befloatingon thedenseroceaniccrust.


The mantle is also called the mesosphere. It is much thicker and is about2900km thick. It contains very dense rocks rich in magnesium and iron(Fe). The rocks are in a molten state and a temperature of about 5000°C.Thisis the layer wheremagmais formed.


The core is the center of the earth and the hottest zone. It is about6700kmthick.Thislayerisbelowthemantle.ItisalsorichinironandNickel(Ni).The coreissubdivided intwoparts.

  • Theoutercore,

The outer core is in the molten state and the inner core is in the solidstate and consist mainly iron (Fe). These layers are separated from eachotherby boundaries called discontinuities.

d.  Weather












  • Temperature
  • Air(Atmospheric)Pressure


  • Wind(Speed&Direction)
  • Humidity
  • Precipitation
  • Visibility
  • Clouds(Type &Cover)
  • SunshineDuration

Factorsconsidered whensitingaweatherstation

  1. Theareashouldbeawayfrombuilding/trees/tallobjects
  2. Thegroundshouldbefreefromflooding
  3. Theareashouldhave awideview/openspace
  4. Theareashould be secure
  5. Thegroundshouldbegentlysloping

Weather and climate are very important to man and his environment,the most important benefit of weather and climate is that they bringrain, snow and other forms of precipitation. This precipitation or rain iswhat sustains all living things on the earth surface (humans, plant,animal, and other microorganisms). Without a constant supply of wateron the earth, it would be difficult to predict what sorts of crops could becultivated in a given region. If a change in climate were to alter theweathersothatitproducedtoolittleortoomuchwater,itwillstillhaveamajorimpactonagricultureand livestock.

Weatherandclimateaffectthedistributionsofplantsandanimalsacross various biomes of the world. For instance, the tundra biome (theAntarctica tundra) is characterized by a cold and dry climate, it supportsvery little species of plants and animals, while the marine biome iscolderat the pole,but warmerattheequator-itsupportsvariousspecies of plants and animals. However, both biomes are constantlysharpenedby thechangesin atmospheric conditions.

The natural ecosystem is constantly influenced by the activities ofweather and climate, hence, places with extreme dry climate (desertenvironments) are the best locations for mining of minerals and metalsthat are used for many production industries such as electronics. On theother hand, the rain forest environment, which receives much rainfall, isa home to various plant species in which some are known for theirpharmaceuticalbenefits.

The study of weather and climate is obviously important to man as ithelps one to determine future climatic changes in some specific parts oftheworld.


Weather and climate are very important aspects of mans naturalenvironment;theycreateawarenessastowhatmighthappenondailyor yearly basis. Such awareness helps us to prepare ahead of theupcomingdisastersthatmayoccurinthefutureandalsotofindpossibleways to adapt to such situations. Such phenomena are, for example hail,heavyrainfall,sleet, ice, etc.

Weather forecast are also important as they warn us about the dangersof some natural occurrences or disaster that may occur in our naturalenvironment in the future, such disasters include fire risk, hurricane,snows,hail,thunderstorm,tornadoes, etc.

Weather and climate directly or indirectly affect many of our activities;the weather specifically helps us to decide on the type of crops tocultivate, the cloth to wear, and the kind of food to eat, lastly, itdetermineswhere and thenatureof houseswelive in.


Learners to construct the following instruments in reference to theirlearner’sbook:Materialsshouldbesourced locally.

  • Raingauge
  • Windvane



  1. Written–theyinclude:
    • Books
    • Archives
    • Journals
    • Novels
    • Paintings
    • Magazines
    • Diaries
    • Constitutions
    • Periodicals
  2. Unwritten-theyInclude


  • Oraltradition-thisisthepassingofinformationfromonegenerationtotheotherbyword ofmouth.
  • Archaeology–isthestudyofhumanremainsandartefacts.
  • Anthropology-itisthestudyofman’spastculture,beliefsandeconomicactivities
  • Linguistic–isthelanguageanditsvariationsacrossmany
  • Genetics-Geneticsisthestudyofheredityingeneralandofgenesinparticular.
  • Paleontology-scientificstudyoflifeofthegeologicpastthatinvolves the analysis of plant and animal fossils, includingthoseofmicroscopicsize, preservedinrocks.
  • ElectronicSources
    • Microfilms
    • Films
    • Videos
    • Radio
    • Television
    • Computerdatabases


Aprimarysourceisanoriginaldocumentcontainingafirsthandaccountoftheeventbeingstudied,createdatorabout thetimethe eventoccurred.


  • Letters
  • Journals/Diaries
  • Maps
  • GovernmentDocuments/Statistics
  • PhotographsorFilm
  • Autobiographies
  • NewsAccounts

A secondary source is a secondhand account, or a history of the event thatwas created at some point after the event occurred, or a source created bypartieswhowerenotpersonallyinvolvedintheevent.


  • Textbooks


  • Retrospectivemagazinearticles
  • Scholarlyjournalarticles
  • Researchbooksontopic
  • Websites



It includes developing criteria for selecting materials that have cultural orhistorical importance and assessing their preservation needs; halting thedeterioration of materials by providing a stable environment and propersuppliesandequipmentforstorage;developingandimplementingpoliciesfor the safe use of materials; and providing the resources necessary toengage in an on-going preservation program committed to the continuedexistenceof valued materials.

Preservation also includes preparing for potential disasters such as floods,fires,tornadoes, andearthquakes.


  • The use of paper that is acid-free serves as a long-term solution forpreservinginformation.
  • In addition to environmental controls, papers containing valuableinformation should not be subjected to direct sunlight, ultraviolet rays, orfluorescentlight,allofwhichcanweakenpaper andfadewriting.
  • Also, paper should not be handled while eating or drinking, as food and drinknear books can attract insects and rodents that may damage the paper. Aswith all types of media that contain valuable information, paper should notbe stored in attics, basements, or places where mold and mildew maydevelopor alreadybepresent.
  • Books should be stored on metal shelves or sealed wooden shelves andshouldbeshelvedupright.
  • Photos should be stored in an environment that does not have hightemperature and high humidity or excessive fluctuations in temperature andhumidity.
  • Donotscratchofdamagesurfacesofcomputer disks.
  • Spread Awareness: The most important way to preserve sources of history isto spread awareness about the historic importance of the architecture andscriptures etc. By this method people may be able to volunteer in thepreservation.


  • Conduct Research: Research of historical resources would not only helpdiscovernewsourcesbut alsopreserveolderones.
  • Establish Museums: Museums can preserve and portray the historicalresources.
  • Conduct Workshops: Workshops can be held among people on how toconductresearch andleadpreservation projects.
  • InfluenceGovernment:Governmentcanfundpreservationprojects.


  • Establish Preservation Department: A government of the country mustestablish a governmental depart that takes care of the preservation ofhistoricalsources.Itmustfundprojects andlead themtoo.
  • Donate in the Field: People who give importance to history and know itssignificancemustdonatefor the preservationprojectsetc.
  • Initiate Event: Events related to preservation must be conducted in order tomotivatepeople to workfor the preservation.
  • Encourage Students: Students of history and architecture should visit thesesitesinordertoincreasetheirinterestinpreservationofthesitesetc.



  • Theyhelpinfutureresearchondifferentcultures
  • Theycanhelpinpredictingthefuture
  • Theyhelpusunderstandourpast
  • e.politics
  • Thehelpinunderstandhowcommunities,racesinteract.














  1. HumanOrigin



Origins ofHumanBeings

A number of theories have been put forward to explain the origin of humanbeings

  • Themythical/traditionaltheory

Among African communities, there are myths about their origin all ofthem pointing to the fact that the first man was created by God. Someexamplesinclude;

  • Among the Agikuyu, their God (Ngai) created the first man, Gikuyu. Hethe provided him with a wife, Mumbi. He gave him land at MugurwewaGathanga.
  • One of the myths among the Nandi state that the first two people, maleand female came from the knees of a giant man, when the knees beganswelling and later burs for the two to come out from each of the eitherknees.



The Jews, Christians and Muslims recognize the creation story as narratedinthefirst book ofBibleandin Qur’an.


That God also created man, woman and all living things and all non-livingcreatures.

Man was created in God’s own image and woman created to provide manwithcompanionship.


  • SeveralarcheologicalsiteshavebeenfoundinAfrica
  • Presence of savannah grassland where man could hunt and gatherfood
  • Warmtropicalclimate,idealforearlyman’sexistence
  • Africaiscentrallylocatedgeographically,makingitpossibleforearlymantomigratetootherregionsasthecontinentswere drifting


Waysofrecording traditional storiesabouttheoriginof human kind inthesociety

  • Throughmemory
  • Throughcomputers
  • Writteninbooks
  • Throughvideos
  • Throughsongs
  • Throughdrawings
  1. EarlyCivilization

State,Kingdomand empire


Empire                                                                                     Kingdom



An empire is a sovereign state consisting of severalcountriesorpeoplessubjecttowardstheauthorityofasingleperson oftenan emperoror empress.

A kingdom consists of land from thesame region or area head under thenominalrule of kingor queen.




Anempireisalwaysruledbyasingularauthority,inthiscase,being theemperor/empress

A kingdom can have more than oneruler at a time. In the event it has twokings it is known as a diarchy and akingdomruledbymanykings isknownas anoligarchy




An empire grows larger by expanding and absorbingindividualstatesandnations.Forbetteradministration,a representative of the emperor, who acts as thegovernor of the region will carry out day-to-dayadministrativefunctions.

A kingdom will transition into an empirewhen it absorbs other city-states throughconquest until it grows more than itsoriginalsize.




Usually, an emperor or empress is the absoluteauthoritywhomakescriticaldecisionsregardingtheempire, but in certain setups, the voice of powerfularistocratsare alsoheeded.

A king or queen is the absoluteauthority, but in the case of aconstitutional monarchy, its authoritymay be limited by a parliament or anyotherruling bodyof ministers.


State:apoliticalorganizationofsociety,orthebodypolitic,or,morenarrowly,the institutionsofgovernment.







  • Egypt
  • GreatZimbabwe
  • KingdomofKongo
  • AncientEgypt

Ancient Egypt can be thought of as an oasis in the desert of northeasternAfrica, dependent on the annual inundation of the Nile River to support itsagricultural population. The country’s chief wealth came from the fertilefloodplain of the Nile valley, where the river flows between bands oflimestone hills, and the Nile delta, in which it fans into several branchesnorth of present-day Cairo. Between the floodplain and the hills is avariable band of low desert that supported a certain amount of game. TheNilewasEgypt’ssole transportationartery.

Ancient Egypt has come to be regarded as man’s first civilization. Thishistory of ancient Egypt began some 10. 000B.C. when North AfricaexperiencedadrierclimatewhichcorrespondedwiththeendofthelastIceAge in the world. In about 7000B.C some hunters entered the valley of theRiver Nile in search of animals for food and also fish for food. Later, thesehunters settled in large numbers and started an agricultural revolution. Astowns grew, the people became more organized. The leaders of the firstEgyptian settlements were said to have religious powers with which theycould control the floods of the River Nile and also rainfall. Because of this,the priests were influential people in Ancient Egypt and with their help, thefirstEgyptiankingdomwasestablishedin about3500B.C.



From that date till 332B. C. thirty (30) dynasties reigned and ruled inAncient Egypt. The manifestation of Ancient Egyptian civilization underthese rulers (pharaohs) of the various dynasties is the main subject of thischapter, But before delving into the various aspects of organization inAncient Egypt, it is necessary to know the factors that favoured the rise andgrowthofAncientEgyptand itscivilization.


  1. TheexistenceofRiverNile-theseservedtohelpinthefollowingfunctions:
    • It served to protect against predators and attack from otherkingdoms
    • Itprovidedameanoftransportforthepeople


  • Basinirrigationwasmajorlyusedtowaterfarms.
  • Ithadalsofishwhichusedasfoodaswellsoldforeconomicgain
  • the Nile helped to unite people on the east and west banks,making trade and exchanges between the villages, towns andcitiespossible.
  • the Nile River had a religious significance and even had a god of itsown,calledOsiris.
  1. Egypt’s geographical position at the center of the Middle East hasItwasconsideredachannelofknowledge


  • In technology, medicine, and mathematics, ancient Egyptachieved a relatively high standard of productivity andsophistication.

They were the first to introduce mummification, medicine,agriculture,fermentation,engineeringandarchitecture.Theancient Egyptians were pioneers in astronomy: their expertiseplayedanimportantroleindeterminingtheannualfloodingoftheNile,andaligningthepyramidstowardsthepolestar.

  1. Goodleaders:AncientEgyptwasalsofortunatetohaveveryableand wise leaders, especially during the years of the firstdynasties.
  2. Theinfluenceofothercivilizations:FollowingthecreationofthestateofAncientEgypt,contactsweremadewith other

civilizations as time passed. Some of these contacts helped togreatlyenrichthecivilizationofEgypt.Forexample,the

Ancient Egyptians learned to fight war on horseback from theHyksos,peoplefromAsiawhoconqueredEgypt in1730B.c.

Ancient Egypt also learned much from the Sumerians, TheHebrews and Babylonians from Asia. They also borrowed fromthe Greek and Roman civilizations from Europe. These peoplesalsoborrowedmuchfromAncientEgypt’scivilization.

  1. Religion:TheworshipofgodslikethoseoftheNile,thesunandmanyothershelpedtobringthepeopleofAncientEgypt



  • Existenceoffertilelandsthatledtoriseofproductivity
  • Existenceofabiggerpopulationthatprovidedlabourtothefarms aswellasmarket for goods.
  1. The existence of good transport network that ensure delivery ofcropproduce.
  2. The knowledge of weather and climatic conditions also ensuredtheirsuccess in agriculture.
  3. Introduction and adoption of iron technology in Africa by1000AD, which enabled the Egyptians to make and use irontoolslikeploughs,whichmadefarmingmoreefficient.
  • Availability of food crops that had already become indigenoustoEgypt,e.g.wheatandbarley.
  • Availability of many tamable animals in Egypt e.g. goats andsheep























  • Great Zimbabwe is the name for the stone remains of a medieval cityinsoutheasternAfrica.
  • It is composed of three parts, including the Great Enclosure (shownhere). It is believed to have been a royal residence or a symbolic grainstoragefacility.
  • Great Zimbabwe is the name of the stone ruins of an ancient city nearmodern day Masvingo, Zimbabwe. People lived in Great Zimbabwebeginningaround1100C.E.butabandoneditinthe 15thcentury.


  • The city was the capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe, which was aShona (Bantu) trading empire. Zimbabwe means “stone houses” inShona.
  • Great Zimbabwe was part of a large and wealthy global tradingnetwork


  • The decline of Mapungubwe from around 1300, due to climaticchange.Thiswasaneighboringkingdom.
  • The greater availability of gold in the hinterland of Great Zimbabwe.Duetoitsmarketability,itattractedmanytraders.
  • The existence of trading activities e.g. Cattle, gold, copper coins withasfarasChina.















  • Kongo, former kingdom in west-central Africa, located south of theCongo River (present-day Angola and Democratic Republic of theCongo).




  • Accordingtotraditionalaccounts,thekingdomwasfoundedbyLukeniluaNimiabout 1390. Originally, it was probably a loose federation ofsmall polities, but, as the kingdom expanded, conquered territorieswereintegrated asaroyal patrimony.
  • SoyoandMbatawerethetwomostpowerfulprovincesoftheoriginalfederation; other provinces included Nsundi, Mpangu, Mbamba, andMpemba.
  • The capital of the kingdom was The capital and itssurrounding area were densely settled—more so than other towns inandnearthekingdom.Thisallowedthemanikongo(kingofKongo)tokeep close at hand the manpower and supplies necessary to wieldimpressivepowerand centralizethe state.













FactorsleadingtotheriseofKingdom ofKongo

  • It is generally acknowledged that alliances and military conquestcontributed to the rise of the Kingdom of Kongo. Alliances betweentribesweresolidifiedthroughintermarriage,mutualagreements,andcooperationunderonecentralizedmonarchor “nkani”.
  • The kingdom of Kongo prospered in trade – this was in Ivory, copper,salt,cattle hides andslaves.
  • Existence of a working population – the kingdom produced its owngoodsviaspecialisedgroupsofcraftworkerssuchasweavers(whoproduced the famous raffia fabrics of Kongo), potters, andmetalworkers.
  • Theexistenceofshellcurrency-thespiralnzimbushellswhichoriginally came from Luanda, an offshore island located some 240 kmaway.Initiallyusedasameansofstoringwealthandasastandard


measureofthevalueofothergoods,theshellscametobeusedlikecoinstopayfor goods andlabour.

  • The existenceofa highly centralizedrulebyasinglemonarchornkaniwho appointed regional governors throughout his territory. Thesegovernors,inturn,appointedlocalofficialsandcollectedtributesuchas ivory, millet, palm wine, and leopard and lion skins from localchiefs, which were passed on to the king at MbanzaKongo. Tributeswere paid at lavish annual ceremonies which involved much feastingand beer-drinking. In return for their offerings, chiefs and officialsreceived the king’s favour, military protection, and some materialrewardssuchasfood delicacies andclothing.
  • TheexistenceofCongoriver-thisprovidedameansoftransportaswellaswater foragriculture amongother things.
  • Theexistenceofrichmineral–mineralslikecopperwhichwere


The early civilization contributed to the modern world in the followingways.

  • Expansionandmodernizationofmodernagriculture-thisinvolveduseof irrigation methods and mechanization. Modification of seeds wasalsoaresultofearlycivilization.E.g.BasinIrrigationinEgypt.
  • inthefieldofmedicine-itcontributedtovariousinventionslike

mummification (preservation of the dead), treatment of fracturedbonesaswellasdevelopmentofvaccines. E.g.InEgypt

  • Expansionofknowledge-thiswasdonethroughdisseminationofinformation in books, patches, scrolls as well as establishment oflearning institutions. Like early education institutions were found inEgypt.
  • Fermentationinmodernday datesbacktoearlycivilizationinEgypt.
  • Useofcurrencyintradeinmoderng.theuseofshellcurrencyinKingdomKongo.
  • In the field of Engineering early civilization enabled construction ofg.ConstructionofPyramids inEgypt.
  • In architecture – this involved aligning the pyramids towards the polestar and also know the level of flooding during flooding seasons of theNile.


  • Inventionsinthetransportsystem


  • In politics– early civilization contributed a lot in establishment ofvarious states and countries as well other modern Kingdoms. This wasfurther enhanced by constitutions or by-laws that guided the earlycivilizationgovernments.







  1. SocialOrganizationofselectedAfricanCommunitiesuptothe1900

Social organization revolves around way of life for the following selected Africancommunities.

  • The Ogiek– The Okiek (Ogiek), sometimes called the Ogiek or Akiek(although the term Akiek sometimes refers to a distinct subgroup), are aSouthern Nilotic ethnic group native to Tanzania and Southern Kenya (in theMauForest),andWesternKenya(inthe MountElgonForest)


  • The Zulu – are aNguni ethnic group native to Southern Africa. The Zulupeople are the largest ethnic group and nation in South Africa, with anestimated 10–12 million people, living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.


They originated from Nguni communities who took part in the Bantumigrations over millennia. As the clans integrated together, the rulership ofShakabroughtsuccesstotheZulunationduetohisimprovedmilitarytacticsandorganization.


ZulustakeprideintheirceremoniessuchastheUmhlanga,orReedDance,andtheirvariousforms ofbeadwork.


The art and skill of beadwork takes part in the identification of Zulu peopleand acts as a form of communication and dedication to the tribe and specifictraditions. The men and women both serve different purposes in society inordertofunctionasawhole.TodaytheZulupeoplepredominantly believein



  • Ahsante-TheAsantewereoneoftheAkan-speakingpeopleswhosettledinthe forest region of modern Ghana between the 11thand 13th centuries. Theseparate Asante chiefdoms were united by Osei Tutu in the 1670s and in1696 he took the title of Asantehene (king) and founded the Asante empire.In Asante, the family line is matrilineal – inheritance passes from the motherto her children. The Golden Stool is also passed down matrilineally, to one oftheking’smaternalnephews.







SocialOrganizationoftheOgiekcommunityup to1900

  • Honeywastheirstaplefood-Honeywaseaten,usedtobrewtraditionalbeer(rotikapgomek),andtradedwithneighboringcommunities.
  • Theyhuntedandtrappedwildanimals.Varioustoolswereused,including:clubs,spears,bows andarrows.
  • They also practice small scale agriculture and keep livestock such as cows,sheep and goats. They grow vegetables, maize, beans, and potatoes. Thiswassubsistence farming.
  • Thesmallestunitoflifewasthefamily.TwoormorerelatedfamilieswithaThelineagewasresponsibleforenforcingtraditionallawsandorder.
  • Rolesweredivided–thefatherdutywastoprovidefood,protectandheadthe family, while the mother’s role was to bear children, look after thehome,andthe childrenhelped inhousechores.
  • TheOgiekcircumcisedbothboysandgirlsatpubertyseparetly
  • Theyhadtheagesetsystemwhichgroupedcircumciseddifferently
  • The Ogiek were polygamous and the wives their own separate houses andfields.
  • TheOgiekbelievedinasupremebeingcalledTororet
  • They also believed in the existence of ancestral spirits (oiik) – they werebelievedto offer protection ofof thecommunity.
  • TheOgiekalsopracticedDivinationtoforeseethefutureusingsupernaturalpowersbyuse of divination ball.


SocialOrganizationoftheZuluupto the1900

  • Socially the king was the leader as he presided over traditional ceremoniessuch as the traditional fruit harvest which was attended by all people thekingdom.
  • Initiation ceremonies were performed to mark the entry into adulthood.DuringShaka’sreign, however,circumcisionwasabolished.
  • Marriage was restricted until one served in the army for a period of 40years. At this age, the military men could be retired at the same time withthefemalesof anappropriate agefor marriage.
  • The Zulu were divided in social classes called clans, traditionally the royalclan provided kings and chiefs while warrior come from the class ofcommoners
  • Thekingcontrolledallsocialaffairsandwasthebiggestsocial figure.
  • Polygamy wascommonamongtheZulu


  • The Kingdom was composed of many communities who spoke theAkanlanguage.
  • TheAsantewereorganized inclans
  • Marriagebetweenmembersofthesameclanwasprohibited
  • ThecommunitywasboundtogetherbytheGoldenstool
  • Therewasanannualculturalfestival(odwira)heldatkumasitohonourtheancestors.
  • Thesocietywasdividedintosocialclasses/stratification
  • Thekingswereregardedassemi-divine/religioustraders
  • TheAsantewerepolytheists/worshippedmanygodsandgoddesses
  • Theancestorsmediatedbetweengodandthepeople
  • TheAsantehadasupremeGodcalledNyame


  • Allwereorganizedintoclans
  • Theyallbelievedintheexistenceofancestralspirits

Differences in thesocialOrganizationoftheOgiek,Zuluand Ahsante


Ogiek Zulu Ahsante


godofwar Nyame
Polygamous Polygamous
d.    HumanDiversityandinclusion
  • Diversityrecognizesthat,thoughpeoplehavethingsincommonwitheachother, they arealsodifferentmanyways.
  • Inclusioniswherethosedifferencesareseenasabenefit,andwhereperspectivesanddifferencesareshared,leadingtobetterdecisions.







While personality shows what you are outside or what you are to theworld, character reveals what you are inside. As these are directly relatedto a person’s attitude and behaviour, most people get confused betweenthesetwoeasily.

  • Personality refers to the combination of qualities, attitude andbehaviour,thatmakesapersondistinctfromothers.
  • Personality impliesWhoweseemtobe
  • Personalityisasetofpersonalqualities
  • Thepersonalityisthemaskorthe identityofaperson
  • Personality issubjective
  • personality,doesnotneedvalidationandsupportofthesociety


  • Authenticity

Authenticity relates to how genuine you are. You may show this byproviding honest answers and being true to yourself in your interview.Whenyou’re working,youmaydemonstrateauthenticitybyshowinghow


you truly feel each day. It’s also important to act and treat othersprofessionally.

  • Confidence

Confidence in your abilities, education and qualifications may distinguishyou from other candidates. They may help you better explain how anorganization could benefit from hiring you. Aim to present yourselfconfidentlyinyourinterviewwithoutseeminglikeyou’rebragging.

  • Curiosity

Curiosityisabeneficialattributeintheworkplacebecauseitencouragesyou to continue to acquire new skills and knowledge. This may help youlearn more about new industries or clients, or motivate you to try newthings.

  • Diligence

Diligence encompasses various soft skills, such as attention to detail andorganization. It fosters a commitment to success and ensures everything ina project is accurate. One way to demonstrate diligence is to follow alldirections specifically, showing your comprehension skills and ability to dowhat’saskedofyou.

  • Empathy

Empathy refers to the ability to relate to others and understand theiremotions. It’s a crucial attribute to help employees understand each otherandworkwellasateam.

  • Generosity

Generosity involves helping others, especially when you may not benefitfrom the situation. This may help your co-workers appreciate you more andcreate a more positive and supportive work environment. While you mayshowgenerositybyofferingtohelpaco-workerwiththeirtasks,itmayalso be as simple as complimenting someone on their achievements orproviding them with constructive feedback to improve their futureperformance.

  • Honesty

Honesty is essential for creating trust among co-workers. It helps show thatyoucan betrusted withyour responsibilities.


  • Integrity

Integrity relates to how well you represent and follow your morals. Thisinvolves acting as a good role model for others, speaking truthfully andbehavinghonourably.

  • Kindness


  • Perseverance

Perseverance shows your ability to remain motivated to succeed in anycircumstances.

  • Positivity

Positivity may help you remain committed to your work and create apleasantworkenvironment.

  • Sociability

Sociability is important because it helps ensure conducive environment foreveryone. Some roles may require more social skills than others. Engagingothers in conversation and encouraging them to talk may help show yoursociability.



  • Transparency

Transparency, like honesty, relates to being open about your experienceandqualifications.


multiculturalism: A characteristic ofasociety that has manydifferent ethnicornationalcultures minglingfreely.

  1. Desirablecharacteristics:Thesearecharacteristicssuchasbeinghardworking,or displaying honesty andintegrity.
  2. Undesirable characteristics: These are ones such as lying and

Desirable characteristics are known as qualities and undesirablecharacteristics are known as personality defects. Characteristics have beengrosslygroupedinthesetwocategories.Qualitiesbringaboutgeneralwell-


being and have an overall positive effect on the person and one’sinteractions.Defectsontheotherhandbringmentalanguishbothtothepersonhavingthemandthe peopleheinteractswith.











Find yourself unable of asking for what you want and need, instead bendingothers to your will in order to get what you want and need? Why youbelieve you are doing the correct thing is understandable. Even if you wantsomethingbadlyenough, itmaybedifficulttosimplycome outandsayso.


You’re out with your friends, and you’re the kind of person that spends thewholetimetalkingaboutyourself.




Whenyou haveanegativeopinionofsomeone,itisonething.Whenyou

really tell them, that’s another story. No one wants to be in the company ofsomeone who is always criticizing them for their appearance, their diet, ortheirwords.

Negativeand gloomy.

Whatifyou’re oneofthosepeoplewhoseestheglassashalf-empty?

In our world, there are many different types of people that believe indifferentthings.BeingoneofthesepeopleiscompletelyOK.Thisbecomesan issue when you cause everyone else in your immediate vicinity to fallalongwithyou.



What exactly is wrong with being a perfectionist?Thisisaquestionthatonlya perfectionistwouldask.

Despite the fact that there is nothing wrong with wanting things to gosmoothly, when your life gets too concerned with the little details, itbecomesa major issue.

Notjustforyourself,butalso forothersinyourimmediatevicinity.

The pursuit of perfection is then mirrored in the eyes of your friends andothers in your immediate vicinity. And no one will ever be able to live up tosuchexpectations. Attheend oftheday,they areforgotten.





  • Race/ethnicity
  • Class
  • Age

Waysofapplyinginclusionin daytodayinteractions















Communication is the first aspect to work on. Often, if used inappropriately,ourwordscan expresswrong intentionsorcreatemisunderstandings.

Herearesome examples:

  • When addressing a group, avoid using gender-specific words such as“ladies”, “dudes”, “men”, “guys”. Especially in the presence of gendernon-conforming or mixed gender individuals, appellations may turnouttobemisplaced,causemissgendering,andcutoffgroupmembers.
  • Avoidassertivelanguageandwords:Introduceyourcontributionwith“In my opinion” or “According to my experience” or “Based on whatI’ve read and learned”. Leave space for questions and replies, makesureyou donotlecturewhenyou getinvolvedinaconversation.


Unconscious biases, prejudices, lack of information, influence of themedia, and teachings coming from our cultural and social beliefs may allimpact the way that we interact with others. For example, we are ofteninformedbythebeliefsandvaluesystemsweareexposedto,including


through our family and friends and the things we learned at school.These deeply ingrained belief and value systems can also lead to actionsandreactions thatcansometimes beexclusive and unfair.


One of the most common mistakes in everyday interactions is to makeassumptions.

Assumptionsareadifficultstartingpointbecausetheytakeforgrantedthat our audience shares the same requirements and experiences as wedo.

Although assumptions are often developed unconsciously, it is importantto recognize the moment when we apply them in our interactions withothers.

For example, it is important to avoid assumptions about the gender ofthepersonorgroupswearespeakingwithandalwaystry tousegenderinclusive language.






However, being aware of our own privileges is a crucial first step toadaptingamoreinclusiveattitude.

A privilege can be defined as “a right, license, or exemption from duty orliabilitygrantedasaspecialbenefit,advantage,orfavor”

Privileges are social, political, and cultural constructions that aretranslated into hierarchical relationships in our everyday andprofessional lives. Part of a broader system, these constructions aresolidified through structural and institutional dynamics, and they serveto reinforce fabricated societal divisions based on perceived orconstructeddivisions and/or pretenses.


  1. PeaceandConflictresolution

Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence ofhostility and violence. In a social sense, peace is commonly used to mean alack of conflict (such as war) and freedom from fear of violence betweenindividualsor groups.

Conflict is simply differing ideas or actions, often related to the selfishpursuit of needs (known and unknown) that end in a state of unrest. It is anecessary and permanent part of life. The important thing to remember isthat conflict is natural. It can be a slight conflict that causes no harm or anegregiousconflictthatresults inirreparabledamage.


Personal Peace is often referred to as intrapersonal peace or inner peace. Itmeans peace with oneself. When you have personal peace, it means youaccept yourself the way you are, no matter how you look outside, or whatyou think about yourself: spirit, soul, and body. This also comes as a resultofadeep and betterpersonalunderstanding.

ItshelpsinavoidingconflictsbetweenindividualsIthelpsimproveworkplaceandhomerelationshipsIthelpsin understandingothersbetter

Itshelpsustoassistothers withoutmuchstrain

Its helps us develop desirable personality attributes that can help usachievemuch.

It helps be accommodative of others despite our varied opinion andactions



  • Beingcharitable
  • Beingself-discipline
  • Straightforward
  • Compassionforallcreatures
  • Absenceofgreed
  • Radianceofcharacter
  • Forgiveness


  • Patience
  • Freedomfromhate


  • Controllingyourstress
  • Takingamentalhealthday,morning ormoment
  • Readingspiritualliterature
  • Changingourperspective-Muchturmoilandanguishcomefromsticking to your own personal perspective. You may get bent out ofshape when the other person cannot see things the way you do. Youcan expend a lot of time and energy trying to get someone to see yourpointofview,andleave yourselfexhausted andfrustrated.
  • PracticeNon-Judgment
  • Focusonserving-Peoplepronetoworryhavethe“whatif”syndrome.You let worry and anxiety overtake your every thought. What if I don’tmake enough money? What if I lose my job? What if the person I lovedoesn’tlovemeback?Witheachthought,yourmindspiralsintochaos. When you place your focus on helping and serving, somehowthe anxiety goes away. As you become more relaxed, you’ll notice thatmany of the things you were worried about disappear. Every time youstart the “what ifs,” replace them with the phrases, “How can I help?”and“Howcan Iserve?”


  1. Peacemakessurethatyoudonotgoon themedicinestorunyourlife.
  2. Peaceensuresthatyouare awareofyourself.


  1. Peacetothemindislike basetothehome,rootstothetree.




Servitude is similar to slavery – you might live on the person’s premises,work for them and be unable to leave, but they don’t own you. These formsinclude.

  • HumanTrafficking:HumanTraffickingseespeoplebeingforciblymoved and recruited using violence or threats in order for them to beexploited for labor,prostitution,marriage,etc.
  • ForcedLabour:ForcedLabouriswheresomeoneisforcedto

undertakeworkagainsttheir willandthreatenedwithviolence.

  • Debtbondage:Debtbondageiswherethosetrappedinpovertyareforced to borrow money from others and can then be forced to workin order to ‘pay back’ this debt. This is one of the most common typesofslavery.
  • Forcedandearlymarriage:Forcedand/orearlymarriageiswhere


  • domestic servitudeTheIndianOceanTrade


The Indian Ocean trade routes connected Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, andEast Africa, beginning at least as early as the third century BCE. This vastinternational web of routes linked all of those areas as well as East Asia(particularlyChina).

Long before Europeans “discovered” the Indian Ocean, traders from Arabia,Gujarat, and other coastal areas used triangle-sailed dhows to harness theseasonal monsoon winds. Domestication of the camel helped bring coastaltrade goods such as silk, porcelain, spices, in cense, and ivory to inlandempires,aswell.Enslavedpeoplewerealso traded.
















The Indian Ocean trade was a world of Islamic merchants ferryingporcelain from China to the Swahili Coast, ivory to India, cotton toIndonesia, spices to Arabia, and so on. Regional cultures, politics, religions,andentirehistorieswereexchangedthroughtheIndianOceanTrade.


  • Availabilityofitemsoftrade encouragedtraderstocometothecoast
  • The high demand for goods/trade items from the Kenyan coast byconsumersinTheoutsideworld ledto increased trade
  • The existence of local trade among the Africans along the coastprovidedabaseuponwhichtheIndianOceantradedeveloped.


  • The Monsoon winds facilitated the movement of vessels/ships to andfromthecoastthusenablingthemerchantstotakepartinthetrade.
  • The relative peace/political stability provided conducive environmentfortrade.
  • The availability of credit facilities from Indian Banyans/moneylendersenabledmanypeople totakepartin trade
  • Existence of enterprising merchants at the coast/foreign landspromotedtradinglinksenabledtradetoflourish.
  • The natural harbors along the coast ensured safe docking of ships forloadingandunloadingofitems oftrade
  • Advancementinship/boatbuildingledtobettersailingvesselsthusincreasedtradingactivitiesto andfromthecoast.
  • Availabilityofslaves

Organization oftheIndianOceanSlaveTrade in15thCentury

The Indian Ocean Trade began with small trading settlements around 800A.D., and ended in the 1500s when Portugal invaded and tried to run thetradefor its ownprofit.

As trade intensified between Africa and Asia, powerful city-statesflourishedalongtheeasterncoastofAfrica.

These included Kilwa, Sofala, Mombasa, Malindi, and others. The city-statestradedwithinland kingdoms like


Asia, and China. These were Africaʼs exports in the Indian Ocean Trade.These items could be sold at a profit because they were scarce in Asiancountries.

At the same time, the East African city-states were buying items from Asia.Many residents of the city-states were willing to pay high prices for cotton,silk, and porcelain objects. These items were expensive because they werenot available in Africa at the time. These were Africaʼs imports in the IndianOceanTrade.


The city-states along the eastern coast of Africa made ideal centers of trade.An important attraction was the gold obtained from inland kingdoms. Thegold was needed mainly for coins, although it was also used for works ofart, ornamentation on buildings, and jewelry. And, the city-states were easyto reach from Asia by ship because of the favorable wind and oceancurrents. Ships had no trouble docking at the excellent ports and harborslocated on the coasts of the city-states, making it easy to unload and loadcargo. And ,merchants, tired after their long overseas journey, enjoyed thefinerestaurants,lodging,andentertainmentofferedbythe portcities.


All of these factors created an ideal setting for import-export companies toconductbusiness.

Many of the merchants from the Arabian peninsula, India, and SoutheastAsia stayed in the city-states of East Africa. Interracial marriages were notuncommon, and gradually over the centuries, a new and distinct ethnicgroup developed, known as the Swahili. Today millions of Swahili peoplelive in the nations of East Africa, where the Swahili language is widelyspoken.(YoucantakeSwahilicoursesatmanycollegeshereintheU.S.)TheSwahililanguageisamixtureoftheArabic,Hindi,andBantulanguages.

The Swahili city-states steadily grew and prospered, and were a majorworldeconomicpowerby the1400s.

Although the city-states were famous throughout Africa and Asia, noEuropean countries knew of them. You can imagine the surprise, then, ofPortuguese captain Vasco da Gama when, in 1498, he came upon thebustling port cities of Sofala, Kilwa, Mombasa, and Malindi as he sailed upthe eastern coast of Africa. He and his crew were welcomed by each of thecitieshevisited,althoughneitherhisships northeEuropeanitems




  • It fueled conflict between the communities as demands for slavesincreasedleadingto insecurity
  • It created class through emergence of wealthy merchants whodisplayedhigh standards of living.
  • African religion was downtrodden as intermarriages between Arabsand Africans led to rise of Swahili speakers which were converted toChristianity
  • It led to erosion of African culture – this because as the interactionwitharabscontinuedAfrican culturewasboundtodiminish.
  • Slavery reduced African dignity as they were just seen as dogs to be inchains
  • Manywerethrownintowatersiftheyhadnovalue
  • Africanwomenworkingasdomesticworkerswemistreatedthroughbodilyharmandsexual harassment.
  • Many children remained orphans as the fathers and mothers weretakenasslavesduringthe trade.
  • It led change of roles as the fatherless children were now forced toseekmeans of survival.
  • ItledtodestructionofAfricanfamiliesandhomesthroughtorturingandseparationofthebondthattied thesefamilies
  • Itledtoriseinmanyorphanchildrenandwidowsastheablemenweretakencaptives asslaves.























Population distribution means the pattern of where people live. Worldpopulation distribution is uneven. Places which are sparsely populatedcontain few people. Places which are densely populated contain manypeople.

Factors influencing Population distribution in AfricaClimate

Areas which experience conducive climates especially adequate andreliablerainfalltogetherwithmildandmoderatetemperatureattractadense population than desert and semi desert lands with low andunreliablerainfall.



The nature of relief greatly influences population by either attracting ordiscourage settlement. For example, in extremely high relief regions, thetemperatures are too cold for human settlement and the ruggedness toohinderconstructionofhomesandcommunicationlines.Ontheotherhand,gently rolling slopes attract dense settlement because they are easy toconstructcommunicationlines andsettlement.


Dense forests such as those in the Congo basin, hinder rapid populationsettlement because they are very difficult to clear, water logged and containvectors that cause diseases to man and there are wild animals which aredangerous to human life. On the other hand, savannah grasslands aredensely populated because they are easy to clear and their climate isconduciveforhumansurvival.


The government policy may either attract or discourage settlement. Someareas may be gazette by law for example national parks, Game reserves orforest reserves. Government may also encourage settlement by establishingsettlementschemesandresettlepeoplefromdenselypopulatedareas.





Theexploitationofnaturalresourcesforexamplemineralsmayattracthumansettlementwhileseeking foremployment.


The growth of towns and cities is also a very important facilities influencingpopulation distribution in Africa. Urban centres provide a good number offunctions which attract people to them. For example cheap power, tradingactivities, good accommodation, good medical care, cheap and constanttransport, clean water, higher institutions of learning, government offices,recreationcentres,and the like.



Areas that are unstable and insecure have got low populations e.g.Karamoja where there is a lot of cattle rustling compared to areas that aregenerallypoliticallystableandsecurehenceattractingdensesettlements






















Nucleated settlements are ones where the houses are grouped closelytogether,oftenaroundacentralfeaturelikeachurch,puborvillagegreen.










Linearsettlementsaresettlementswherethebuildingsareconstructedinlines, often next to a geographical feature like a lake shore, a river orfollowinga road.

Where linear settlements follow a road, the road often predates thesettlement.



Dispersed settlements are ones where the houses are spread out over awide area. They are often the homes of farmers and can be found in ruralareas.













Fieldworkistheprocessofobservingandcollectingdataaboutpeople,cultures,andnatural environments.


  • FieldExcursion

-Visiting an area near or far from the school to see geographical phenomenathennote down and discuss laterin class.


  • Reinforcewhathasbeenlearntinclass
  • Gainmoregeographicalknowledge
  • Identifyandappreciategeographicalfeatures
  • Identifyproblemsofgeographicalinterest
  • FieldResearch

-Systematic problem solving done by experts in which scientific methods ofcollecting,recordingand analyzingdataare used.


  • FieldStudy




  1. SurveysandQuestionnaires

Surveys and questionnaires, in their most foundational sense, are ameans of obtaining data from targeted respondents with the goal ofgeneralizing the results to a broader public. Almost everyone involvedindatacollection,especiallyinthebusinessandacademicsectorrelieson surveys and questionnaires to obtain credible data and insightsfromtheirtarget audience.

  1. Interviews

An interview is accurately defined as a formal meeting between twoindividuals in which the interviewer asks the interviewee questions inorder to gather information. An interview not only collects personalinformationfromtheinterviewees,butitis alsoawaytoacquire


  1. Observations

The observation method of data collection involves seeing people in acertain setting or place at a specific time and day. Essentially,researchers study the behavior of the individuals or surroundings inwhich they are analyzing. This can be controlled, spontaneous, orparticipant-basedresearch.





Challengesand solutionsincarryingoutfieldwork

  • Physical obstructions i.e. tall buildings, hills, trees hence may hinderonefrom observingcertainfeaturesor accessingsome areas.
  • Abrupt weather changes e.g. rainy, fog, misty, windy. Avoidmentioningsunshine.
  • Languagebarrier
  • Inadequatetools


  • Obsoletetools/outdatedtools
  • Hostilerespondents



  1. Identifyandacquireresearchersofthefield

It is essential to acquire researchers who are specialized in the field ofresearch. Moreover, their experience in the field will help them undergo thefurthersteps ofconductingthe field research.

  1. Identifythetopicofresearch

Post acquiring the researcher, they will work on identifying the topic ofresearch. The researchers are responsible for deciding what topic ofresearch to focus on based on the gaps observed in the existing researchliterature.

  1. Identifytherightmethodofresearch

After fine tuning the research topic, researchers define the right method toapproachthe aim andobjectives oftheresearch.

  1. Visitthesiteofthestudyandcollectdata

Based on the objectives, the observations begin. Observers/Researchers goon field and start collecting data either by visual observation, interviews orstaying along with the subjects and experiencing their surroundings to getanin-depth understanding.

  1. Analyzethedata acquired

The researchers undergo the process of data analysis once the data iscollected.

  1. Communicatetheresults

The researchers document a detailed field study report, explaining the dataandits outcome.Givingthe field studyasuitableconclusion.



  1. EarlyAgriculture

Areaswhereearlyagriculturewaspracticedinselectedgeographicalregions.They included:

  • Riftvalley
  • Egypt
  • Nubia


  • Millet
  • Maize
  • beans,
  • cassava,
  • sorghum,
  • pigeonpeas


  • Cows
  • Goats
  • Sheep
  • Dogs


  • emmer(awheat-grain),
  • chickpeasandlentils,
  • lettuce,
  • onions,
  • garlic,
  • sesame,
  • wheat,
  • barley,
  • papyrus,AnimalskeptinEgypt


  • cattle,
  • goats,
  • pigs,
  • ducks,
  • cows, and geese.CropsgrowninNubia
  • grains,
  • peas,
  • lentils,
  • dates, and possibly melonsAnimalskeptweremainlycows.



Egyptians developed and utilized a form of water management known as basinirrigation. This practice allowed them to control the rise and fall of the river tobest suit their agricultural needs. A crisscross network of earthen walls wasformed in a field of crops that the river would flood. When the floods came, thewater would be trapped in the basins formed by the walls. This grid would holdwater longer than it would have naturally stayed, allowing the earth to becomefully saturated for later planting. Once the soil was fully watered, the floodwaterthat remained in the basin would simply be drained to another basin that was inneedofmore water


The shadoof is used to lift water from a water source onto land or into anotherwaterway or basin. The mechanism comprises a long counterbalanced pole on apivot, with a bucket attached to the end of it. It is generally used in a cropirrigation system using basins, dikes, ditches, walls, canals, and similarwaterways.


































These were constructed along the farms to transport water to othersregions.


A nilometer was used to predict flood levels. This instrument was a methodof marking the height of the Nile over the years. Nilometers were spacedalong the Nile River. They acted as an early warning system, alerting theseearly people that waters were not as high as usual, so they could preparefordrought or forunusually highfloodwaters.












The Nile River is one of the most well-known rivers in the world. The NileRiver Valley was vital to the success of several ancient civilizations. TheNile River allowed the earliest civilizations to flourish in spite of thesurrounding harsh desert climate. The Nile River Valley includes not justthe river, but the surrounding banks and low lands that benefit from theriverflooding.

  • For ancient civilizations, the Nile River Valley was a source of food andincome. When the water crested in October, the land was prime forplanting crops such as wheat, barley, and papyrus. Ancientcivilizations developed irrigation systems to redirect water andenhance the growing season. In addition, the river was plentiful withfish,whichcouldbesold ortraded.
  • The Nile River served as a mode of transportation. Ancientcivilizations were able to maneuver the waters to trade between thecities along the banks. The mobility encouraged growth in villagesalongtheriver.
  • Ancient Egyptians greatly valued the Nile River; it was the center oftheir existence. The Nile River was celebrated in paintings and myths.The cycle of the Nile marked the change of season. Egyptian beliefswere interwoven with the Nile River. The Egyptians viewed the NileRiver Valley as a gift from the gods; it was a portal between humansand gods. To Egyptians, the river was part of their identity andshowedgreat reverenceforit.
  • It led to inventions in the field of agriculture like methods of irrigationandagriculture


  • It led to development of transport system that ensured transportationofcropproduce.
  • It led to the development of methods of food storage in order to beusedfor longoffor the future.
  • It also contributed to the invention in the field of medicine likeperseverationofthedead,healingfracturedbones.
  • The knowledge of weather forecast in Egypt also contributed in themodernday weatherforecast.
  • Therewasincreasedproduction,hencefoodsupplywasregular.
  • Surplus agricultural production resulted to trade, e.g., food wasexchangedwithpotsandtools.
  • There was invention of writing, arithmetic and geometry due to theneedtokeeprecords.ThewritingswerereferredtoasHieroglyphics.
  • Urbancentresemerged,e.g.,Memphis,Thebes.
  • Farmers settled more permanently and improved their livingstandards.
  • Religion developed, e.g., god was associated with farming, offering togodswaspractised.
  • As a result of the agriculture practised along the banks of the Nile,people settled there. Those settlements grew in size and becameurbancentreswithintheancientEgyptianKingdom.

Importance of domestication of plants and animals in africaDomesticationistheprocessofhereditaryreorganizationofwildanimals

and plants into domestic and cultivated forms according to the interests ofpeople. In its strictest sense, it refers to the initial stage of human masteryofwildanimals andplants.

The first attempts at domestication of animals and plants apparently weremade in the Old World during the Mesolithic Period. Dogs were firstdomesticatedinCentralAsiabyatleast15,000yearsagobypeoplewho


engaged in hunting and gathering wild edible plants. The first successfuldomestication of plants, as well as goats, cattle, and other animals—whichheraldedtheonsetofthe NeolithicPeriod.

Domestication of vegetatively reproducing plants, such as those withtubers, probably preceded domestication of the seed plants—cereals,legumes,andother vegetables.

There are a number of factors that made it necessary for human beings todiscoveragriculture.Thesewere:

  • There were climatic changes that caused the animals to migratefartherfromtheir previouslocations.
  • Due to an increase in human population, the natural environmentcould not provide adequate food. Thus, there was a need for a regularsupplyoffood.
  • People and animals competed for food leading to scarcity of food. Thisforcedpeopleadoptcultivation.
  • Similarly, over hunting on the part of man depleted the stocks ofanimalsthat he couldrely onfor food.
  • Natural disasters such as floods or forest fires would kill the animalsand vegetation making it necessary for human beings to domesticateplantsand animals.
  • Hunting and gathering had become an insecure source of food as manwould occasionally return empty handed having failed to catch game.Figure 3.1 shows some of the areas along the Nile Valley where earlyagriculturewas practised.
  • Hunting as well as gathering would sometimes be hindered byunfavourable weather conditions, e.g., snow or rain that would make ituncomfortablefor mantogo andhunt.
  • Hunting and gathering was tiring and streneous due to the constantmovementthatwasrequiredasmanfollowedtheanimalsduringtheirmigration.
  • Besides food, man also domesticated animals and crops because oftheir economic value. For instance, animals provided him withclothing,i.e., from theirhides andskins.


  • Man domesticated animals for other purposes like their use intransport. Some animals like the dog assisted him in hunting andprovidedhim withsecurity.


  • Domesticationofplantsand animalsensuredsteadysupplyoffood.
  • Products like skin were used for clothing and beddings hence keepingmanwarm.
  • Bones were used to make ornaments and needles hence decoratingman.
  • Animals like donkey, horses and oxen were used as a means oftransport and for pulling ploughs this was later used much inagricultureto makecultivation easier.
    1. EconomicOrganizationofselectedAfricancommunitiesupto1900


  • They were farmers as they kept bees and were known as beekeepersandalso theygrew vegetables.
  • They were also hunters and gathers. They hunted and trapped wildanimals. Various tools were used, including: clubs, spears, bows andarrows.
  • They also practiced traditional craft like basketry, weaving amongothers
  • Theywerealsoskilledironworkersastheymadetoolsusingiron


  • They participated in the local trade where they exchangedcommodities such as fish, salt and cloth with their neighbours, GoanandGo.
  • They participated in the long distance trade as middlemen betweentraders from North Africa and those from the South. Their maincommoditiesoftradeweresalt,gold kolanutsandslaves.
  • Theygrowcropssuchaskolanutsandgrain/keptanimals


  • They practiced crafts especially the manufacture of items such asbasketsandpots.
  • They practiced iron working and made tools like hoes, bangles andarrows
  • Theypracticedminingactivities
  • Theypracticedfishing


  • They participated in the local trade where they exchangedcommodities such as fish, salt and cloth with their neighbours, GoanandGo.
  • They participated in the long distance trade as middlemen betweentraders from North Africa and those from the South. Their maincommoditiesoftradeweresalt,goldkolanutsandslaves.
  • Theygrowcropssuchaskolanutsandgrain/keptanimals
  • They practiced crafts especially the manufacture of items such asbasketsandpots.
  • They practiced iron working and made tools like hoes, bangles andarrows
  • Theypracticedminingactivities
  • Theypracticedfishing


  • Theyallpracticedtrade
  • Theywereallhuntersandgatherers
  • Theyallpracticedironworking
  • Theyallpracticedtraditionalcraft
  • Theyalsopracticedfarming



TheOgiek Zulu Ahsante
Did not practice longdistancetrade Didnot Practiced long distancetrade.
Didnopracticemining Practicedmining Didnot




  1. InternalDynamicsandTransformationInAfrica
  • InternaldynamicsinAfrica –hastodowithchangesthataretaking
  • Transformation-acompletechangeintheappearanceorcharacterofsomething or someone. In Africa it’s the complete change in theappearanceof Africancontinent




  • MoneywasintroducedtoAfricabytheEuropeans
  • Beforecolonialperiod,Africanspracticedbartertrade
  • actual goods exchanged with other goods e.g. animals would beexchanged with food grains, millet, sorghum, cow-peas, childrenexchangedforfood duringfamine
  • Trade merchants from Asia had introduced into Africa forms ofcurrencysuchasthecowrieshells,goldandtheIndianrupees
  • Europeansintroducedcurrencystillusedtoday


Careful management of resources, finances, income and expenditure of afamily, a business enterprise, community or a country. The economy of acountry is to be well managed if it has the ability to meet the socialeconomicneeds ofhermembers.

Development-it’smeasuredbythehealthyofitseconomyintheprovisionof health, education, housing, sanitation, employment longevity of life,decreaseofmaternalandchild mortality.



Use of money as a means of exchange in economic activities e.g. banking,investment,insurance, paymentofgoodsandservices.


  • Colonization brought a lot of changes such as unoccupied landdeclared‘Crownland’ forcolonialists
  • Tax introduction Africans were supposed to pay taxes to thegovernment.Taxeswerepaid informofmoney
  • Introduction of formal education School fees was introduced. Feeswerepaidinformofmoney
  • Introduction of modern medical services People paid medical servicesusingmoney
  • Emergenceofnewlifestyles
  • Converts to Christianity were emphasized on to have materials, hencehad to work to improve their living standards. They built houses, tooktheir children to schools practiced modern family techniques hencehadto use money.



Break up of family ties as people migrated from rural to urban areas insearchofemployment

African land taken by the colonialists, reducing people to squattershenceneedtowork

There was creation of a gap between people — the rich and the poorEmergence of vices e.g. corruption, bribery, prostitution, robberyDeterioration of cherished African values e.g. bride wealth has becomecommercialized,customslost etc

Loss of African human dignity. Africans had to pay taxes to the colonialgovernment. They were forced to work in European farms so as to getmoney.Theyworkedunderdehumanizing conditions

Production of traditional food crops declined replaced by cash cropsIndividual ownership of land was emphasized. Land could be sold atwill


There was increase of rural — urban migration leaving the ruralpeoplelesseducated

Exploitation of the poor by the rich — poor wages, overchargingpricesonfoods.

Destruction of the natural environment to create room for buildingprojects,urbancentres



  • Money as medium of exchange solves the barter’s problem of lackof double coincidence of wants as money has separated the acts ofsale and purchase. You can sell goods for money to whosoeverwants it and with this money you can buy goods from whosoeverwantstosell them.
  • Money as measure (unit) of value or a unit of account solves thebarter’s problem of absence of common measure (unit) of value.Money serves as a unit of value or unit of account and acts as ayardstick to measures exchange value of all commodities. The valueof each good or service is expressed as price (i.e. money units)which guides both consumer and producer to make a transaction.Thusmoneymakeskeepingofbusinessaccountpossible.
  • Money as store of value solves the barter’s problem of difficulty instoring wealth (or generalised purchasing power). Moreover,money in convenient denominations (like Indian coins of 5, 10, 20,50,100paiseandcurrency notesof2, 5,10,100,500,and1,000)

solves the barter’s problem of absence or lack of divisibility. (Coinsoflessthan50 parcent areno longer inuse now.)

  • Money as standard of deferred payments helps to solve the barterproblem of lack of standard of deferred payment. Again, it helps tomake contracts which involve future payments. Doubtlessly moneyhelpsin removingthedifficultiesofbartersystem.
  • Money helps in maximizing consumers’ satisfaction and producers’profit.Ithelpsandpromotessaving.
  • Money promotes specialization which increases productivity andefficiency.


  • It is the institution of money which has proved a valuable socialinstrument of promoting economic welfare. The whole economicscience is based on money; economic motives and activities aremeasuredbymoney.


The primary difference between barter and currency systems is that a currencysystem uses an agreed-upon form of paper or coin money as an exchange systemrather than directly trading goods and services through bartering. Both systems haveadvantages and disadvantages, although currency systems are more widely used inmoderneconomies.

Bartering systems were used within the local community, but advances intechnology and transportation make it possible for modern society to barter onagloballevel.

Bartering has its limitations, which led to the creation of currency systems.Currency serves as a medium of exchange, resolving mismatched demandsassociatedwith thebarter system.

In early civilizations, common agreed-upon goods, such as animal skins or salt,servedasacurrencythatindividualscouldexchangeforgoodsandservices.


d.    Sustainableuseofresources

sustainable use of natural resources means the use of renewable natural resources at arate that does not exceed the resource ’s capacity for regeneration, does not impair theresource’s ecological functions and services, and does not jeopardize the ability offuturegenerationsatthesamelocationtoenjoytheresourceinequalabundance.



  • Regulationofallkindsofpollution(air,land,water)
  • Using sustainable ways in agriculture to conserve the environment.Avoiduseofchemicals.
  • Using alternative sources clean and renewable sources of energy thatconservethe environment.
  • RecyclingwastestoavoidwasteaccumulationintheenvironmentthatReduce,reuse,andrecycle.Cut down on what you throw away. Follow the three “R’s” to conservenaturalresources andlandfillspace.
  • Planting trees – Trees provide food and oxygen. They help save energy,cleanthe air, andhelpcombatclimatechange.




PoliticalOrganizationoftheOgiekcommunityupto 1900

  • Thepoliticalsystemwasbasedon thelineagefamilysystem.
  • Thesmallest unitwasthefamilyheadedbythefather.

PoliticalOrganizationoftheZulucommunity upto1900

  • The kingdom was highly centralized with the king as the head andtraditionalchiefs underhim.
  • ThekingwasassistedbythetraditionalchiefsandmilitaryIndunasforeffective controlofthe society.
  • The traditional council of elders played an important role in Zulusociety. They advised the king on the important matters of the state.However,duringthe timeof Shaka,theirroledeclined.
  • The king had powers to appoint and to dismiss any of his officials.Theywerethereanswerabletohim.
  • Zulu kingdom had a strong standing army with the king acting as thecommanderin chief.
  • Thearmwaswell-trained,equippedandreadytofightatanytime.Thearmywas onalerttodefend oroffend theZuluenemies.
  • The army was divided into age regiments each under a militarycommandercalled an Induna.
  • Each military settlement had a section of royal women headed byseniorwomenandactedasspiesforthekingontheIndunas.
  • The Indunas were not allowed to hold meetings without consent andpermission from the king. This was to stop any conspiracy against theking.


  • Succession to the Zulu throne was hereditary. That is the king’s eldestsoncouldinherittheZuluthrone.
  • EachprovincewasunderthemilitaryIndunaandassistedbythechief.


  • The Asante Empire was centralized state divided into three divisionsnamely. The nucleaus (Kumasi) states outside Kumasi (Amatoo) andtheconqueredstates.
  • Kimasiwasunderthedirectcontrol oftheAsantahene.
  • The conquered states were ruled by their kings but treated asprovinces of Asante. Asantahene appointed representatives in eachconqueredsate.
  • The Asantahene ruled with the help of a confederacy of Kings(Omanhene). Confederacy council. They took an oath of allegiance toensureLoyaltytotheAsantahene.
  • The Omanhene represented the Asantahene in the conqueredstates/Omanhene, Sone autonomy but were expected to pay tribute totheAsantaheneand contributesoldiersintimesofwar.
  • The Empire had a standing army which defended/ conquered otherstatesandmaintained lawand orderintheEmpire.
  • Religion played an important army which defended/ conquered otherstatesand maintainedlawandorderinthe Empire.
  • The sacred Golden stool which was introduced in the 18th century byAsantaheneOsei. Tutu strengthened unity in the Empire. It was keptat the headquarters, Kumasi. Each Omanhene was given a symbolicblackstooltosignifyunityof purposeinthe province.
  • The empire had a well-established judicial/ court system based atKumasi and was headed by the Asantahene. The Omanhene weregivenpowersto tryminorcasesattheprovinces.
  • The empire has a strong economic base that depended mainly ontaxes and profit derived from the long distance trade. This strongeconomyaimedthe empire.


The concept ofscrambleandpartition ofafrica

The Scramble and Partition of Africa – the Scramble for Africa also called thePartition of Africa, or the Conquest of Africa was the invasion, annexation,division, and colonization of most of Africa by seven Western Europeanpowers during a short period known to historians as the New Imperialism(between1881 and1914).














Due to the industrial revolution in Europe in the 19th century, theyrequired:

  1. Marketsfortheirmanufacturedgoods
  2. Rawmaterialstofeedtheirindustries
  3. Areastoinvesttheirsurpluscapital
  4. European traders sought protection from their homecountries whenfacedwithcompetition
  5. NeedforagriculturallandinAfricatogrowfoodcrops
  6. NeedforcheaplabourfromAfricatoproducerawmaterials




  1. Riseofnationalism
  2. The proof of a country’s prestige/superiority was through acquisitionofcolonies.
  3. A country that did not acquire colonies would open the gates topoliticaldecadence.


  • TheEgyptianquestion



✔Their clash culminated in the British occupation of Egypt inorder toprotecttheRiverNile andBritishinterests inIndia.

  • FrenchactivitiesinWestAfricaandtheCongo


  • KingLeopold’s(ofBelgium)activitiesintheCongo


✔This precipitated a crisis in Africa which culminated in the convening ofaninternationalconferencein1884-1885i.e.theBerlinConference.


  1. TheMissionaryFactor
  • The missionaries came to Africa to spread Christianity, civilize theAfricans,abolishslavetrade andencourage legitimate trade.
  • In case of problems, they sought for protection from their mothercountries.
  1. PublicOpinion


  1. RiseofRacialism
  • Europeans felt they were a superior race to others since they wereindustrialized.
  • Theyhada dutytocivilizeAfricans
  • Cecil Rhodes once remarked we are the first race in the world and themoreoftheworld inhabit, thebetteritisfor thehuman race.
  1. GrowthofEuropeanPopulation


  1. Humanitarianfactor

Humanitarian groups in Europe who had campaigned against slave tradeurged their home governments to occupy Africa to facilitate effectiveabolition ofslave







✔Southern Africa – Bechuanaland, Swaziland, Basutoland, Union of SouthAfrica.


✔WestAfrica -GoldCoast,Nigeria,Gambia,SierraLeone.

❑ France

✔NorthEastAfrica-Eritrea, FrenchSomaliland

✔West Africa – Senegal, Ivory Coast, Dahomey, Upper Volta, Guinea, Mali,Belgium,Niger,Mauritania.


✔CentralAfrica-Chad, FrenchCentralAfrica,FrenchCongo





✔WestAfrica- Togo,Cameroon

✔South West Africa.Portugal

✔Angola, Mozambique, Portuguese GuineaBelgium

✔Belgium CongoItaly




















In 1884, at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismarkcalled togetherthe major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over thecontrol of Africa. Bismark appreciated the opportunity to expand Germany’s sphere ofinfluence over Africa and hoped to force Germany’s rivals to struggle with one another forterritory.


  1. It created spheres of influence. Any European power occupying any partof Africa had the obligation to notify others to avoid double conflictingclaims
  2. Effective occupation – Any claim of an African territory had to beaccompaniedbyeffectiveoccupation.
  3. Each power had to stamp out slave trade in their territory and encouragelegitimatetrade
  4. Rivers Zambezi, Congo and Niger were left free for navigation by allEuropeanpowers
  5. King Leopold was recognized as the sovereign ruler of the Congo FreeState.
































The constitution is made up of three important constituents that includethe executive, the judiciary, and the legislature. These three vitalcomponents provide stability to a country. In absence of a constitution, thenationcouldbeatthethreat ofcorruptionandthreatamongitsmasses.


The Constitution serves as a written tool that acts as the personification ofthe social or political rules of an organization. These rules help the countryto execute its policies and procedures without any disputes or issues. Theseprovisions aid the nation to evade the possibilities of threats related to acivilwarbreakdown.


Another advantage of the constitution is that it describes all the culturaland legal aspects under which governmental institutions and people’sbodieswillbe regulated.Thisbecomesverysignificantwhenthere are


frequently occurring overseas communications by internationalorganizationsinthepersonalaffairs ofthenation.


The constitution gives the power to the citizens to choose the governmentof their choice. Based on their performance and contribution in thedevelopment of the nation, people can decide the best government officialtoserve the nation.

Protectsthe rightoftheindividual

The constitution safeguards the rights of the citizens in terms of self-expression, religious practice, non-discriminatory treatment, fair criminalprocedures and more. It states that the government is answerable to thepeoplevia conductingfreeand regular elections.


The Constitution states the power and authority of every governing body.Doing this, it enables every entity that is related to the country to learnaboutthepowerthatthelegal bodyandthegovernmentholds.

The information that the constitution states also help to define the duties ofthe parties involved. It could be a governmental institution, a firm or themasses of the nation. The Constitution administers the relation between thepeople and the government so that none of the parties can misuse thepowerinanymanner.

Superior toall regulations and rules of thecountry

The constitution is supreme of all the other laws and regulations of thecountry. This implies that for any provision to circulate in the nation, it hasto be approved by the constitution. It also implies that every law enacted bythatgovernmentneedstobe inconformism withtheConstitution.


Another important role of the constitution is that it mentions the strategic,political, and other objectives of the nation. These goals are what a countryis focusing to accomplish in the coming years. It could be related todemocracy,socialism, nationalintegration,andsecularism.



It is the constitution of a nation that assures provision and rights for anyindividual or a set of people to ensure their overall well-being and dignityinsociety.Theconstitutionaidsthepeopletoavailthefundamentalrightsthat they are entitled to. These rights include the right to life, right tofreedom, right to property, and right to engage freely in the existingdemocratic system. All these fundamental rights are safeguarded by theConstitution.


Besides the welfare of its citizens, and regulating the tasks of the country,the constitution has the power to transfer the supremacy of the nationduring a national emergency. This power of the constitution is exercised inthose situations when there is a threat to the nation regarding its resources.It has a very important role to play in situations of a disaster that can causeseveredestructiontoaspecificarea ofthenation orcivilwarbreakdown.


  • patriotism, national unity, sharing and devolution of power, the rule oflaw,democracyandparticipation ofthe people;
  • human dignity, equity, social justice, inclusiveness, equality, humanrights,non-discriminationandprotectionofthemarginalized;
  • goodgovernance,integrity,transparencyandaccountability;and



  • Defendingtherightsofeveryindividual
  • Obeyingtherightsandprivilegesofeveryindividual
  • Holding our leaders to account and uphold adherence to theconstitution



Democracy is a system of government in which laws, policies, leadership,and major undertakings of a state or other polity are directly or indirectlydecidedby the“people,”




Characteristics ofdemocracy

  1. Legitimacy:Alegitimategovernmentisoneputinplace,acceptedandrecognized by the people, it is a major feature of a democratic systemof government that power vests in the people of the state. Therefore, agovernment in place without the approval of the people is not alegitimategovernmentandassuch cannotclaimtobe ademocracy.
  2. Ruleoflaw:theruleoflawisthesupremacyofthelawofastateover

everycitizenoranyotherpersonresidinginthatstate,thismeansthat nobody is above the law no matter his status in the society. This isimportantinademocracyespeciallyarepresentativedemocracytoact as a form of check and balance in the powers of the electedrepresentatives so that they do not develop any illusions of beingbetterthanthe peoplewhoelectedandthereby empoweredthem.

  1. Public opinion: public opinion has to do with the aggregate of theindividualpointofviewasregardsaparticularmatterby asignificantpopulation of a community or state as the case may be. Sincedemocracy is a government of the people, the opinion of the saidpeople cannot be overemphasized in determining issues in thegovernmentthatwillbetotheirbenefitor detriment.
  2. Periodicandtransparentelections:Forthepeopletobeanactivepart

of their government especially in a representative democracy,provisions must be made for a periodic, free and fair election whichwill be conducted after sufficient political education to the people soas to aid them in making informed choices in electing theirrepresentativesatthe pollonthe electionday.

  1. Separationofpowers:Inadirectdemocracy,thedecisionresidesinevery member of the community and in the representative democracywherethepeopleelectleaderstohandletheaffairsofthestate,there


is separation of powers into different arms of government so as toallow for necessary checks and balances in the powers andadministration ofthe separate armsofgovernment.

  1. Fundamentalhumanright:Inademocracy,thefundamentalhumanrights of the citizens like right to life, right to fair hearing, right todignity of the human person, right to personal liberty and others mustbe upheld according to the constitution of such country based on themajorconstituentofdemocracy whichisthe people.
  1. Directdemocracy:directdemocracyisaformofdemocracywhichinvolves individual participation of every eligible citizen in theprocesses of government. This form of democracy works easily in asmall community where all members of the community can cometogether to sit upon matters arising in their political arena, theopinion of every single member is put into consideration before aconclusioncanbereached.
  2. Representative or indirect democracy:this is a form of democracywhere the the affairs of the state is carried on by representativeselected by the general public through application of the universaladult suffrage i.e the sovereignty resides in the representatives andnotwith the people.
  3. Presidentialdemocracy:thisisaformofrepresentativedemocracywhereby the people elect a leader, the President in a free and fairelection to be at the helm of affairs. The President is the head ofgovernment and the head of state who leads in executive capacityindependentofthe legislativearmofgovernment.


  • Protecting the interests of citizens. People get the chance to vote on thekey issues affecting their country or can elect representatives to makethesedecisions.
  • Oneprincipleofdemocracyisthatallpeopleare

equalintheeyesofthe law,andeverypersongetsavote.


  • Indemocracies,electedofficialsareresponsible for carrying out the will of those who elected them. If theymisusetheirposition, theywon’tbere-elected.


First,acitizeninademocracyshouldhavethedutytovote.Ifitwereuptome, voting would be a requirement.What is wonderful about a democracyis that we choose who will represent us.There is no point to a democracyinwhichwedo notparticipate.



Second,acitizeninademocracyshouldhaveanobligationtounderstandthe powers and duties of the government, generally set forth in aconstitution. If we do not know this, the government that does not actproperlyhasnochecksuponitandcan avoidcarryingoutitsduties.



Third, a citizen in a democracy should have the responsibility of knowinghisorherrights,whicharealsogenerallysetforthinaconstitution.Ifwedonotknowwhatour rightsare,theyaremeaningless.



Fourth,acitizeninademocracyshouldalwaysknowwho hisorherrepresentativesare.Ifwedonotknowwhoisrepresentingus,wedonotknow whether or not that person is representing us properly, to whom weshould complain if that is the case, or to whom we should state our ownopinionsandpreferences.






Sixth, a citizen in a democracy is also a citizen of the world and as such,shouldbeinformedaboutthemajorissuesthataffectothercountries.Theseinevitablyhaveanimpacton thecitizen.A droughtinonecountrymight


mean providing foreign aid or might mean a rise in prices of a commoditythatthecitizenneeds.

Seventh,acitizenshouldbeconcernedandinformedaboutlocalconditions,those that affect him or her most directly, what a city is doing about urbanblight or homeless people.This is one of the most important aspects ofliving in a democracy when a citizen is informed, since the informationclosest to home is usually the best information, and this provides one’sgreatestopportunityto participateinthe democraticprocess.



Eighth,acitizenshouldbewillingtopaytaxes,sincewithouttaxestoprovide a democratic government, there would be no democracy. Ademocracymustprovide forallofits citizens.



Ninth,acitizenmusthaveadutytoobeythelaw.Ademocracycannotexistin a lawless society, and without the willingness of citizens to obey the law,which is really a social contract, no government has the wherewithal topoliceanation oflawbreakers,andanarchy results.



Tenth,acitizenmustsupportpubliceducationineverywaypossible,through the payment of taxes, through local volunteer efforts, throughaffording this system the respect to which it should be entitled. Publiceducation is the foundation of democracy, meant to educate children to beresponsibleandknowledgeableparticipantsinthedemocraticprocess.

Education is our power to perpetuate the democracy.Characteristicsofvarioustypesofdemocraciesingovernance

Democracy is the best approach to learning what each social or ethnicgroup wants, particularly in a diverse country like Kenya. The fivecharacteristicsofdemocracyare asfollows:

  • ElectedRepresentative:Thepeoplechoosetheirrepresentativestoserve as their leaders. Hence, people are entitled to take part inmakingdecisions.


  • IndependentJudiciary:Conflictsaresettledmoredemocraticallybecausethecourtisindependentofthe government.
  • CivilLiberties:Peoplecanaccesscivilfreedomslikefreedomofspeech
  • Organized Opposition Party: A well-organized opposition party iscrucial to democracy because it serves as a check on the executivebranch.
  • Rule of Law: In a democracy, the rule of law is upheld, and everyone issubject to the law. In the eyes of the law, the law is supreme, and allcitizensaretreatedequally.


  • Makingcontributionstothedaytodayactivitiesofthecountry
  • Taking responsibility for their actions, by making rules and lawstogetherandsupportingthem
  • Participating in decision-making processes of the country, relating itwith the democratic processes such as councils, parliaments,governmentandvoting.
  • Showing understanding of how changes are effected in the countryandthe society asawhole.
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of different ways in which change can bebroughtand implementedatdifferentstagesinlife.
  • Participatingeffectivelyinschoolandcommunity-basedactivities.


human rights as those rights which are inherent in our state of nature andwithoutwhichwe.cannotliveas humanbeings.


  • Thefirstgenerationofhumanrightsiscivil andpoliticalrights.
  • Thesecondgenerationofhumanrightsincludeseconomic,socialandculturalrightsandthe
  • thirdgenerationofhumanrightsarecalled
  • The first generation rights i.e., civil and political rights are the initialformofnaturalrights.TheserightsdevelopedduringtheEnglishRevolution of the 17th century and the French and AmericanRevolution of the 18th century. The key theme underlying these rights
  • Thefirstgenerationrightsinclude:
    • therighttolife,
    • therighttoliberty,and
    • therighttopropertyand
    • haveexpandedtoincludenon-discrimination,
    • freedomfromarbitraryarrest,
    • freedomofthought,
    • freedomofreligion,

These rights are often seen as a manifestation of negative rights since theycan be enjoyed only when there is a restriction upon others. The keydocuments to understand the content of the first generation of humanrights are Article 3 to Article 21 of the UN Declaration and the InternationalCovenant of Civil and Political Rights of 1966 which came into force in1976.

  • In the twentieth century, especially post World War II, second-generationrightsTheeconomyofcountries was torn by war and there was massive destruction as aresultoftheworld wars.
  • Therefore,theeffortforeconomic,socialandculturalrightsdevelopedduring the twentieth century. The rights rely on socialist assumptionsand the underlying theme is equality which is in contrast to first-generationrights and the notionof liberty.
  • Thesecond-generationrightsinclude:
    • therighttowork,
    • therighttohealthcare,


  • therighttoeducation,

Therefore, these rights are seen as a manifestation of positive rights as theyplace a claim on the state and a duty to oblige for action, for example,welfareprovisions.



  • The third generation of rights emerged post-1945 and are referred toassolidarityrights.Thisisforthesimplereasonthattheserightsareconcernedwithsocialgroupsandsocietyonthewholeratherthanan
  • They are therefore seen as collective rights. The underlying theme ofthethird-generationUsually,theserightsareshapedbythedifficultiesfacedbythecountriesoftheGlobalSouth.
  • Theserights include:
    • therighttodevelopment,
    • therighttoenvironmentalprotection,
    • therighttoself-determination,

The Stockholm Convention of Human Environment of 1972 and the EarthSummitof1992atRiocan beanalyzed tounderstandtheserights.


  1. Civilandpoliticalrights

The rights that protect the life and personal liberty of a person are calledcivil rights. They are necessary to maintain the dignity of a person. Theseinclude rights like the right to life, liberty and security of a person, the rightto privacy, the right to own property, freedom of thought, religion andmovement.

Political rights are such rights that allow a person to participate ingovernmental activities. These include rights like the right to vote and theright to be elected. The nature of such rights is different, but they areinterrelated to each other. Both these rights are covered in theInternationalCovenantonCivilandPoliticalRights.


These rights are also called first-generation rights. The following civil andpolitical rights are recognized in the declaration of human rights by theUnitedNations:

  • Righttolife,personalliberty,andsecurity
  • Freedomfromslavery
  • Theprohibitionagainsttortureandinhumantreatment
  • Equalitybeforethelawandequalprotection
  • Remedybeforenationaltribunals
  • Freedomfromarrest,whichisarbitraryinnature
  • Righttoafairtrialandpublichearingbyanimpartialtribunal
  • Freedomfromex-post-factolaws
  • Righttoprivacy
  • Righttonationality
  • Righttoownproperty
  • Righttofreedomofreligionandconscience
  • Freedom ofexpression
  • Freedomtoconductapeacefulassembly
  • Takepartingovernmentactivities
  1. Fundamentalrights

Some human rights are guaranteed to the citizens of the state throughconstitutional provisions and cannot be infringed upon at any cost, even bythestateauthorities.Thesearetermedasfundamentalrights.The

expression ‘fundamental rights’ is stated in declarations and constitutionalprovisions of many states. The Virginia Declaration of 1776 states that menare free and independent and have certain inherent rights. The FrenchDeclaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789 provides that men are bornfree and have equal rights. The Indian Constitution guarantees sixfundamentalrightstothecitizensofthecountry.These are:

  • RighttoEquality
  • Righttofreedom
  • Righttoreligion
  • Culturalandeducationalrights
  • Rightagainstexploitation
  • Righttoconstitutionalremedies
  1. Naturalrights


The history of human rights is rooted in ancient times and the philosophicalconcepts of natural law and thus, also termed natural rights. Plato was oneof the first writers to give a standard ethical code of conduct. Aristotleopined that rights change as per the different kinds of circumstances facedby society from time to time. Since human rights are universally applicableto every person in the world it is similar to natural rights. Natural rightshave been derived from natural law which opines that law must reflectmoralreasoningandmustberelatedwithmoralsimbibedinapersonorset by the society. On the other hand, positivism states that human rightsare a result of enactments of statutes and orders by law which comes withvarioussanctions attachedto it.



  1. Moralrights

Human rights that determine the spiritual and moral conduct of a personare termed moral rights. They are primarily contained in moral rights asthey highlight various moral values that cannot be highlighted by any set ofinstitutional rights. They promote moral values like respect for everyone,brotherhood, secularism, protection of life, peace in society, etc. Humanrights also put moral obligations on the state and people not to violate andinfringe on the rights of other people. If done so, it will be punished as pertheprovisionsoftheset statute.

  1. Legalrights

Therightsthatarerecognized bythelegalsystemofacountryarecalledlegalrights.The twoessential elementsoftheserightsare:

  • Theholderoftheright, and

Rights and duties are correlated to each other. A person cannot have a rightwithout any corresponding duty. A person having a right also has a duty notto violate another person’s rights. Human rights are given to everyindividual irrespective of any considerations, and the state has thecorresponding duty to protect the rights of its citizens. Article 2 of theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights lays down that it is the primary dutyofthestatetopromote,protect,andimplementallhumanrightsthrough


various measures and legislative provisions. The government of any stateshouldpassanysuchlawswhichinfringeontherightsofthepeople.

  1. Economicrights,culturalRightsandsocialrights

These rights are also called freedoms and guarantee a person the minimumnecessities of life. These are also included in the International Covenant onEconomic, Social and Cultural Rights. These form a part of positive rights asthe state is required to frame policies and provisions to implement suchrights. These rights are based on the concept of social equality and aresecond-generation rights. These rights include the right to work, socialsecurity, physical and mental health, and education. The various economic,cultural, and social rights recognized by the Universal Declaration ofHumanRightsareasfollows:

  • Righttosocialsecurity
  • Righttoworkandchoiceofemployment
  • Righttorest
  • Righttostandardlivingandhealth
  • Righttoeducation
  • Freedomtoparticipateinculturallife
  • Righttosocialandinternationalorder


  1. Humanrightsareuniversalinnaturewhichmeansthattheyaregivento every individual irrespective of his/her caste, creed, race, religion,nationalityand placeofbirth.
  2. These are inalienable rights. Many philosophers believe that these arenatural rights given by God and cannot be taken away or changed byanyone.
  3. These are indivisible and interdependent rights. If a government givesone right then it has to protect the other rights of its citizens. Forexample, it is the duty of government to protect the right of fairhearing and provide food, shelter and clean environment to its citizensinordertoprotecttherighttolife of its citizens.
  4. They are not lost if the man is not familiar with his rights or if he doesnotusehisrights.Forexampleifapersonis notawareofhisrightto


consult the advocate then it does not mean that his right is finished. Itis then the duty of authorities to provide him with free legal aid or tellhimhis rights.

  1. They protect the dignity and personality of humans. Rights like rightto life, right to liberty, right against arbitrary arrest and punishmentetcprotectthedignityofaperson.


These are the most important sources of human rights. There are multipletreaties on human rights which are binding on the states who are party tosuch treaties. For example, the European Convention on Human Rights, theAmerican Convention, the African Charter on Human Rights, and People’sRights.


These rights have acquired the status of customary international law bytheir practice and, thus, are binding on all the states irrespective of theirconsent. Many of these rights are a part of customary international law andthusknownasasourceofhumanrights.


There are several declarations, resolutions, and recommendations relatedto human rights that have been adopted by the United Nations as a sourceof such rights. Some of these are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights(1948), declarations adopted at the Tehran Conference (1968) and theViennaConference (1993).


The International Court of Justice serves as another important source ofhuman rights by setting up precedents and decisions in various disputesandcaselaws relatingtoviolationsof humanrights.


Documents and journals like Human Rights Law Journal, Human RightsReview, European Law Review, and other collective official work under theUnitedNationsserve asthe sourceofhumanrights.



  • Equality affirms that all human beings are born free and equal. Equalitypresupposesthatallindividualshavethesamerightsanddeservethesamelevelof
  • All people have the right to be treated equally. This means that laws, policies andprograms should not be discriminatory, and also that public authorities should notapply or enforce laws, policies and programs in a discriminatory or arbitrary
  • Non-discriminationItensuresthatno one is denied their rights because of factors such as race, colour, sex,language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin,propertyorbirth.
  • In addition to those grounds, discrimination on certain other grounds may also beprohibited. These grounds include age, nationality, marital status, disability, place


Youwillneedtoconsidertherightsofequalityand non-discriminationwhenever you are working on legislation, a policy or a program thatdraws distinctions between people or groups based on any of thefollowinggrounds:

  • race
  • sex
  • disability,or

You will also need to consider the rights of equality and non-discriminationwheneveryouareworkingonlegislation,apolicyoraprogramthatdrawsdistinctionsbetweenpeopleorgroupsbasedon:

  • colour


  • language
  • religion
  • politicalorotheropinion
  • nationalorsocialorigin
  • property
  • birth
  • nationality
  • maritalstatus
  • placeofresidencewithinacountry,or


African Diaspora is the term commonly used to describe the mass dispersion ofpeoples from Africa during the Transatlantic Slave Trades, from the 1500s to the1800s. This Diasporatookmillions of peoplefromWestern andCentralAfrica todifferentregionsthroughouttheAmericasandtheCaribbean.


  1. EuropeannationshandlinkswithWestAfricahencetheshippingofmanyAfricans
  2. AfricanchiefshaddevelopedatasteforEuropeangoodssuchasglass,clothes,rumand fire —arms which in turn made them sell many Africans as slaves to the
  3. Theestablishmentofminesandplantationsandinnewlandsincreasedthedemand
  4. TheincreaseddemandofrawmaterialsbyEuropeanindustriesresultedinanincreasedindemandforslavesin Americatoworkontheplantations
  5. Ship—buildingtechnologyimprovedwithbuildingoflargershipswithagreater





  • UnitedstatesofAmerica
  • Brazil
  • France


TheAfricandiaspora inFranceisoneofthelargestintheworld.Theirmembers arefrom its former coloniesin Africaandfrom its overseasterritories in theCaribbean. Thelargest African community in Africa is the Algerians (730.000). Until it gainedindependencein1962,Algeria wasapart oftheFrenchterritory.Francealsohadstrongties with Morocco and today Moroccans are the second largest group of immigrants inFrance(670.000).AfricanimmigrantscametoFranceinconsequenceofthecolonizationprocessand,fromthe60sonwards,toseekemployment.



A quarter of the African-American population in Boston, Miami and New York wereborn abroad and 8 percent of the total of African Americans in the US were born outsidethe country[xv]. Ever since the Immigration and Nationality act in 1965 and the openingofnewlegalchannels,AfricanimmigrantshavestartedtocometotheUS.

Today, Americans with African descent make up 13.5% of the total US-population.Throughout the last decades, they have been becoming increasingly more present in themiddleclasses.


African immigrants came to South America and the Caribbean as a result of thetransatlantic slave trade. In the 1780s, slavery started to be criticized by the ChristianChurch,philosophersandeconomistsand,ascountriesgainedindependence,slaverywasabolished.


Unlike African Diasporas in the rest of Latin America who combine their African pastwiththe cultureoftheirhostcountry,AfricandescendantsintheCaribbeanwhoaccountformorethan 90%ofthepopulation,areinsearchofanewnationalidentity.Theydo


notdefinethemselvesintermsofAfricansbutratherasJamaicanorHaitiannationals,forinstance. They came to terms with their past and no longer need to think of themselves asAfricans.



  • Pan-AfricanismunifiestheculturalandpoliticalworldofAfricandiasporasandtheself-determination of people from Africa, or at least of African origin, as well asthe people of African descent resident outside Africa. Initially, there was an anti-slavery and anti-colonial movement amongst black people of Africa and theDiaspora in the late nineteenth century. Since then, the aims of Pan-Africanismhaveevolvedthroughtheensuingdecades[.
  • ThismovementhaditsoriginintheUnitedStatesinthelatenineteenthcentury,thankstotheworkoftheadvocate M.M.Garvey.Hestatedtheidea ofcreatingacommonstateinAfricatowelcomebackalltheAfricanAmericans.Lateron,DuBois claimed the need to gain full rights, both in Africa and in the countries inwhichAfrican communitiesresided,createdbytheforcedmigrationrepresented
  • Pan-Africanismgainedlegitimacy withthe foundingoftheAfrican Association inLondonin1897,andthefirstPan-African conferencewasheld,againinLondon,in1900whenHenrySylvesterWilliams,thepowerbehindtheAfricanAssociation,andhiscolleagueswereinterestedinunitingtheAfricanDiaspora,andgainingpoliticalrightsforthoseofAfricandescent[.
  • Between 1919 and 1945, Du Bois organized several conferences, which increasedand expanded the influence on the development of the African descendants’emancipation movement in the Americas and Europe, as a way of nationalism incolonial Africa.Moreover,betweentheworldwars,Pan-Africanismbecamemorerelated and influenced by communism and trade unionism, especially through thewritings of George Padmore, Isaac Wallace-Johnson, Frantz Fanon, AiméCésaire,PaulRobeson,CLRJames,WEBDuBois,andWalterRodney.
  • Significantly,Pan-AfricanismhadexpandedbeyondthecontinentintoEurope,theCaribbean and America. WEB Du Bois organized a series of Pan-AfricanCongresses in London, Paris, and New Yorkin the first halfof the twentiethcentury. International awareness of Africa was also heightened by the ItalianinvasionofAbyssinia(Ethiopia)in1935.


  • Asaresult,manyleadersstrugglingfortheindependencefromEuropeancolonialdominations were formed in this cultural and political context of Pan-Africanism.Amongthese,N.Nkrumah,J.Nyerere,A.Toure,M.Keita.
  • ThePan-Africanidealalsoinspiredtheemergenceofregionalgroupings,someofwhich were short-lived, due to the immediate emergence of nationalistic feelings


  • g.intermsofeducation
  • Through their contributions they have helped shape economic developments inafrica
  • Theyhaveaffirmedtheworthofblack peopleandthereforerejected theinferiorityascribedbyracistthoughtinthelate19thand20thCs
  • IthelpedtolaunchthestruggleforrightsandequalityforblackpeopleinthediasporaandAfricaaswell



Aglobalcitizenissomeonewhois awareofand understandsthewiderworld –andtheirplace init.Theyare acitizenoftheworld.Theytakeanactiverole intheircommunityandworkwithotherstomakeourplanetmorepeaceful,sustainableandfairer.


  • Exploringlocalandglobalconnectionsandourviews,valuesandassumptions
  • Exploringissuesofsocialjusticelocallyandglobally
  • Exploringthecomplexityofglobalissuesandengagingwithmultipleperspectives
  • Applyinglearningtoreal-worldissuesandcontexts
  • Opportunitiestomakeinformed,reflectiveactionandbeheard


Interconnectednessrefers totheabilitytounderstandandfunctioninanincreasinglymulticultural,international,yetinterconnectedenvironment.Itfostersthedevelopmentofindividualstobecomesuccessfulprofessionals,civicleaders,andinformedcitizensinadiversenationalandglobalsociety.


Interdependenceismeasured bythecostsofseveringtherelationship(orthebenefitsofdevelopingit).Thehigherthecoststoonecountry,thegreateristhe degreeofdependenceofthatcountry.


Industrialization leads to the advancement of economies which in turn triggers the in-housemanufacturingofseveralproducts.Whenacountryspecializesintheproductionofa certain product, it then needs to import other products from other countries. AnexampleisthatofAsia(Pakistan);itspecializesinthemanufacturingoffootballshoweverleatherandotherpreparatorymaterialsareimportedfromChina.

Producing specialized goods enhances production efficiency and therefore, mostcountriesonlyfocusontheirspecialties,providinganarrowrangeofgoodsandservices.Thiscreateseconomicinterdependenceamongnations;theneedforoutsourcingorimportingotherproductsforthefulfillmentofbasicneeds.


As an economy develops, it focuses on establishing more industries and manufacturingmoregoodswithinthecountry’spremises.Thiscan leadtothecreation ofrawmaterialsandotherlaborservicesfromwithinthecountryorfromneighboringeconomies.


One main reason forhigheconomicinterdependenceamong economiesisthe region-specificproduction.Differentregionsobservedifferentweather,differentsoil,andotherconditions. Within such circumstances, they specialize in the production of certain goodsandcropsonly, whileothernecessitiesarefulfilledbyimportinggoods.

Forexample,ChinaisonemajorexporterofApples,itproducesmorethan41milliontonsofappleseachyear.Blessedbytheperfectclimateandlandtoharvestapples,Chinais an expert inharvestingApples. Onthe otherhand,AmericaexportsMaize,Soybean,and Milk. Both of these countries exchange theirproducts witheach other and areeconomicallyinterdependent.


AnothermaindrivingforceofEconomicinterdependenceisLaborSpecialization.Whentoomanysimilarproductsareproducedbyonenationoraparty,theproductionbecomesspecializedandeconomicinterdependencetakesplace.That partythenforms


trading relationships with other parties for the supply of products and services that theycannotproduce.


Thisistoenhancediffusionofknowledgeamongcountriesastheyshareknowledgeondifferent disciplines. E.g. hiring of specialists like Doctors and nurses across variouscountries.


  1. AccesstoNewCultures

Globalizationmakesiteasierthanevertoaccessforeignculture,includingfood,movies,music,andart.Thisfreeflowofpeople,goods,art,and informationisthereasonyoucan have Thai food delivered to your apartment as you listen to your favorite UK-basedartistorstreamaBollywoodmovie.

  1. TheSpreadofTechnologyandInnovation


  1. LowerCostsforProducts

Globalization allows companies to find lower-cost ways to produce their products. It alsoincreases global competition, which drives prices down and creates a larger variety ofchoices for consumers. Lowered costs help people in both developing and already-developedcountrieslivebetteronlessmoney.

  1. HigherStandardsofLivingAcrosstheGlobe


  1. AccesstoNewMarkets

Businesses gain a great deal from globalization, including new customers and diverserevenue streams. Companies interested in these benefits look for flexible and innovativewaystogrowtheirbusinessoverseas

  1. AccesstoNewTalent

Inadditiontonewmarkets,globalizationallowscompaniestofindnew,specializedtalentthat is notavailable in theircurrent market.Forexample, globalization gives




  • LossofCulturalIdentity


  • Terrorism

Itisasignificantprobleminmostdevelopedcountries.Duetoworldwideintegration,people travel a lot. Some of them move abroad for studying, business, visiting relatives,work and access hospitals services. However, not all of them are totally honest. Lots ofterrorists came to a foreign country with a worker visa having a hidden goal to perform aterroristattack.It’saproblemthathasposedfearamongcitizenswhocan’ttrusttheirneighbors.Unfortunately,terroristsrecruityoungpeople,residentsofthecountryandmakethembelievetheyaredoingtherightthings.That’swhytherearefear,mistrust,andtensioninsociety.



  • JobInsecurity

Before globalization, skilled people got employment in government sectors andcompanies where they received high salaries. Job opportunities were waiting for thosewhocompletedcollegesandearnedadegree.Peoplewouldresignajobandquicklygetanother.Duetoglobalization,therearemanypeopleseekingemploymentallovertheworld. Employers take advantage of cheap labor. One can get a dismissal because of aslightmistakeastheemployercanfindaskilledworkerwhoisreadytobepaidless.

  • PriceInstability

Priceinstabilityisasignificanteffectofglobalizationonbusiness.Somepeopleestablishindustries overseas where they get cheap raw materials and labor. They can cutproductioncostsandselltheirgoodsatalowprice.Duetocompetition,somehigh-qualityproductsdifferinprices.NomatterhowtheWorldTradeOrganizationhastriedtocontrolpricefluctuation,theireffortsarenotsuccessful.Thesecompaniesreachoutto



  • CurrencyFluctuation

International trade buys and sells products using the US dollar. The price of dollarfluctuatesday-to-dayindevelopingcountries,thisresultsinimbalancedeconomyandunnormal prices for goods and services. National currencies are affected the most byIGOs.

















  • Globalcitizensactfairlyintheir choices,theirdecisions,andtheirwords.
  • Theydonotthinkofsomegroupsorindividualsassuperiororinferiortoothers.
  • Global citizens accept differences and do not react with hostility to people who are
  • Globalcitizensarewillingto helpandcooperate withothers.
  • Globalcitizenshavetheir ownideasandexpressthem,buttheyare opento


  • Globalcitizens look after theenvironment anddon’twastethings.
  • Globalcitizensbelievetheycanmakeapositivedifferenceintheworld


  • Enhancesocialtrust
  • Supportmemberslivingharmoniouslytogether
  • Fostercivicengagement
  • Empowerallmemberstoparticipateinglobal democracy.


Global governance encompasses activities that transcend national boundaries at theinternational,transnational,andregionallevelsandisbasedonrightsandrulesthatareenforced through acombinationof economic andmoralincentives.


  • selectiononthebasisofpersonal integrity,competenceandsuitability,orelectioninfreeandfairelections;
  • objectivityandimpartialityindecisionmaking,andinensuringthatdecisionsarenotinfluencedbynepotism,favouritism,otherimpropermotivesorcorruptpractices;
  • selflessservice based solely on the publicinterest, demonstratedby—
  • honesty in theexecutionof publicduties; and
  • thedeclarationofanypersonalinterest that mayconflict withpublicduties;
  • accountabilitytothepublicfordecisionsandactions;and


was an intergovernmental organization established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa,Ethiopia,with32signatorygovernments.OneofthemainheadsforOAU’sestablishmentwasKwameNkrumahofGhana.Itwasdisbandedon9July2002byitslastchairman, South African President Thabo Mbeki, and replaced by the African Union(AU).






  • OAUfoughtagainstcolonialism,throughitsliberationcommittee,OAUsucceededinmobilizing funds, arms andsupportforthecountriesthat werestillundercolonialrule.ThissawtheliberationofseveralcountrieslikeAngola,SouthAfricaandNamibia.Afteritssuccessfulcompletionofthedecolonizationtask,theliberationcommitteeofOAUwasdissolvedin1994
  • OAU upheld the idea of African unity through the annual conferences where itmanagedtobringthedifferentheadsofstatestogether,theydidnotonlydiscusstheimportantmattersaffectingthe continentbutalsocametoknowandunderstandeachotherbetter,thiscontributedtowardsAfricanunity.
  • OAU settled inter state conflicts between Uganda and Kenya 1987, Somalia andEthiopia in 1970, Morocco and Mauritania over the western Sahara republic 1976,SomaliaandKenya,UgandaandTanzania1978–79,UgandaandCongo,Ugandaand Sudan, OAU always came in to mediate peace and prevent large scale and
  • OAU helped in dismantling Apartheid by 1994; it used diplomatic talks, mobilizedmoral,financialandmilitarysupportinordertoweakentheApartheidregime.ItconvincedthesuperpowerstoimposesanctionsagainstApartheidSouthAfricaandencouraged the formation of frontline states that is Mozambique, Angola, and
  • OAU promoted economic development in Africa that is in 1963 set up the AfricanDevelopmentBankinAbidjaninCote-de-vioreIvoryCoast,itobtainedfundsfrommulti nationalco-operationsand rich Arabstatesfor development. In 1993atAbidjanOAUproposedtheformationofanAfricaneconomic community.


  • OAU supported regional economic integrations after realizing that the idea ofcontinentaleconomicintegrationwilltakelongtomature,suchgroupingslikeECOWAS for West Africa, PTA and COMESA for East, central and South Africa,the SADC were formed and through these, unity and social economic advancement
  • OAUmadeeffortstoendcivilwars;in1972itnegotiatedapeacesettlementoverthe Sudanese civil war,thishelped toput thecivil war to anend fora period of tenyears.Evenafterthewarresumedin1983,itstillmadeeffortstoreconciletheSPLA guerillamovementwith Khartoum government. Italsointervened inthecivilwarsinBurundi,Mozambique,NigeriaandAngola.
  • OAUmadeeffortstocaterforrefugees,duringthe1965OAUsummitinAccraAfricanheadsofstatesaddressedthemselvestotheproblemofrefugeesinAfricaintheir topic “The refuge problem in Africa”. They resolved to give asylum to therefugees, minimize civil conflicts that produced these civil wars and also prevent
  • OAU revived African culture throug games and sports, African festivals , AfricanLanguageslikeSwahili,LingalaandHausa,promotionofAfricanliteraturebureauwhich saw the writing of a number of novels and plays like “Things fall Apart byChinuaAchebe”,“LionandtheJewelbyWoleSoyinka”.
  • OAU promoted international understanding, Africa on the international fora nowspoke with one voice, it was also the influence of OAU on international scene thatAfricamanagedtoproduceUNsecretaryGeneralslikeBoutrosBoutrosGhaliand
  • OAUpromotedscientificresearchandthroughthisOAUhelpedtostoppests,EastcoastfeverandalsowentaheadtosensitizepeopleaboutAIDS,alsosetuptheAfrican Medical Research Fund (AMRF) in order to improve research in diseases.
  • OAU called for NAM in relation to international politics, it advised Africancountriestoremainneutralduringtheperiodofcoldwarpoliticsandthishelped
  • OAUcondemnedsecessionionsforexampleittookanuncompromisingpositionsagainst, Biafran secession, Katanga secessions this helped to bring togetherness
  • OAUpromoted democraticgovernanceinAfrica andtookafirm groundtocondemncoupsandpoliticalassassinationsinadditiontheprincipleofonemanonevotewasupheld,AfricarealizeddifferentelectionsforexampleinKenyaMoigave


in to Kibaki through elections. All these were achievements that could not beunderestimated.

  • OAUdefendedhumanrightsbysettingupahumanrightscharteron21stOctober1986 signed by 30 out of 52 African states and from then they started fightinghuman rights abuses and encouraged Africans states to set up human rightscommissions with in their countries. This has helped to reduce on human suffering
  • OAU constantly spoke against neo-colonialism and Africans were encouraged tobuildselfsustainingeconomiesandavoidacceptingdecisionsfromtheWest.This


  • Inabilitybymemberstatestomeettheir annualsubscriptionandtheproblemof
  • Countriessupportedrebelactivitiesineachother’scountry.
  • Most countriesremainedverypoorandliableto neo-colonialism.
  • OAUwasfacedwithaproblemofprolongedEuropeandominationinAfricawhichdrainedmostofitsresourcesespeciallySouthAfrica,NamibiaandthePortuguesecoloniesofAngola,MozambiqueandGuineaBissau.
  • ThecoloniallegacywasanotherproblemwhereAfricansremainedloyaltotheirformer colonial masters; there were sharp differences between the Anglo-phoneandFranco-phone.
  • AssassinationsofAfrican



  • FailuretoairoutpoliticaldifferencesofAfricanstates,duringtheNigeriancivilwar of 1967-70, Tanzania, Zambia, Ivory Coast plus Gabon remained in totalisolation with Nigeria because they supported the Biafran secession. This wasblamed on OAU because it had not made enough sensitization in the need for
  • OAU failed to create a standing army that would solve African problems. It onlyreliedonsolicitingsupportfromAfricancountriesintimesofcrisisandthereforeitfailed to iron out dictators like Jean BodelBokasa of Central Africa, failed to endAmin’s rule in a short period, people like Mugabe of Zimbabwe and Ghadafi ofLibya did not uphold on to the democratic principles of elections and this created
  • OAU failed to end Neo-colonialism throughout its existence,African countriesweredependingontheformercolonialmastersandtomakemattersworsethe1982OAUsummitthatwastotakeplaceinLibyafloppedbecauseoftheinfluenceofUSAanditwasshiftedtoAddisAbaba.ThereforeitisurgedthatOAUfailedto
  • The OAU failed to attain the desired unity of Africa. African countries throughoutitsexistenceweremoreconcernedabouttheirhomeproblemsratherthanthecontinental issues. This created divisions against the future unity envisaged by its
  • OAUfailedtoendinterstateconflictsforexamplebetween1977and1978EthiopiawasatwarwithSomaliaaround1979TanzaniaandUgandawerealsoatwar,thisdisunityhamperedeconomicdevelopment.
  • OAU failed toamendtheOAUcharterwhichemphasized theprinciple of noninterference in the affairs of other states, the dictators always used this clause toprolong their stay in power and abuse human rights a case in point is ApartheidSouth Africa which constantly called OAU members to respect the noninterference clause, other leaders like Ghadafi always told other leaders to mind
  • OAU failed to establish an economic integration of the continent, African statesremained very poor and surprisingly 90% of the total trade in Africa was doneoutside the continent thus regional groupings like COMESA, Preferential TradeArea(PTA),SADCCfailedtorealizetheirobjectives.


  • OAU failed to safeguard the sovereignty and respect of the members states forexample in 1968 USA troops bombed Libyan cities of Benghazi and Tripoli, inCongo the Belgian troops occupied without the blessing of the OAU, variousmilitarytakeoverwerepartlyinfluencedbyforeigncountriesandAfricadidnot
  • OAU failed to enforce non-alignment as member states became aligned either tothe east or the West for example where as Kenya adopted capitalism, Tanzania
  • OAU failed to discipline member states which did not pay their membership forexampleChadandRwandaforlongrefusedtopaythisfee.Accordingtothe1995statisticsoutof53countriesonly17fullypaidanditwasestimatedthatabout583
  • OAUwasalsofacedwithpersonalconflicts,misunderstandingsbyHeadsofstatesin Africaforexample NyerereboycottedtheOAUsummitinUgandain1975because of personal conflicts with Amin, Nasser and Nkrumah disagreed on theform ofunity toadopt inAfrica. Allthese wereblamedonOAU forfailureto
  • OAUfailedtopreventassassinationsofAfricanleadersandAfricalostdynamicandpoliticalleaderslikeLumumba,SylvanusOlympioofTogo,AnwalSadatofEgypt,MelicioNdadaye of Burundi, Juvenile Habyarimana of Rwanda, and the people
  • OAU failed to iron out differences between black Africans and the Arab NorthAfricans. This was significant in the 1977 OAU summit in Somalia. The Arabswanted a Somali to be elected as secretary General of OAU as opposed to a blackfromZambia.ThisalmostfragmentedAfricaintotheArabNorthandBlackSouth.
  • OAUfailedto protecthumanrights.MostAfricanstateswereheadedbydictatorslike Amin, Mobutu Seseko, Sun Abacha who even banned political parties,censored thepressbutOAUsimplycondemnedandcouldnotremovesuch
  • Africansremainedverypoor,suffered from curable diseases like Bilharzia, there was poor feeding and mal-nutritionyetOAUdidlittleornothingtoimproveonthis.
  • Failure to stop ethnic nationalism in Africa. OAU completely failed to stop the1967 to1979Nigerian civilwar,failedtouniteSouthernand NorthernSudanand



  • OAUfailedtoimproveonthetransportnetworkinAfricawhichhamperedeconomic progress for example the plan to construct the Trans-African high wayfromMombasatoLagosandfromJohannesburgtoTripolinevermaterializedand
  • OAUfailedtoeradicatethewhitesettlersinKenyanhighlands,Ethiopianhighlands,SouthAfricaandZimbabwe.

TheAfricanUnion(AU)wasofficiallylaunchedinJuly2002inDurban,SouthAfrica,followingadecision inSeptember1999 byitspredecessor,theOAU tocreateanewcontinental organisation to build on its work. The decision to re-launch Africa’s pan-AfricanorganisationwastheoutcomeofaconsensusbyAfricanleadersthatinordertorealise Africa’spotential, there was aneed torefocusattention from the fight fordecolonisation and ridding the continent of apartheid, which had been the focus of theOAU, towards increased cooperation and integration of African states to drive Africa’sgrowthandeconomicdevelopment.


  • AchievegreaterunityandsolidaritybetweenAfricancountriesandtheirthepeople
  • Defendthesovereignty,territorialintegrityandindependenceofitsMemberStates;
  • Acceleratethepoliticalandsocio-economicintegrationofthecontinent;
  • Promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to thecontinentanditspeoples;
  • Encourageinternationalcooperation
  • Promotepeace,security,andstabilityonthecontinent;
  • Promotedemocraticprinciplesandinstitutions,popularparticipationandgoodgovernance;
  • Promote and protect human and peoples’ rights in accordance with the AfricanCharter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and other relevant human rightsinstruments;


  • Establishthenecessaryconditionswhichenablethecontinenttoplayitsrightfulroleintheglobaleconomyandininternationalnegotiations;
  • Promotesustainabledevelopmentattheeconomic,socialandculturallevelsaswellastheintegrationofAfricaneconomies;
  • PromotecooperationinallfieldsofhumanactivitytoraisethelivingstandardsofAfricanpeoples;
  • Coordinate and harmonise the policies between the existing and future RegionalEconomic Communities for the gradualattainmentofthe objectives ofthe Union;
  • Advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields, inparticularinscienceandtechnology
  • Workwithrelevantinternationalpartnersintheeradicationofpreventable
  • Ensuretheeffectiveparticipationofwomenindecision-making,particularlyinthepolitical,economicandsocio-culturalareas;
  • Developandpromotecommonpoliciesontrade,defenceandforeignrelationstoensure thedefenceoftheContinentand thestrengtheningofitsnegotiatingpositions;
  • InviteandencouragethefullparticipationoftheAfricanDiasporaasanimportantpartofourContinent,inthebuildingoftheAfricanUnion.



  • ConflictResolution,Peace&Security
  • Infrastructure &EnergyDevelopment
  • Agricultural Development
  • Trade&IndustrialDevelopment
  • VisaFreeAfrica
  • Democracy,Law&HumanRights
  • PromotingHealth&Nutrition
  • Migration,Labour&Employment
  • PromotingSports&Culture
  • Education,Science&Technology
  • YouthDevelopment


  • EconomicIntegration&PrivateSectorDevelopment
  • Diaspora&CivilSocietyEngagement
  • GenderEquality&DevelopmentU





    • IntroductionofonecurrencyforAfricancountries
    • ExpansionofroadsthatlinkAfricancountries
    • IntroductionoffreetradeacrosstheAfricancontinent
    • EnhancingofculturalexchangesamongAfricanCommunities
    • Specializationinproductionofgoodsandservices
    • UseofITinenhancing