History notes.
History notes.




History is an account of events took place in the past.

It may also be defined as a branch of knowledge which deals with past events of human beings and their response to their environment over the years.

R.G. Collingwood in his book, “ the ideal of history’’ human actions in the past, pursed by interpretation of evidence for the sake of human self-knowledge.

Therefore, history is the endless story of mankind’s actions and events affecting him in the past.

Pre-history refers to the unrecorded (unwritten) history. Refers to those activities that humans engaged in before writing and drawing were invented as ways of storing information. Such knowledge is reconstructed through songs, myths, stories, artefacts, fossils and language of the people.

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Branches of History.

Social history: deals with the traditions, values and cultural practises of the people.

Economic history: refers to the means of livelihood of people, such as hunting, gathering, agriculture and trade.

Political history: deals with control systems in society for example maintenance of law and order, leadership and security.

The meaning of government.

The term government is derived from the verb to govern which means to exercise authority over, to rule or control. Therefore, it means a group of people within a state or country given authority to organise direct and control the affairs of the state or country. In Kenya the government has three arms.

The legislature/ parliament.

It includes the national assembly, the senate and the president there work is to make laws.


Includes the president, the cabinet and the civil service, it implements the law.

Judiciary( courts).

Its responsibility is to see to that the laws made are constitutional, that they are followed and that those who break them are punished.

Forms of government.

Democratic: this type of government requires the rulers to regularly seek public mandate through popular vote. These governments are based on the promise that elections are free and fair and that the elected officials represent the wishes and aspiration of the people.

Abraham Lincoln said democracy is government of the people, for the people and by the people’’. In a democratic government, freedoms and rights are provided for in the constitution that governs the law of the nation. It is there freedoms that enable discussions and debate on matters of national importance.

Aristocratic, etymology:

Greek words `aristos’ meaning best and `kratos’ meaning power. Therefore, it’s a type of government in which a group of people from the highest social class that is the loyalty, in a society rule over others. The king or queen is the head of the government while senior positions in the government are given to the privileged members from among the nobles who are considered superior because of the wealthy family background they are born into and their superior education.


Is a form of government where democracy is practised but aristocratic power is respected.

Parliament is the supreme organ but the monarchy-the royalty that are in power- be it a king or queen is retained as traditional and respected as head of state.

  1. Absolute monarchy- refers to the unrestricted power of the head of state. The monarchy is dictatorial.
  2. Constitutional monarchy- restricted monarchical power is determined by what is spelt out in the constitution E.G Britain and Lesotho.


Is a system of government where the ruler has total powers over his subjects. Dictators are the sole authority where they rule. They make law and execute justice; they exercise their rule forcefully, suppressing their subjects at will. They curtail the freedom of the subjects.

Importance of studyinghistory.

  • It helps us to know the origin of mankind, his development and progress he has made to this date.
  • It helps us appreciate man achievements and learn from the failures of the past so as to manage the present better.
  • It helps man to understand how to relate and depend on each other. Decisions taken by one person affects others.
  • It helps understand our culture as well as other people’s culture.
  • History inspire patriotism and nationalism among citizens as they team of the past political development.
  • It helps to comprehend social, economic and political development of our societies.
  • It helps one to be more knowledgeable as its documents information of varied importance to human development.
  • It helps man to know the time, place and space of past events.
  • We utilize historical records of events such as famine; clashes and civil wars to prepare people cope with and avoid a repeat of such tragedies.
  • It develops a critical mind as we try to explain historical events by asking questions of WHY, HOW and WHEN.
  • History provides intellectual fulfilment to the learner.
  • History influences career choice.

Importance of studying government.

  • It helps us to understand how laws are made.
  • We also learn how development programme are formulated and implemented.
  • We learn how powers vested in different organs of the government i.e. legislature, judiciary and executive are exercised.
  • Through the study of government we understand and appreciate the need for a government.
  • It helps us appreciate the constitution and the powers of making and reviewing laws and states.
  • The study of government makes us know our role as citizens and roles of leaders who govern us. This makes us law abiding and productive.
  • Government is a social contract and hence helps us understand our rights, responsibilities as well as limitations within which we must operate and protect us from dictatorship.
  • The study of government just like history influences career choice.

Sources of information on history and government.

They are divided into  Unwritten sources.  Written sources.  Electronic source.

Unwritten sources.

Refers to historical information which is not recorded in writing. They are oral traditions, linguistics (language), anthropology (culture), archaeology, palaeontology and genetics.

  1. Oral traditions: refers to the practice of handing down historical information by word of mouth from one generation to the next. It includes folktales, proverbs, songs and stories.


  • It is important in the study of pre-history.
  • They integrate the study of history with other social studies.
  • It is cheap.
  • It compliments other sources of history

Limitations of oral tradition.

  • The information may be exaggerated as it’s difficult to distinguish between what was real from what was imagined.
  • The information may be forgotten or omitted because it depends on human memory.
  • Information may deliberately conceal some important information. People tend to talk more of their successes than their failures.
  • It may not provide dates and give correct chronology of events because it depends on human memory.
  • It is an expensive method of gathering information as one has to pay for the information’s transportation, lunch and accommodation.
  • Its time consuming, one requires a lot of time to interview one individual.
  • The information may be biased.
  1. Linguistics: refers to the scientific study of language.Historical linguistics is the study of language as it changes in the course of time. It traces the principles of language change and establishes the current genealogical classification of a particular language.The study of a language helps in discovering its content, form and vocabulary.It can tell us the historical experience of the people who speak it. People who speak related language may be assumed to have a common origin, be connected or had been in close contact sometimes backing in the past.

Advantages of linguistics

  • It gives information about the movement of people and their relationships. This assists experts in grouping languages correctly according to language families.
  • Linguistics helps us understand communication better, as people with a common language may common origin.
  • Language has enabled historical linguistics to discover links between different people which previously unknown.
  • Language helps those using oral tradition to gather information from various sources.
  • Linguistics is useful in the dating of migration of people.

Limitations of linguistics.

  • It’s time consuming as it takes long to study a particular language.
  • When translating the language, the historian might omit some words, in the process; vital information about people’s history may be lost.
  • Different languages may have similar words with different meanings, this can confuse a researcher.
  • There has been borrowing of words from other languages and this has interfered with or corrupted the parent language this leads to inaccurate information.
  • A linguist may find some of the words from different groups difficult to understand.
  • Some languages have become archaic or extinct and are therefore difficult to translate.
  1. Anthropology: is the study of human beings, their origin, development, beliefs and social relationships. To carry out their work, anthropologists have to live among the people to experience their way of life. This helps them to understand and explain structures of societies, forms of social organization, institutions, marriage, and forms of government, systems of inheritance, religious customs and cultural values. They can also explain aspects of the economic such as fishing and agriculture in which a given community depends. Anthropology is vital because it gives a deeper understanding of particular aspects of people’s culture.


  • It enables historians to determine the cultural past of a community.
  • Information is easily obtained from the surrounding.
  • It compliments other sources.

Limitations of anthropology.

  • It’s expensive because it involves living among the people you are studying or observing.
  • It’s time consuming method of acquiring information.
  • The researcher may find it difficult to adapt fully to the environmental during their research, and if they do, they face the risk of losing their own culture.
  • People under study may try to behave differently when the researcher is around, it is hence unreliable.
  • When observing a researcher may miss important details as it is mainly observing people in their own culture.
  1. Archaeology and palaeontology: archaeology is the study of material remains from past human life and culture through scientific analysis.

Examples of material remains include;

  • Store tools
  • Pottery
  • Wooden implements
  • Metal objects
  • Baskets

It also includes

  • Shelters
  • Rock paintings
  • Art work.

After studying the artefacts, the archaeologies reconstruct the activities of the people who lived in pre-historic time form various evidence such as the trace of weapons, coins, bones and traditional crafts.

Archaeologists often work with natural scientists such as palaeontologists. Palaeontologist deals with fossils. Fossils are remains of pre-historical plant and animals.


  • Archaeology gives detailed information on material culture that other sources may not have.
  • It gives a sense of time as the artefacts can be dated.
  • It compliments other sources of information and thus gives authentic information.
  • It provides varied information depending on the material found at a site.


  • It is expensive source of information because of the hiring labourers to excavate a site and the need for expensive archaeological equipments.
  • It is time consuming during excavation process as well as taking materials to laboratories for analysis.
  • Some artefacts and fossils are fragile and can disintegrate during excavation. This results in the distortion of analysis.
  • It is only laminated to the study of ancient records and not recent history.
  • Information may be inaccurate resulting from wrong conclusion or reconstructions.
  • It is not easy to accurately determine date when events took place. It is only estimate through method of dating fossils.
  • There are few archaeological experts and facilities for interpreting archaeological evidence in Kenya.

Locating a historical site.

  • Archaeologists look for areas where faulting or erosion has occurred exposing surfaces that may give clues to finding fossils and artefacts.
  • Vision may help find early areas of settlements such as a few stores in a regular pattern.
  • Archaeologist may use long experience and skills to identify or potential site.
  • Historical research and insights to areas of past civilization is useful in identifying a site.
  • Cultivation and building / construction by people may accidently expose ancient objects that curiously in researchers.

Method of dating fossils.

The following methods are used by scientists to arrive at the age of fossils remains.

  • Geological Problems– scientists have names for periods of past time characterized by successive types of plants and animals, and by climatic changes.
  • Chemical Dating– such as radio-carbon dating and potassium-argon method. Dating measures the use of decay potassium to give out the gas argon.

Radio-carbon dating measures the rate of decay carbon fossils and organic substance.

Hence the amount of argon-40 compared to the account of potassium gives direct measures of age.

Potassium-argon method- is used to date volcanic ash. Potassium is emitted during volcanic eruptions. This method is also used to date minerals containing potassium. As soon as the potassium is deposited, the radioactive potassium-40 immediately begins to decay into the gas argon. The argon is retained in the mineral or rock unless there is earth movement, given that the rate of decay of potassium is unknown, the amount of argon-40 compared with the amount of potassium, v=gives a direct measure of age.

  • Stratigraphy-the study and interpretation layers of rocks successfully deposited at a place (sedimentation).
  • Fission-Track Dating– the age of minerals and glass as estimated by observing the tracks made in them by the fission fragment of the uranium made that they contain.
  • Lexico- Statistics Dating– the study of vocabulary of languages with the interest to determine their age and their historical lines with other languages.
  • Statistical Dating-the use of calculation using a system of arranging the length of generation can be determined for a particular society.
  1. Genetics: genetics is the scientific study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.

It therefore studies how characteristics are passed from parents to their offspring’s through their genes (this is known as hereditary).


  • Characteristics can be passed on to the next generation including a detail of colour, shape, blood group or gender.
  • It shows relationship between people who have a common ancestor.
  • It can distinguish one person from another.
  • Genetics can trace the movement of people or plants from their original habitat to other regions.
  • Genetics can help locate where and when animals were domesticated and their routes of migration with the help of zoologist.


These are recorded information in the form of drawing the printed word. They could be written using pens, pencils, keyboards or computer screen or some other surface.

They can be used in many times without damaging them.

Written sources includes

  • Narratives sources of first hand information or eye intern recounts or happenings, informal events, annual and newspapers.
  • Private paper belonging to individuals like letters, autobiographies.
  • Government records of institutions.
  • Political records.
  1. Archives and manuscripts.

Archives– are a collection of historical documents or resources and are resources center for preserved information.

Manuscripts– are a hand written text which has not been published.

  1. Printed sources.

They include.

Advantages of written sources.

  • They preserve history since events are recorded for future references.
  • Written records can be distributed to literate people all over the world.
  • They are accurate as information preserved as was recorded and not dependant in human memory.
  • Written records can be translated into different languages.
  • Written records are less costly compared to anthropology or archaeology.
  • Braces and prejudices coming from authors are limited and hence more reliable.

Limitations of written records.

  • It’s unreliable if the author omits essential information for one reason or another.
  • It can be misunderstand or misinterpreted by readers to suit ones need or discredit others.
  • Writers are at times biased whenthey write from a particular point or view e.g. early colonial writers.
  • They are limited to literate people in society but not useful to illiterate.
  • At times acquiring written records are expensive e.g. in Kenya many people cannot afford newspapers.
  • Reading written records is often time consuming.


Electronic sources of historical information includes.

  • Micro films.
  • Computerized data bases.


  • They provide information fast.
  • The information is stored for future reference.
  • Information can be conveyed to any part of the world.


  • Can only be used in areas with electricity.
  • They are expensive to obtain and use.
  • They require experts.



Human beings are often referred to as “man’’. Man is unique compared to other creatures because they are able to communicate reason, make tools and create or discover things.

The Origin Of Man.

The following theories have been advanced to explain the origin of man

  1. The creation theory– most of the major religions of the world believers in the creation theory. They claim that God created the universe and al the living creatures including man in six days. Man was created in God’s own image, the woman was created by God to provide man with a companion, God commanded them to reproduce and fill the earth, and this story is told in the book of genesis.
  2. The traditional theory– every community has his own myth or myths concerning the origin of man. Myths are symbolic stories that have a cultural meaning that attempt to explain supernatural phenomena, beliefs or practise e.g. the Yoruba of Nigeria believe that olorun (God) sent man from the sky to live on earth. The agikuyu believed that God (ngai) first created GIKUYU before God provided him with a wife called MUNBI and settled around MT. KIRINYAGA and God blessed them with 9 daughters. The ZULU of South Africa believe their origin came out of a REED.
  3. The evolution theory– this is a scientific theory that explain the origin of man through a slow process of change called evolution. The theory was stated in 1859 by Charles Darwin in his book “on the origin of species’’. He argues that plants and animals must have evolved from simple life forms and transformed ( changed) slowly over millions of years through environmental adaptation, mutation and natural selections( mutation-change)

Mutation is the abrupt change inform dictated by climate or genetic components. Natural selection is when the stronger species out compete the weaker ones for resources. Adaptation is the last stage where surviving species isolate themselves as they adapt to the new environment; it’s therefore a process of natural but continuous changes from a lower simpler state or species.

The important aspects of Darwin theory.

  • All organisms are uniquely different based on hereditary factors from birth.
  • Although many young organisms are produced, few manage to survive and develop to maturity.
  • Organisms that mature and reproduce are able to adapt to existing environmental e.g. by mutation.
  • In view of limited resources, even after mutation it’s only the fittest animal survives but the weak ones become extinct.
  • Isolation and adaptation is the final stage in the evolution process.

The evolution of man.

Evolution is the process of slow or gradual change; it’s believed that living things were not in the form we see them today. The earliest living things are believed to have appeared 200 million years ago. Man experienced physical and cultural changes over millions of years; he thus transformed a primitive form to the state he is in today.

Man therefore shared a common ancestor with apes. Mans particular family group is called HOMONIDAE while that of the apes is called PONGIDAE through evolution and environmental adaptation, man separated from his ancestors and took his own life of development. Hominids therefore appeared which was man-like (rather than ape-like) forming the ancestors of the human family.

Scientists widely believed that AFRICA is the cradle of mankind before moving to EUROPE and ASIA. Existing evidence shows that the earliest apes lived around LAKE VICTORIA and RIFT VALLEY. Archaeological sites include.

Rusinga Island  Fort tenan. Kariandusi. olorgesailie. Koobi fora. Gambles cave.Omo river valley.Olduvai Gorge.

Over the years man ancestors lived in forests. Climate changes about 15 million years ago gave way to savannah grassland. Man ancestors changed both physically and mentally to cope up competition for food increase and affected man’s physical status.  Man became more upright in posture.

The evolution of man is believed to have passed through the following stages from the earliest apes to the emergence of Homo sapiens.

  • Aegytopithecus-probable earliest ancestor of man and apes discovered in Egypt. It’s about 33 million years old and weighs about 4 kgs, it was herbivores, it moved on fours and had a tail.
  • Dryopithecus/ africanus/ proconsul– were discovered in Rusinga Island. It dates back to about 25 million years. It had long teeth, ate fruits, smooth forehead, and projecting face, moved on fours and lived in forests.
  • Kenyapithecus( ramapithecus)- it lived about 12 million years ago. Discovered at fort ternan , it weighed about 18-36 kgs, had small teeth, had a lager brain and walked on two legs.
  • Australopithecus( zinjathropus)- they were earliest hominids closer to man known as southern ape man, lived in the savannah about 4 million years ago found in olduvai gorge founded by Mrs. Mary leaky. These were four types of austrolopithecus. Robustus( strong built with powerful claws and teeth) and africanus which was smaller and slender. They had enlarged skull and jaws, walked upright with bipedal gait about 1.5 metres tall. Others include amensis( found at kanapoiand alia bay) and afarensis(lived between 4 abd 3 million years ago.)boisei

Features of the australopithecines.

  • Had an upright posture as he walked on two legs
  • Had hairy body.
  • Was short and small slender body.
  • Was strongly built with heavy shoulders
  • Had a large brain capacity of about 500cc.
  • Large face with a low forehead and stereo-scopic vision.
  • Large jaws and teeth.
  • Weighed 30-68kg
  • Homo habilis– means handy man or practical man. He was man-like and could group objects and make tools which lived about 2 million years ago. His brain capacity was about 500-800 cm3.

Features of homo habilis.

  • Large brain capacity of about 775 cc.
  • Bigger body stature of about 5 feet.
  • Face and skull like that of modern man.
  • Used elementary speech.
  • Well developed thumb like of modern man
  • Homo erectus– it means upright man lived in Africa about 1 million years ago. He was claver, made achelian tools like the hand axe. He invented fire, he had a higher brain capacity between 750-1100cm3.

Features of homo erectus.

  • Had upright posture.
  • Large brain capacity.
  • Made refined tools.
  • Communicated well using speech.
  • Was large in stature of 5.5 feet tall.
  • Possessed a prominent brow ridge over the eyes.
  • Homo sapiens– means intelligent or thinking man, it’s the name given to modern man. He had small teeth with steep rounded head. He had a higher brain capacity to about 1000-1800 cm3. He hunted, gathered and practised fishing. There are 3 sub spacies.
  • Rhodesian man
  • Had straight legs and walked with long strides.
  • Had large brain capacity.
  • Had great ridges over his eyes
  • Neanderthal man
  • It was heavily built with brow-ridges.
  • Large brain capacity.
  • Was intelligent and skilled in using his hands.
  • Ate meat from animals.
  • Cro-magnon man.
  • He was taller
  • Had a thicker brow ridge.
  • He painted pictures.

Features of homo sapiens.

  • Had straight legs.
  • Walked on twos with long strides.
  • Had a large stature of about 6 feet tall.
  • Had small teeth.
  • Had a steep well rounded forehead.
  • 1800 cc. Brain.
  • 8) Homo sapien sapien– the most advanced creature to appear on earth. They were taller, slimmer and more intelligent. He started domesticating crops and animals and building huts, he led a settled life.

Cultural and economic practices of early man.

The culture of early man can be understood through the study of Stone Age or Palaeolithic periods. The early period of hum history mean man’s tools and weapons were mainly made of stone, bone and wood. The things they made and used formed their material culture, archaeologists have divided stone age in three categories.

The old stone age (lower Palaeolithic) 300,000-200,000 years ago.

Man led a simple life.

He made few simple tools.

Weapons and tools are referred to as oldowan or pebble tools.

He made acheulian tools in the second phase of old stone age.

Archeulian tools were made by homo-eretus

Clothing- was hairy and walked naked.

Shelter- did not build houses but slept on trees in forest. They used store, caves and rock as shelters.

These are aegytopethecus and drypethicus.

They ate raw meat, plants, birds and eggs.

They did hunting, gathering and collected food.

There communication was through gestures, growling and whistling.

The middle stone age (middle Palaeolithic) 200,000-50,000 years ago.

Man changed his life marked by great improvement.

Changes were attributed to superior brains.

Tools and weapons were improved to smaller scrappers, spears and choppers.

Shelter- man had known rock shelters and later livedin caves for more security, after hunting.

Food- hunting improved due to lighter shaper and specialized weapons. They invented fire and startedcooking his own food in neutralizes poisons.

Clothing- man wore animal skins; he made shells and necklaces and painted his body with red ochre and oil.

Communication- man improved in gesture and growing began to use clicks and grants.

Tools- they were called sangoan tools.

How the invention of fire changed man’s life.

  • Man could warm himself during cold night.
  • The flames of fire could be give him light at night.
  • Fire enables man to cook roots and roast meat thus increasing availability of food because a variety of roots and seed could now be cooked and eaten.
  • Fire used for hunting and confining animals in certain areas.
  • Fire was used for fighting away wild animals.
  • It improved tool making as it hardened the tip of wooden tools.
  • Early communication was through smoke and fire signals. It thus improved communication.
  • Fire was used as food preservative e.g drying meat and fish.
  • It made hominids to migrate through the world from the savannah.

New stone age (upper Palaeolithic) 50,000-15,000 years ago.

It’s also referred to as late Stone Age.

It’s associated with homo sapiens.

Man made great advances socially, politically and economically. There was technological advancement.

Advanced tools called microliths had straight sharp cutting edges glued on bone and wood e.g sickles, arrowheads, spears, bows, arrows, knives, slings, daggers and saws.

Shelter- he made shelter using tree branches and grass. Wall and roofs were decorated with animal paintings.

Food- domesticated plants and animals and thus began agriculture. He continued to hunt and gather.

Communication- he developed a cruel form of spoken language.

Rock art- drew pictures of animals and painted them. Specialized in basketry and pottery.

Religion- started performing rite to and ceremonies in the belief to influence natural forces like rain, drought and death. Human were buried with their tools and possessions.

Government- man led a settled life in permanent shelters. The social life led to setting up of rules and laws. This made some people specialize in leadership.


Agriculture involves the growing of crops and rearing of animals. Human beings hunted and gathered during the Old Stone Age. But during the new Stone Age, they domesticated plants and animals. The first animal to be domesticated was the dog and later horses, cows, sheep and goats.

Crop farming began around 6000 BC before the domestication of crops; man ate wild fruits and seeds of grasses like wheat and rice that grew wildly in the middle-east. Domestication was either accidental when food remains(seeds) started germinating around cave or it was tedious searching for it rather than cultivating it nearby. This is known as the Neolithic revolution.

Reasons for domestication of crops and animals.

  • Climate change caused animals to migrate far away leding to luck of food.
  • Increase in mans population which required more food form animals.
  • Man and other wild animals competed for the same food leading to decrease in the animals man could rely on.
  • Over-hunting by man depleted stocks of animal he could rely on for food.
  • Natural disasters like forest fires and floods killed many animals making the 1survivors to migrate far away thus leading to scarcity of land..
  • Hunting and gathering had become insecure and tedious as man could come back empty handed.
  • Hunting as well as gathering would sometimes be hindered by unfavourable weather conditions like snow and rain.
  • Animals were used for transport and security.
  • Animals also provided cloths through hide and skins.

Crop growing.

The transformation or change from hunting and gathering to growing of food crops did not happen suddenly, it took time. Crop growing developed in stages.

Man discovered that some pants had more nutrients than others, so he selected these he considered better or superior.

People realized that wild crops germinated along river valleys where water and fertile soils were available.

The crops grew faster when bushes and other plants were weeded out hence through trial and error people acquired the skill of crop growing.

The earliest crops to be domesticated were

  • Barley   Sorghum.  Rice.  Millet. Maize     Yams. Cassava. Potatoes. Grapes.

These crops grew in different soils and climate conditions.

There are many centres of agricultural revolution such as.

  • The Middle East.
  • The Nile valley.
  • The Indus valley (India).
  • The yellow river valley(china)
  • The Danube valley (Europe).

The following are some of the crops that were grown.


It is believed to have originally grown in south west Asia. It spread to Mesopotamia by 600 BC and then Egypt by 3000BC.


It was probably the first cereal to be domesticated. It was grown in Syria and the river Euphrates. It later spread to Egypt, India and china by 2000BC.

Sorghum and millet.

They originated from different parts of Africa e.g.West Africa by 1500 BC around Lake Chad and Ethiopia.


Originated in the central amorira about 500BC in Mexico.


They are probably the 1st of the roots and tuber crops to be domesticate by about 9000BCe.g. in south –east Asia and also south America and Africa.

Domestication of animals.

It is possible that human beings domesticated animals before crop growing.

The 1st animals to be tamed were the dogs and later goats, sheep, cattle and camels. It was a gradual process. Man kept animals for.

This depended on the type of animal kept. However the animals are 1st to be tamed and kept in bomas protection, man later learned the art of selecting breeding. Animals were led to good pastures.


They helped in hunting and drove away dangerous animals.

They helped man to herd cattle, sheep and goats.


They were domesticated in south west Asia around 5000BC. They reached Africa by 5000BC in Egypt.


They were domesticated after dogs about 9000BC in Iraq. They were also kept in Syria, Europe and Africa.


They were 1st domesticated in south west Asia in turkey around 5800BC and later in Iraq and Iran. They later spread to North Africa and Ethiopia.


It originated in North America though found in North Africa. It later spread to Asia and South America.

Benefits of domesticated animals.

  • Animals provided regular food supply in the form of meat and milk.
  • Animal’s skins are used for clothing and beddings among other purpose.
  • The hooves and horns were used as containers or as drinking vessels. The horns were used as communication instruments.
  • Animal bones were used to make a variety of products e.g ornaments, needles and weapons.
  • Animals like camel, horses and donkey were used for transport. This people could travel long distance faster and with heavier loads.
  • Oxen and donkey were used for ploughing the land during cultivation. It therefore increased yields.
  • The dog apart from being man’s friend protected him against dangerous animals.
  • Some animals produced manure which greatly improved agriculture produce.


Mesopotamia- means “ the land between the rivers’’ it is also known as the Fertile Crescent.

It’s tigris and Euphrates, which flow into the Persian gulf. This fertile region gave rise to one of world’s greatest civilization which began around 3000BC.

Food production around 8000BC. The southern part of Mesopotamia is known as sumeria. It is arid with little rain. The Sumerians practised basin irrigation but later constructed canals and dykes. River deposited silt at it’s lower valley. They invented the;

  • Ox plough
  • Seed drill.
  • Woven basket for the storage of their produce.

Factors that made agriculture possible in Mesopotamia.

  • Availability of water for irrigation from rivers tigris and Euphrates.
  • Sumerians built canals to control flooding and direct water to farm lands.
  • Good fertile soils brought in great quantity by the two rivers, this enriched soils in lower parts of Mesopotamia and made it suitable for growing crops and rearing of cattle.
  • Availability of wild plants and animals like wheat and barley which were suitable for domestication and encouraged settlers to start growing crops.
  • The Sumerians found it easy to farm animals.
  • Demand for food increased as people settled and no longer in need to search for food. Population stared to increase resulting to high demand for food.
  • Availability of farm land. The major concern was to increase the area ready for cultivation;floods were controlled by canal, dike and bridges construction.
  • The invention of farming tools. The sumarians invented farming tools, which enabled them to improve the method of farming, they used implements like ox plough and seed drill.
  • Good transport system. The Sumerians had a fairly good transport system in the form of donkeys. Wheeled carts and canoes.
  • Availability of labour. The availability of slave labour in sumeria facilitated the developing agriculture as farmers were able to cultivate bigger/ large areas using free labour.

The effects of early agriculture in Mesopotamia.

  • People lived a settled life.
  • People began to specialise in specific occupation.
  • Trade emerged as the people within various professions regularly exchanged their products.
  • Trade led to growth of urban centres.
  • The society began to be stratified as specific classes began to emerge as people developed various measures and degrees of wealth and prestige.
  • Development of laws and government.
  • With increased food production came the need for record-keeping and thus writing was developed.
  • Education centres developed.
  • Important inventions including ox drawn plough, the seed drill and the wheel were made.
  • There was introduction of religion.
  • Due to advancement in mathematics and science, the inhabitants of ancient Mesopotamia were to construct great buildings lending to architecture.


Egypt is one of the regions in the world where early agriculture started. It is estimated that about 5000 and 4000 BC, people who were living in the area of the Nile valley learned how to domesticate animals and growing crops.

They grazed cattle, sheep and goats along the lower Nile valley. They kept ducks, geese and hens.

They grew crops like; cotton, beans, wheat, barley, onions, vines, figs, flax and lentils.

Agriculture was practised on the banks of river Nile because the river Nile deposited silt and the lower Nile carried alluvial soils from Ethiopia and east Africa highlands. Canals were dug from the Nile to direct the water to their farms, during the dry seasons.

N/B. canal irrigation replaced basin irrigation. This was followed by the invention of the shadoof which consisted of a long pole that swing up and down with a bucket attached at one end.

The use of shadoof made two harvests in a year possible. The Egyptians invented bronze hoes and the ox-drawn plough.

Factors that favoured the development of agriculture in Egypt.

  • Availability of water for irrigation-Egypt was supplied with plenty of water by the river Nile which has three tributes; white Nile and blue Nile
  • Good fertile soils- when the Nile overflowed its banks, it covered the lower part of the country with a layer of fertile black soil. Farmers made use of this oil to grow their crops.
  • Favourable topography- the land along the Nile valley was gently sloppy which enabled farmers to use basin irrigation to water their crops.
  • Climate- Egypt has a warm sunny climate which helps crops to grow and ripe faster.
  • Indigenous plants- the availability of indigenous crops whereby early ancestors (farmers) got the idea of planting the seeds in wet fertile soils so that they did not have to go out in search for food.
  • Invention of farming tools. Farmers invented and used farming tolls such as the bronze hoe whereas they previously used digging sticks and wooden hoes.
  • Knowledge of weather- Egyptian priest studied the stars and planets to know when the river could flood. They would use this focusting to determine when to prepare the land and plant their crops.
  • Adequate storage facilities- the farmers built storage facilities to keep their grains. This enabled them to grow a lot of food during the years of plenty and then stored it to use during famine times.
  • Support from Egyptian rulers- some Egyptian rulers helped the development of agriculture by supporting farmers e.g king Mene who built dams to control floods.
  • Invention of writing- the Egyptians invented writing during the rule of king mene. This enabled them to keep accurate records of the seasons and volumes of water that came with them.
  • Availability of labour- the majority of the people in the Nile valley were poor and they were ready to offer their services as farm labourers to wealthy farmers.

Effects of early agriculture in Egypt.

  • Improved farming led to increased food production thus the people had enough and regular food supply.
  • The farmers settled down permanently and their living standards improved significantly.
  • Agriculture led to the production of enough supply of food. This in turn led to increase in trading activities.
  • Urban centres like Memphis, thebe and Aswan developed along the Nile valley.
  • Agriculture enables some societies to specialize in other activities since a few people could now produce enough food for all. Specialization took place in handcrafts especially in the manufacturing of tools.
  • Like the Mesopotamians, the Egyptians discovered writing, arithmetic and geometry. Writing and the calendar were invented for keeping records periodically to predict floods.
  • By 3000BC, the Egyptians were sailing along the Nile, this greatly enhanced transport of goods.
  • The increase of agricultural produce was able to support a new class of people such as priest and soldiers.

The general effects of early agriculture in Egypt and Mesopotamia.

  • Adoption of sedentary life. People moved to where their farms were and settled on them.
  • Division of labour. People began to specialize in specific occupations, some concentrated on farming while other made implements, and this led to rise of blacksmiths and potters.
  • Trade emerged in people within various regions regularly exchange their products for those that lacked.
  • Agricultural areas grew in size and population as people settled there. It gave rise to towns like; ur, Nippur, kish and Babylon.
  • Social classes. The society began to be stratified into specific class in consideration of their wealth and prestige e.g. land owners and blacksmiths.
  • Development of law and government. It became necessary to have regulations that would guide people at a activities to avoid conflict.
  • Formal education. In Egypt hieroglyphics was developed, people especially the upper clans were trained in numeracy and literacy, this was the origin of formal education. In sumeria it was cuneiform.
  • There was invention. Egyptians and Sumerians are credited with important inventions e.g. ox drawn plough and seed drill, wheel was invented in 3000BC and solar calendar in Egypt, Mesopotamia developed science and maths, maths provided the formulae for measuring time, distance and area.
  • Development of religion.
  • There was architecture due to advanced in mathematics and science the inhabitants of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were able to construct great buildings.


This is the term used to describe a time of sudden and radical change in agricultural methods and livestock rearing. The changes were brought about by the invention and use of machines which reduced the number of workers on farms and increased food production. It involved the use of fertilizer and pesticides.

The changes took place in many countries at different times and different ways.

The changes occurred between 1750-1850.

Agrarian revolution in Britain.

Farming methods before the agrarian revolution in Britain.

Up to the 18th century land in west Europe belonged to feudal king who distributed it to the nobility (rich land owners)

They in turn used part of the land and rented the rest to the peasant farmers who paid it by labour.

  1. Before 1750 farmers practised open filed system by which land was divided into 3 positions.
  2. Growing corn and wheat.
  3. Another for beans, peas, barley and oats.
  • The last land was left to regain fertility.

The open field system did not allow effective farming because land was not fully utilized, the fallow of land; existence of path and cart criss-crossed the land wasting time and labour.

  1. The field system discouraged livestock rearing because it was difficult top stop spread of diseases since livestock grazed together.
  2. It was difficult to practise selective breading because animals grazed on same piece of land.
  3. The early farmers in Europe used simple implements for cultivation e.g.sticks hoes and pangas.
  4. Each portion of land was divided into several strips to cultivate every year. There were low agricultural yields to meet the food demand for the growing population.
  5. Due to the use of simple tools they practised small scale cultivation.
  6. The Europeans farmers used broadcasting method of planting. A lot of seeds therefore wasted.
  7. They practised intercropping and mixed farming but it was in effective and produced low yields.
  8. The farmers did not use manure or fertilizers hence the soil was depleted off its fertility leading to poor produce or law yields.

Disadvantages of the open field system.

  • Land was not fully utilized because land was left fallow and produced nothing.
  • The foot path and cart hacks that went through untested field wasted land.
  • The practise of leasing field fallow wasted a lot of time and land.
  • Farmers and labourers had to travel over long distances because pieces of land were scattered all over.
  • The open field methods discouraged livestock rearing because diseases spread very easily. It was even more difficult to practise selective breeding.
  • It was not easy to get enough hay (animal feeds) for winter breeding. Farmers were therefore forced to slaughter animals in autumn and have the food salted for later use.
  • The method of farming was in efficient and consequently yielded very low produce that could not cater for the increased European population.
  • Monocropping and ignorance about the use of manure and fertilizers depleted soil nutrients leading to soil erosion and poor yield.

The changes that occurred during the agrarian revolution.

European countries underwent a lot of changes between 1750-1850. These changes were referred to as agrarian revolution. These were marked by the following.

New system and land ownership.

The use of machines.

New farming methods.

We may now examine them in details.

  • Abolition of fallows. Most of the land had to be used due to increase in population and demand for food. Farmers should no longer afford to leave the land fallow again.
  • New methods of farming. Scientists discovered the use of fertilizers, which increase crop yields e.g. phosphorus and potash for plants.
  • Lord townsheld discovered that clover added nitrogen to the soil. A new crop rotation system of barley, clover, tamps and wheat was introduced on the same plot for 94 years period.
  • Intercropping crops like maize and beans which did not require the same nutrients from the soil grew well; it made farmers realize more yield.
  • Application of scientific principles of farming. The farmer Robert bakewell invented selective breeding of livestock. Animal breeds that were developed were; AberdeenAngus, Ayrshire, Devon, shorthorn and Hereford. He also improved breeds such as; the Leicester, the Shropshire, the Suffolk and the oxford. He developed pig varieties such as; the Yorkshire, Tamworth andBerkshire.
  • The use of machine. Farmers used iron hoes instead ofsticks; they replaced broadcast method by planting in rows. They invented a horse drawn drilling machine by jethro tull in 1701. In 1876, Andrew Meikles invented the mechanical thresher. A binder was added to the reaper so that corn was cut and poured at the same time. Patrick bell invented the mechanical reaper which replaced the sickle in harvesting corn. The use of machine changed agriculture from small scale to large scale.
  • Land enclosure system. Large farms were required instead of small existing strips. The large farms were enclosed by fencing after the small pieces of land were put together,(consolidated) . This was the enclosure movement.It created large farms which allowed the use of the horse drill and crop rotation. The farmers acquired title deeds. They used it to borrow money from financial farm offices. Farmers adopted modern ideas and techniques of farming, books and papers containing latest information on agriculture began to be published.

Factors leading to the agrarian revolution in Britain.

  • The introduction of the enclosure system made landlord realise that they could make money by constructing large scale crop farming and selling farm produce at a profit.
  • The industrialization together with the discovery of medicine brought drastic changes.
  • Industrialization led to invention of machinery that made work easier and demand of raw materials.
  • The mechanization of the farm led to the extensive farming, it enabled farmers to increase average acre crops.
  • Experiments were conducted to improve crop production e.g. lord townsheld came up with the idea of crop rotation where different crops were grown in the field in successive years.
  • New discoveries in the field of medicine led to improvements in agriculture.
  • Scientists discovered the use of fertilizers to improve yield. They also discovered pesticides and fungicides to control plant and animals.
  • There was rapid population increase which led to increase demand for food. The agriculture sector had to provide enough food for this population. The demand for more food led to the abolition of the open field system in favour of the enclosure system.
  • Better forms of transport such as railway and better roads facilitated agricultural produce to industries and urban even overseas, they could easily transport and sell their food crops.
  • The development of the royal agricultural society in 1838 helped to spread the new and techniques of farming all over the country.

The effects of the agrarian revolution.

  • The use of new and improved farming methods led to high yield or increase of food supply and therefore there was food security.
  • The population of Britain increased rapidly due to increased quality and quantity and a variety of food. Batter diet reduced deaths caused by malnutrition. There were better living standards an high life expectancy.
  • It led to diversification of agriculture by growing of cash crops, citrus fruits and keeping of animals through selective breeding. They introduced e.g. the Leicester sheep.
  • The British farmers established large scale farming (plantation farming) and abandoned subsistence farming. This facilitated mechanization.
  • There was the emergence of new classes. A new class of wealthy land owners emerged, these were the people who had bought and created agricultural estates. The poor farmers were forced to migrate from urban areas to industrial areas that formed the working class.
  • The agrarian revolution led to the development and expansion of agro-based industries. Agricultural produce from crops and livestock’s facilitated the growth of industries.
  • When farming was commercial used, Britain expanded both local and international trade. This made her economy grow.
  • The development of agrarian revolution in Britain led to the improvement of the system in the country e.g. roads and railways were expanded to help in transport of agricultural products to their markets and raw materials to the industries.
  • The revolution also made people to migrate to new lands such as U.S.A, CANADA, AUSTRALIA, and NEW ZEALAND AND SOUTH AFRICA. Most of these people were the poor and landless that had been displaced by the enclosure system.
  • The royal agricultural society (RAS) was formed in 1838 in order to facilitate the exchange of ideas amongst farmers. It enhanced scientific research and innovation.



The agrarian revolution 1st began in Britain in 1750. The revolution later spread to parts of the world such as;Latin America, north America, Asia, Africa and Europe.

The u.s.a is in northern America which covers u.s.a, Canada and Mexico.  Many people migrated to North America starting from the 16thcentury to escape religious and political persecution. They founded many colonies, but during the agrarian revolution in britan, agriculture in u.s.a also developed due to influence from Britain and other local factors. People learnt t cultivate indigenous crops like; maize, potatoes, tobaccos and pineapples.

They were also cultivated by indigenous American community the red Indians.

Characteristics of agriculture in u.s.a before the agrarian revolution.

  • The original inhabitants of u.s.a were hunters and gatherers.
  • The early migrants practised subsistence farming, they grew crops such as; maize, cassava, beans, tomatoes, pepper, ground nuts and cashew nuts.
  • Farming was done in small scale and could not sustain and so they had to import from Britain e.g. food.
  • The enclose system made many people to migrate and settle in America especially landless.
  • These who migrated introduced new methods of farming so as to grow enough food for consumption and export.
  • Many people acquired new land and cleared it for agriculture, many of them died of diseases.
  • Others who went to America included labourers and crafts men who were looking for better life.

The changes that occurred.

  • The immigrant’s settlers introduced horses, sheep, pigs, fowls, seeds and plants from Europe.
  • They made a number of improvement to the machines, they used in Europee.g. JOHN DECRE invented the steel plough; CYRUS MACORMICK established a factory in Chicago. ELI WHIRTEEY invented the cotton grin, JOHN PERKINS developed the refrigerator. JOHN GORRIE was granted the 1st American patent for refrigeration machine. The machine preserved food for a longer time.
  • After the invention of refrigeration, car case was transported by train to meet packing factories, before live animals were transported.
  • Due to differences in soil fertility and climate several agricultural zones emerged e.g. the south was a cotton zone, the central region produced maize and the northern zone produced wheat.
  • Large scale farming began due to mechanization before cotton and sugarcane plantation depended on slave labour.
  • The invention of the telegraph of ALEXANDER GRAPHER enhanced communication.
  • Science and research resulted to better highbred seeds and different strains of livestock. There was use of fertilizers and pest control measures.

Factors that led to the agrarian revolution in north America.

  • Immigration- the poor people who lost their land in Europe due to the enclosure system migrated to north America with new skills and knowledge, they also took with them animals like; cattle, sheep and horses.
  • Modern farming- plantation farming, crop zoning, and use of highbred seeds, farm machinery and agricultural education transformed agriculture to a big industry.
  • Availability of land- u.s.a was a vast country inhabited with very few people. Therefore there was a lot of land available for all kinds of agriculture led to creation of agricultural zones e.g. cotton and corn belts. Different climates zones accommodate a wide variety of crops.
  • Labour- in the 18th century, many slaves were transported to the new world including u.s.a they provided cheap labour in cotton, sugar and tobacco plantation.
  • Machinery- the development of machinery and other scientific discoveries encouraged farming. JOHN PEER invented the steel plough, CYPRUS MECCOMICK invented a reaper, refrigeration and canning preserved food at a low temperatures.
  • Government policies- the American government supported the agriculture sector. It invested heavily in science and technology. It also granted financial assistance and loans for the purchase and development of land measures were put in place to protect farmers against competition from imported agricultural produce.
  • Infrastructure- the development of transport and communication network e.g. roads, railways and water ways enhanced and facilitated agriculture.

Effects of agrarian revolution in u.s.a

  • Diversification of agriculture through the introduction of new farm animals and crops brought by European immigrants.
  • The discovery and invention of new machines such as combined harvesters, steel plough and the reaping machines enabled American farmers to bring more land under cultivation.
  • New methods of farming e.g. use of fertilizers, highbred seeds and control increase food production especially maize and wheat.
  • It led to expansion of agricultural related industries e.g. canning and refrigeration of food expended the milk and meat industries.
  • Mechanization of agriculture replaced slaves and other labourers on farm. It made them move to urban areas.
  • The transport system of water, railway and road systems enabled the transportation of farm inputs to farms and agricultural products to the markets.
  • The expansion of food productions increased trade between u.s.a and Western Europe. It boosted the economy of America.
  • There was increased production in u.s.a due to availability of food.
  • It facilitated research and scientific inventions especially in the field of agriculture. These improved crops and varieties of animals.


The 3rd world refers to the less developed countries in Africa, asia and south America. Most of the developing countries were colonized by Europeans. They practised traditional agriculture.

Colonization led to the introduction of new crops but they continued to have weak economics and depend mainly on relief food imported from the developed countries many years after their independence.

Many factors have led to food shortage in Africa and the rest of developing world.

Factors leading to food shortages in Africa.

  • The rate of population is higher than the rate of food production.
  • Poor land use and agricultural practise like traditional farming methods and lack of modern means of agriculture like fertilizers and machines.
  • Some countries experience adverse weather conditions e.g. droughts and floods.
  • Desertification in formerly arable land has a negative effect on food production.
  • Over emphasis on cash crop farming at the expense of food crops.
  • Rural –urban migration of youth people in search of white collar jobs deprives rural areas of labour force, for food production.
  • Many lack funds to purchase required farm inputs e.g fertilizers and pesticides and also money to higher labour.
  • Political upheavals and instability in many countries prevent people from concentrating on food production and use money to purchase ammunitions.
  • Neglect of drought- resistance crops such as cassava and millet due to miscohieved attitudes.
  • Poor and in adequate storage facilities have reduced the availability of food. Great amounts harvested are wasted due to poor storage.
  • Pest and diseases has destroyed large amount of food crops and many animals like tsetse fly has led to loss of many animals.
  • Poor infrastructure discouraged farmers from increasing their food production. A lot is wasted due to poor transport to markets.
  • Over reliance of food aid or relief food and other forms of aid has created a dependence attitude in many African countries.
  • Poor economic planning by most third world government. A lot of emphasis is put on other development projects at the expense of agriculture and food production.
  • Poor land tenure systems where few European farmers own most of the best land, yet a small portion is utilized. On the other hand many indigenous Africans own very small piece of land.
  • Developing countries have a foreign debt burden as they depend on rich lending countries and agencies like IMF and World Bank.
  • The HIV/AIDS pandemic has led to the death of many among the work force reducing agricultural labour of the young and economically productive.

The effect of food shortage.

  • Many people have lost their lives due to drought and famine.
  • Increased suffering among millions of malnourished children and mothers who are sickly and weak.
  • It has created problems among societies like stealing food.
  • It has caused refugee problem in Africa because of drought and famine has caused people to migrate to other countries.
  • Lack of food hampers economic development e.g. children can’t work or pursue education when hungry.
  • Food shortage has led to dependence on food aid from rich countries which test genetically processed food; the side effects of such foods are yet to be known.
  • It adversely affects agricultural based industries e.g. banking and confectionary, milk processing and sugar factories inevitability leads to unemployment.

Solutions and steps taken to solve food shortage.

  • Land reclamation- this is the turning it potential land that was wasted into productive use through irrigation of arid land, drawing swampy places, clearing bushes and reclaiming deserts.
  • Policies- agricultural policies should be reformulated from concentration on cash crops to food production.
  • Extension services-like research information, dissemination and advice to farmers are vital for agriculture.
  • Family land use- families should be discouraged from land fragmentation and encourage a sizeable portion of land to be put under crops so as to have self sufficiency in house hold.
  • Research- extensive research has been carried out in research institutions such as Kenya agricultural research institute (KARI) on the highbred maize such as katumani.
  • Infrastructure- the development in transport, communication, storage, marketing and banking facilities should be improved to link farming areas to towns to provide market.
  • Farming methods- developing nations need to introduce new farming methods in order to increase food production.
  • Loans and grants- African government should practise loans to farmers to buy farm machinery and other inputs to encourage farmers.
  • Civil wars- government need to take immediate action to stop further civil wars and solve conflicts by peaceful methods.
  • Family planning- educating people on the need for family planning so that families have only the number of children whom they can feed and provide for.
  • Environmental conservation- reforestation, proper utilization and checking soil erosion can led to increase food production.


East Africa is referred to as the cradle of human kind; it was due to the following reasons.

The area has a rich variety of environmental factors conducive to human settlement with plenty of opportunists for hunters and gathers and even agriculturalists.

Tools found in koobi for a near lake turkana are attributed to homo habilies. All these pieces of evidence point to the fact that Kenya has inhabited by mankind million of years ago.

Animals such as cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated in Kenya during the late Stone Age inkenya.

Oral traditions points to the possibility that the earliest group of people to occupy present day Kenya were of the khoisan-stock.

The inhabitants appeared to have similar features with the khoihoi and the san of South Africa and the sandawe and thadza of Tanzania.

They are described as having spoken a language which had “clicking’’ sounds like of the khoihoi of south Africa.

In western Kenya the earliest inhabitants were the okuru and ongaye who h been totally assimilated by the Bantu and luo groups.

Another group of early inhabitants in Kenya were of the Cushitic stock. Although their origin is not clear they seem to have been living in the Ethiopian highlands before spreading and settling in Kenya.

Kenya today is divided into three main linguistic groups namely;

  • Nilotes.        Cushite.

The largest group comprises the Bantu speakers who are believed to have migrated from the area around camerron and the congo water shed.

The nilotes who claim southern Sudan as their cradle land are 2nd largest group of people in Kenya. The plain nilotes and the highland nilotes point to the north of Lake Turkana as their original homeland.

The 3rd linguistic group comprises the cushite who entered Kenya from the red sea.


There were two cushites speakers group who migrated into Kenya this were;

  • Southern cushites.
  • Eastern cushites.
  1. Southern cushites.

They arrived in Kenya earlier than the eastern cushites.

They migrated into Kenya form the Ethiopian highlands and settled in Kenya and northern tanzaina.

This included the boni, Iraqi and burungi of Tanzania and dahallo and sanye of the lower tana who are the only remain southern cushites group in Kenya.

  1. Eastern cushites.

They include .

Borana   Somali     Oromo. Gabra.   Rendile.     Burji.

These people migrated into Kenya much later than southern cushites.they settled 1st in horn of Africa after migrating from Arabia around 1000bc then southwards into modern Somali and reached the northern borders of Kenya.

Reasons for their migration.

  • Escaping from clan/ family feuds/conflicts.
  • Population pressure in the area of origin.
  • Search of better grazing lands.
  • Fleeing outbreak of disease affecting both people and animals.
  • Escaping famine and drought.
  • Fled constant attacks from neighbours such as Somali.
  • Migrated to satisfy their spirit of adventure.

Results of cushites migration into Kenya.

  • During the migrations some people fought killing many people in the process like Somali amd oromo.
  • There was displacement of other communities in Kenya.
  • Some communities interacted and formed alliances e.g rendile and Samburu formed an alliance against turkana.
  • Migration led to increase in population.
  • The cushites introduced some cultural practises in kenya like, age set and taboo of eating fish.
  • Led to intermarriages between them and other group’s e.g pokomo and borana.
  • The cushites intensified trading activities in Kenya.
  • Their migration led to redistribution of population in Kenya.

The term Bantu refers to a group of people who speak related languages. They constitute thelargest group in Africa.

They occupy about 2/3 of Africa south of the sahara.

Historian agrees that the original homeland of the Bantu was somewhere between eastern Nigeria and the Cameroon generally referred to as the Congo basin.

From here they moved southwards towards the present day of democratic republic of Congo (DRC) the east wards to eastern Africa.

Reasons for the migration.

  • There was an internal attack that is clan and family conflicts.
  • Escape from external attacks from neighbours.
  • Disease and epidemics forced people to migrate.
  • Some migrated to satisfy their desire for adventure.
  • Escape drought and famine.
  • With better iron tools production was good, people were better feed and the population increased rapidly forcing people to migrate to other areas.
  • The Bantu migrated in such of agricultural land for farming and settlement.

The Bantu entered Kenya into two distinct groups.

  • Western Bantu.
  • Eastern Bantu.

Western Bantu included.

They are referred to as the western Bantu because they settled in Kenya from AD 1000 to the middle of the 15th century.

The abalulya oral traditions indicate that they migrated from an area called “misri’’.

Historical evidence shows that the abaluyia had intermarriage with several ethnic groups in the course of their migration.

Believed to originate from mt. elgon as a major point of dispersal.

Oral tradition point to “misri’’ as home of origin just like some of the abaluyia group.

Lived around mt. elgon for several generations.

Live in south nyanza.

Oral traditions indicate that they are related to the abalogoli of the abalulya and the abagusii.

Traced their dispersal point to mt. elgon and maintained that their home of origin is `misri’’.

Occupy rusinga and mfungano island on lake Victoria.

Arrived in Kenya at around AD 1750 from Buganda and busoga.

Most of the abasuba spoke either luganda or lusoga as they migrated from Buganda and busoga.

The abasuba adopted the social custom of the luo including their language dholuo.

Today the abasuba adopted most of the luo culture.

Eastern Bantu.

Divided into two namely.

  • The highland/ mt. Kenya Bantu.
  • Coastal Bantu.

The coastal Bantu.

They include the;

  • Mijikenda     Taita.
  • Their ancestors are believed to have moved west of LakeVictoria through northern Tanzania to the taita hills.

The mijikenda and other groups moved along the coast up to a place called shungwaya, from shungwaya they moved to present day.

The main reason for disposal at shungwaya was the attack from the oromo who were expanding southwards by AD 1600.

The mijikenda.

Mijikenda is a Kiswahili word meaning 9 clans.

  • Giriama.    Duruma.       Chonyi.           Jibana.  Kambe.  Ribe.  Rabai.  Digo.

The mijikenda traced their origin to shungwaya which in Bantu means “ to be driven away’’.

The mijikenda settled in their own ridges which they refered to as “kayas’’ meaning villages.

Main enemy oromo and Somali.


they live in three hills known as daivida, sagalla and kisigan. They originated from shungwaya and 1st settled at mangea hill then migrated to present day home.

The pokomo.

They lived in shungwaya and later moved southwards and settled along the river tana.

The highland/ mt. Kenya Bantu.

  • Agikuyu.   Aembu.     Mbeere.     Akamba.

The akamba.

They migrated from mt. Kilimanjaro are to the great bend of river tana. They moved northwards and were attacked by oromo and later moved to chyulu and mbooni.

The ameru.

They comprises of tigania, igembe, imenti, igoji,chukka, tharaka, muthambi and muimbi. They originated from mbwa.

The agikuyu.

They moved to othaya and aguthi and north eastwards to tetu and mathira in nyeri, then southwards to kiambu and  westwards to nyandarua.

The effects of Bantu migration.

  • They spread iron working to other parts of Kenya, other communities borrowed skills from them.
  • Led to increased population in where they settled.
  • Inter-communities conflicts with other groupse.g. fought oromo in the coast, maasai in rift valley and luo near lake Victoria.
  • Improved trade. Trading activities intensified as the Bantu exchanged iron products with other products.
  • Increased cultural interaction with other communities.
  • Inter-marriages betweenBantu and other groups e.g. abalulya with the kalenjin.
  • Exchange of knowledge and skills also took place between groups.
  • Their settlement led to population redistribution e.g dorobo moved to forested areas.
  • Since the Bantu were cultivators their settlement leads to the spread of agricultural practises in Kenya.


The tern nilotes is derived from the word Nile.

The group of people whose origin is associated with river Nile have similarities in the languages they speak and are referred to nilotic speakers.

In Kenya they are 2nd largest.

Nilotic speakers have myths which point to the Nile valley in southern Sudan as place of origin.

Divided into 3 major groups based on where they settled.

  • Plain nilotes-maasai, turkana and samburu.
  • River-lake nilotes-luo.
  • Highland –nilotes-kalenjins

Reasons for migration of the luo.

  • Population pressure at the cradle land.
  • Disease and other epidemics affecting people and animals.
  • Search for better fishing areas.
  • Moved due to external attack/threat from neighbours.
  • Spirit of adventure.
  • Drought and famine.
  • Internal conflicts.
  • Search for free grazing lands and water for their livestock since they are nomadic pastoralists.

By the 10thcentury the luo began to move into present day Kenya.

They moved in four distinct groups though they all claim a common ancestry called ramogi.

  • Joka-jok

They were the 1st group to arrive in Kenya and settled at ramogi hills in imbo and later spread to sakwa, alego, asembo, southern nyanza.

  • Joka-owiny.

Are the 2nd major group and passed through mt. Elgon, mbale, tororo and settled in samia, alego and uyoma.

  • Joka-omollo.

They settled in samia and imbo region.

Effects of luo migration into Kenya.

  • Population increased in the area.
  • Increased warfare among them thus displacing western Bantus.
  • Assimilation of culture.
  • Development of trade.
  • Adoption of agriculture from the Bantu.

Plain nilotes.

Reasons for migration.

  • Diseases and epidemics.
  • Internal conflicts.
  • External attacks.
  • Spirit of adventure.
  • Population increased.
  • Drought and famine.

The maasai.

They moved to uasin gishu plateau then moved to kalenjin land and later to plains of central Kenya and northen-central Tanzania.

The turkana.

They originated from mt. Moroto among the karamoja of Buganda. Then moved to north east and settled in south region of Lake Turkana.


They had established themself in kumi and soroti then movoved to mt. Elgon then to western Kenya.

Results of their migration.

  • Displacement of people.
  • Adopted cultural practises e.g. age-set system, circumcision and clitoridectomy.
  • Influenced nandi who adopted the institution of a prophet or deviner from the institution of loibon among the maasai.
  • Some of the maasai adopted farming.
  • Maasai traded with their neighbouring communities like akamba and agikuyu.
  • They intermarried with neighbours like akamba, agikuyu and kalenjin
  • Maasai influenced the fighting tactics of other groups in Kenya.

Highland nilotes.

Reasons for their migration

  • Search for better water and pasture for their livestock.
  • Internal conflicts.
  • External attacks from their neighbours.
  • Disease and epidemics.
  • Drought and famine.
  • Population increased.

The kalenjin.

The result of their migration.

  • Intermarried with other communities such as luo and abagusii.
  • Increased trading activities in the region.
  • Displaced people they came across e.g kwavi maasai and abagusii.
  • Some of the kalenjin assimilated Bantu culture.




It’s the largest of the 3 linguistic groups  in Kenya, by 1900 AD most  of them had settled in the regions they currently occupies among them are; abaluhya, abagusii, abakuria of western as well as the mijikenda, pokomo, akamba, ameru and aembu.

Social organization of the Bantu.

  • Almost all the Bantu communities in Kenya in the 19th century were organised in clans.

Theses clans were made up of people believed to have descended from the same ancestor.

  • They carried out circumcision ceremony e.g. the abaluhya and the akamba circumcised boys where as other communities circumcised both boys and girls.
  • They believe in one God e.g. luhya- were rachari hakava, kikuyu –ngai.
  • Carried out sacrifices for the God’s.
  • They worshiped in sacred places e.g. in shrines.
  • Believed in ancestral spirits who guided their lives.
  • Intermarriages with other communities such as luo’s.
  • They carried out libation a practise believed to bring them closer with their ancestors.
  • Believed in the life after death.
  • Celebrated together using songs and dances.
  • Had sporting activities.

Political organization.

  • Had decentralized system of government, except the wanga who had a centralized government.
  • Were divided into clans.
  • Clans were govern by council of elders whose functions include;
  1. Settling disputes.
  2. Presided over religious ceremonies.
  3. Declared war when fighting broke out.
  4. Sound a warning when an epidemic broke out so that the whole community will be alerted.
  5. Responsible for ensuring good relationships with neighbouring communities.
  6. Often did solve and decided on matters of intertribal marriages.
  • The age-set system among the Bantuplayed a very important role in their political organization.
  1. Provided warriors who defended the community from external attacks, this worriers also raided other communities cattle.
  2. They age-set worked closely with the council of elders in matters of administration in the community.

In the wanga section of the luyha the king who was known as nabongo was the ovarol ruler of the kingdom.

Economic organization.

The Bantu of Kenya participated in various economic activities in the 19th century this includes;

  • Trade with neighbours in that they exchanged goods.
  • They cultivated crops like millet, sorghum and cassava among other crops.
  • They kept livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats.
  • They participated in fishing for thoseBantu communities who lived along the rivers.
  • They practisedpotteryand basketry especially the abaluhya and the abagusii.
  • They participate in iron making e.g. knives.
  • Participated in hunting and gather which was meant to supplement their food.
  • Practised cattle raiding where manyBantu communities would raid their neighbours for cattle.

The agikuyu

Social organisation.

  • They believed in one supreme God who was called Ngai who lived in mt. kirinyaga.
  • Had strong believed in ancestral spirits and used them as intermediaries between themselves and God.
  • Also had diviners whose main work was to interpret Gods massage to the people.
  • They had medicine that was known as mundu-mugo. Their work of the mundu-mugo in plural was to cure diseases.
  • Agikuyu had designated sacredplaces for worship, prayer and offerings. E.g mugumo tree where they offered sacrifices.
  • Marriage was an important institutional s it ensured the continuity of family and clan.
  • Among the agikuyu the family was very important institution.
  • Next to the family was the clan which was made up of several families that had a common ancestor.
  • Their rites of passage include. Initiation of boys and girls, after which they joined the age –set(rika or matika) they were educated on the values and customs of the society and how to be responsible people.

Economic organization.

  • Grew a variety of food crops such as sorghum, millet and maize.
  • Kept animals such as cattle, goats, chickens and sheep.
  • They carried out batter trade among themselves and other communities e.g. spears, grains, tobacco and red ochre for the lives animal products from the maasai.
  • Some sections of the agikuyu specialised in iron working, black smiths made iron implements including spears, knives , cowbells, swords, earrings, rings, anklets and arrow heads.
  • They were some clans that specialized in pottery, they made other made baskets and mats.
  • Hunted wild animals for meat and collected fruits roots and vegetables. Honey was called to and used for making beer.

Political organization.

  • They were decentralised.
  • The smallest unit was family headed by the father.
  • Several families made up a clan.
  • They occupied a local territorial unit ( mbari).
  • The clan was ruled by council of elders (kiama). Whose chairman (muramati) was highly respected.
  • There was a senior elder (kiama kia ndundu) was selected from a number of councils and served as a court of appeal.

The ameru.

They are among the eastern Bantu.

Political organization.

  • Based on the clan. Had a system of council and age-groups which oversaw their administration of the community affairs.
  • Every man belonged to a relevant council. There was a council of children, the council of warriors; the council of the njuri ncheke which was the supreme councils that set the moral code to be followed, the council was responsible.
  1. Settling disputes.
  2. Presided over religious ceremonies.
  • Officiated over social functions such as initiation.
  1. When fighting broke out they declared war with the neighbouring communities.
  • Age set system was present. Young boys joined age-set system after initiation.
  • Age-set provided the community with warriors for defence against other communities.
  • Religious leaders influenced political leadership of the administration.

Social organization of the ameru.

  • It was marked by the existence of the council of clan to the supreme council which was njuri ncheke which acted as.
  1. As the parliament.
  2. Set the moral codes that was adhered by the communicate
  • Marriage was an important institution among the ameru.
  • In marriage any spouse who was involved in adultery was punished by being stoned to death. The same punishment was also to girls who were not virgin at the time of marriage.
  • Marriage was exogamous in the meru community, one was not allowed to marry from their clan because of their believe on common ancestors.

Economic organization.

  • They were hunters.
  • Collected honey from beehives and wild fruits and roots.
  • They practised mixed farming.
  • There was crafts men like leather-working.
  • They participated in trade with other communities.

The akamba.

Settled in chyuli hills, mbooni, kitui and machakos between the 16th and 19th century.

Political organisation.

  • The akamba were a traditionally decentralised community.
  • The smallest unit was homestead (musyi).
  • Several related families were grouped into a wider territorial groups or clan who was the main political unit.
  • Each clan had his own recreation ground, elder’s council, war leaders, as well as a place of worship.
  • Age set and age grades were common to all in the community.
  • The leaders in the community were ranked according to seniority.
  • Junior elders defended their community while medium elders (nthele) assisted in the administration of the community.
  • The full elders (atumia ma kivalo) participated in delivering judgements while the senior most elders (atumia ma ithembo) were involved in religious activities as they were regarded to be rituallyclean.

Social organisation.

  • Were organised into clans each claiming its descent from common ancestor.
  • The akamba clan’s practised exogamy which means that marriage between members of the same clan was not allowed.
  • Boys and girls were circumcised before reaching puberty.
  • On reaching puberty both men and women were allowed to marry and bear children.
  • The akamba believed in a creator God whom they called mulungu.
  • Prayed to God through ancestor spirit.
  • The akamba had ritual experts who included medicine people who guided them in their rituals.
  • Shrines excited where offering and sacrifices were made by their elders called atumia ma ithembo.
  • They had many social ceremonies during which there was a lot of festivity especially music and dancing.

Ecominic organization.           

  • They kept large herds of cattle, sheep and goats.
  • They traded with other community.
  • They were also skilled in crafts, which range from hut construction to granaries.
  • They also kept bees as an economic activity.

The mijikenda.

They consisted of the following.

Each of them believed in fortified villages called kaya.

Kaya was the basic unity of social organization consisting of several united tribes.

Kaya was surrounded with thorns for defence.

Boys were circumcised and late joined the age-set system.

Parents selected a bride for their boys.

They believed in a supreme being called mulungu.

They had shrines MIZIMU under baobab tree or special huts.

They prayed through ancestral spirits.

They had prophets called WAFISI.

They buried medicine (fingo) within the kaya for protection against evil spirits.

They offered sacrifice to God.

Political organization.

  • Were organized into clans.
  • Had a council of elders (kambi) made up of senior age-sets.
  • The council dealt with settling disputes, heard cases and imposed fines on law breakers.
  • The age-set system provided the community with warriors for defence.

Economic organization.

  • Practised crop farming where they grew millet, sorghum and coconut.
  • They kept cattle, sheep and goats.
  • They engage in craft work i.e.basketry,pottery and iron working.
  • Traded with the Swahili, Arabs, akamba and agikuyu.
  • Hunted wild pigs, antelopes and also fruits and vegetable.
  • Fishing was done in the Indian Ocean and the rivers.

Social organization.

  • They lived in fortified villages(kaya).
  • They believed in one supreme God (mulungu).
  • They had shrines(mizimu) existed under boabob trees and caves.
  • They did initiation.
  • They had age-set.
  • They paid dowry.


The luo.

Social organization.

  • Believed in a supreme God whom they called NYASAYE.
  • Believed in ancestral spirits and in the existence of good and bad spirits which influenced their lives.
  • Had diviners who interpreted God message.
  • They had sacred shrines where they worship their God.
  • Participated in initiation which involved the removal of the 6 lower teeth.
  • They had ceremonies which were carried out during birth, marriage, death, harvest and during games.
  • Lived in villages called GWENG>

Political organization.

  • They lived in clans which formed the basis of their political organization.
  • A number of clans grouped together formed sub clans called OGANDA.
  • Each sub tribe had an autonomous (independent) political and territorial unit called GWENG headed by a council of elders called BUCH PINY.
  • Below the buch piny there was a village council called JADONY and clan council called DOHO.
  • The council of elders was headed by a chief called RUOTH and the work of the council was to settle disputes, administer justice, declare wars and presiding over religious functions.

Economic organization.

  • Practised fishing on l. Victoria.
  • Practised pastoralist.
  • They were agriculturalists.
  • Hunted wild animals and gathered roots, honey and vegetables.
  • They traded with the nandi, kipsigis.
  • They had craftsmen who made baskets, pots, fishing traps.
  • They were iron workers.
  • There existed a canoe building industry which boosted fishing work.

The nandi.

Social organization.

  • Had a well organized age-set system after circumcision of both boys and girls.
  • Had an age-set system and each performed leadership role one at a time like marna, chums, sawe, korongoro, kipkoimet, kiplelach, kimyile and nyogi.
  • Had both junior and senior warriors.
  • Believed in God called Asis.
  • Made sacrifices and worshiped God through the ancestral spirits.
  • Had important religious leaders who included medicine people, diviners and rain makers.
  • Orkoiyit was a single religious and prophetic leader for the whole community.
  • The family was an important institution in the community.
  • Several related families made up a clan.

Economic organization.

  • Were hunters and gatherouse.
  • Were pastoralist.
  • They were farmers.
  • They were iron workers.
  • Were crafts men made baskets and pots.
  • Raided other communities for cattyle.
  • Traded with neighbours like luo, maasai and luhya.
  • They kept bees and honey and wax.

Political organization.

  • The basis unit was family under the father.
  • Organised on clan basis.
  • Above the family was the council of elders known as KOKWET who dealt with matters above the family e.g. maintaining law and order, settling disputes among others.
  • Kokwet controlled semi-independent territory called BORORIEK which was the highest politiv\cal unit among the nandi.
  • Orkoiyot was a respected leader among the nandi whose functions included
  • Chief medicine man.
  • Rain maker.
  • Preceded over religious functions and offered sacrifices.
  • Blessed warriors and advice them before going to war or raid.
  • Always consulted in times of calamities.
  • Solved disputes between clan and council of elders.
  • Advised council of elders on matters affecting the clan.
  • Was symbol of unity amongst the nandi.



Social organization.

  • Are divide into purko maasai (pastoralist) and kwavi/oloikop(agriculturalist)
  • Were organized into clans each associated with a particular type of cattle.
  • They circumcised both male and female at puberty hence the age-set system.
  • The initiated boys became warriors (morans).
  • The warriors defended the community and raided other community.
  • Stayed in separate manyatta for about 10 years(the warriors)
  • Believed in a supreme being called enkai.
  • Offered sacrifices and prayed at the shrine.
  • They had religious leaders who included diviners, medicine men among others.
  • Oloibon was respected religious leader and custodian of religious rituals.
  • Had ceremonies during birth, initiation and death.
  • Women and children were the lowest in the society rank.

Economic organization.

  • They practised hunting and gathering.
  • They were basically nomadic pastoralists.
  • They raided other communities for cattle.
  • The kwavi practised agriculture.
  • They traded with their neighbours.
  • They engaged in craft work and iron making.

Political organization.

  • They were ruled by council of elders who performed the following duties
  • Maintained law and order.
  • Settled disputes.
  • Declared war and peace.
  • Presided over ceremonies.
  • Had the age-set systeme.g. the junior warriors (morans) defended their communities against attack.
  • They raided their neighbours for cattle and gave instructions to the warriors.
  • Oloibon was a religious and ritual expat to perform the fallowing.
  • Was the unifying factor among the maasai.
  • Advised the council of elders.
  • Blessed and advised warriors when going to war.
  • He foretold the future.

The Somali.

Social organization.

  • Divided into clans.
  • Had age-set system in which circumcised boys belonged.
  • Believed in the existence of God called WAK( waq)
  • Men took care of animals.

Economic organization.

  • Hunters and gatherers.
  • Were nomadic pastoralists.
  • Traded with neighbours.
  • Some practised iron working and craftsmanship e.g. pottery, basketry and others.

Political organization.

  • Based on clans.
  • Headed by council of elders who performed roles like
  • Settling of disputes.
  • Maintaining law and order.
  • Made decisions of community.
  • Had a military organization.


Social organization

  • Divided into clans led by elders.
  • They resided in a place called the CAMP.
  • Had an age-set system called GADA.
  • Worshiped a super natural being whom they believed to be powerful.
  • Had religious leaders who they called QAALU.

Economic organization.

  • Were nomadic pastoralist who kept cattle, sheep, goats and donkey.
  • Traded with neighbours to acquire what they lacked.
  • Were hunters and gatherers.
  • Were cultivators i.e. planted maize along r. tana.
  • Were crafts men.

Political organization.

  • Organized into clans.
  • Had a council of elders who settled disputes, maintained law and order and also offered territorial defence.
  • Had an age-set called GADA which lasted 8 years from birth to death.
  • The age-set performed the following.
  • Mibelised people for community work.
  • Resolved minor conflicts.
  • Participated in organising of rituals and ceremonies.




Before the 1st century most of the east African community interacted with one another through intermarriage and trade.

However between the 1st and the 19th century they interacted with people from other parts of Europe, Asia and Africa.

This contact was first at the coast and later to the interior.

The contacts were between the African, Arabs, Greeks, Chinese, Romans, Portuguese, Persians, British and Dutch.

The dominant among these were the Arabs (introduced Islam) and the Portuguese (introduced Christianity)

They settled at the cost and conquered the local people at deferent periods hence creating a profound influence on the coast and the interior of east Africa.

The east African coast.

Historical information about east African coast before the 7th century is scanty due to inadequate written evidence.

The documentary, archaeological, authropogical, linguistical and oral traditions have appointed to the presence of early visistors at the coast.

Other sources include periplus of the Erythrean Sea which involved sailing around the IndianOcean. It was written by a Greekcommercial agent in 120AD in Egypt.

The cloudius Ptolemy.

He wrote a book “geography’’ which talked about trade in the east African coast.

The book also had documents by Arabmerchant’s e.g ibu batuta, ali masudi, al edvis.

The Christian topography.

Written in the 1st half of the 6th century and talked about the Persian dominant of the IndianOcean trade.

Greco- roman documentary.

Early visitors to the east African coast up the 15th century.

Factors that enabled the early visitors to come and settle at the east African coast.

  • Contact between east Africa and the early visitors was possible because of the accessibility of the coast by the sea from sofala(Mozambique) to Mogadishu(Somali)
  • The area had big harbour where ships could anchor.
  • Availability of islands e.g.Mombasa and Zanzibar which divided the mainland by anarrow channel.
  • There were moon soon winds which blew between November to April hence enhancing the most of ships.
  • The earliestvisitors were Greeks, Romans, Chinese, Arabs, Syrians, Egyptians, Phoenicians and Portuguese.


They came to the east African coast after 326BC, after the death of Alexander the great.

The Greek empire had controlled the Middle East, North Africa and India.

Egypt in NorthAfricawas under the dynasty of Ptolemy and Syriawas under the dynasty of Seleucids who were both Greek generals.

Both Egyptians and Syrians got ivory from India via the Syrian route.

The Greek generals blocked the route to India forcing the Greek ptolemies of Egypt to get an alternative route and alternative source of ivory.

Hence they travelled via the red sea and down along the east Africa.

Therefore Egyptian ptolemies and east African coast developed and stretched as far as dar-es-salaam.


The Romans like the Greek had greater demand for goods such as ivory, species, gold, precious stones, rhino horns and slaves.

The Romans therefore wanted to break the Arab monopoly over trade.

In 45AD the roman sailor called hippaplus sailed via the red sea to the IndianOcean during the reign of Augustus ceaser.

He had the knowledge of the moonson winds, hence the Romanssailed directly to India via the Indian ocean and exchange their goods with glass, wine and wheat hence bringing them into Africa by the Indian ocean.

The Roman Empire collapsed in 15AD


Persia was ruled by shirazi dynasty form 224-636 AD.

They wanted to rebuild their empire after its destruction by the MacedonianGreek.

By the 6th century the Persians were trading with India and china.

They controlled the red sea, part of Egypt and Arabia; latter the Persians came to east Africa coast and established their ruling dynasty.

They intermarried with local people and introduced Islamic civilization which included trade, architecture, religion and culture.

They traded with local people in items like bowls, glass, pots and swords.

They build towns e.g Zanzibar and lamu.

They called the coast of Zanzibar zenj (black), bar(coast) i.e. zenj bar –black coast.

They called the land between Mogadishu and cape Delgado the land of zenj( land of black people).


They visited the east African coast in large fleets of sheep around 1430 AD.

Chinese authors during the dynast of sung (960-1279AD) and ming (1368-1644AD) were familiarwith the east African coast.

The Chinese coins dating 700AD have been found at the east African coast.

Through y=trade the Chinese silk cloths, porcelain bowls and plates in return they acquired ivory, gold, leopard skins, rhino horns and tortoise shells.


The Arabs came to the east African coast for trade by 650AD.

The earliest Arab settlement was at pemba and later kilwa, lamu, maunda, Mombasa and later to 37 other towns to the east African coast.

The east African coast was attractive to the Arabs due to:-

  • Its offshore islands which were well watered had cool climate compared to hot Arabia.
  • Fertile soils for crop growing for the Arab population.

Factors that facilitated coming of the Arabs.

  • Presence of moonson winds. I.e. the north east and the south west winds which blew the Arab ship from Arabia via the IndianOcean.
  • The ports of southern Arabia were good sailing places on the journey to east African coast.
  • East African also deep harbours for ships to anchor.
  • Arabs were skilled in marine technology i.e. boat making, map reading and use of compass.

Reasons for the coming of the early visitors on the east African coast.

  • They wanted to trade and control the commercial activity along the coast.
  • Some Arabs came as refuge fleeing religious and political persecutions in Arabia.
  • Some came to explore the east African coast.
  • Some came to spread their religion.
  • Some came to establish settlement along the east African coast.
  • Accessibility of east African coast to the outside world made some of them to come because of the cool climate and fertile soils found at the coast.

Trade between the east African coast and the outside world.

Historically the east coast of Africa has had contact with the Middle Eastern and far eastern countries for long. It was established through Indian Ocean trade with the Egyptians, Greeks, Phoenician, Chinese, Persians, Indians and Arabs.

Development of trade.

  • Availability of items of trade like ivory and slaves.
  • Demanding for the trade items in the outside world.
  • Presence of merchants at the coast willing to finance the trade.
  • Availability of long distance trader in the interior like akamba and mijikenda.
  • Accessibility of east African coast by sea.
  • There were good natural harbours.
  • Presence of moonson wind system which propelled the dhows.
  • Relative peace and stability along the coast.
  • Technological advancement in dhow and ship building.

Organisation of trade.

The coastal people organised themselves into caravans which moved along established trade routes. They took interior guns, glass, beads, swords and porcelain bowls. Slaves were obtained either by raiding or through exchange with other goods.

The major markets for this trade were at the coast like Mombasa, Zanzibar and sofala.

Impact of the Indian Ocean trade on the people of east Africa.

  • Trade contributed to the emergence and growth of settlements which developed into towns and eventually stone built cities.
  • It leads to the settlement of Arabs at the coast.
  • There were inter-city conflicts over trade and taxes.
  • There emerged new structures of administration controlled by sultans.
  • There was emergence of classes of wealthy merchants.
  • Trade contacts between the coast and the interior were expanded.
  • Islam spread into the region.
  • Arab and Persian architectural designs were introduced.
  • A new system of government based on sharia law was introduced.
  • There was the emergence of Swahili people a product of intermarriages between the coastal Bantu and Arabs.
  • There were new crops introduced like rice, cloves, coconuts and spices.
  • Indigenous trades such as weaving, ironworking declined due to importation of foreign goods.
  • Slave raids led to wars among African communities.

The coming of the Portuguese.

It was the 1st European country to explore east African coast at 15th century supported by PrinceHenry the navigator. The 1st appearance of the Portuguese to the east African coast was in 1498 by vasco d agama.

Reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to east Africa coast.

  • They were interested in establishing a trading empire in the east.
  • They wanted to convert the people of east Africa to Christianity.
  • They had skilled navigators who were ready to carry out exploration voyages at the sea.
  • They had for a long time been challenged by the Arabs and Turks over the eastern trade. To stop them, they had to control the east African coast.
  • The east African coast was a mid-way between India and Europe. It could provide a base for the supply of fresh food and water.
  • They were looking for a sea route to India.
  • They wanted to revenge their earlier defeat by the Muslims who had conquered the Iberian Peninsula.
  • The east African coastline had good natural harbours.
  • The spirit of adventure was developed in Europe after the renaissance and the emergency of various geographical societies.

Portuguese conquest and rule of the east coast of Africa.

In 1498 vasco da gama was the 1st sailor to reach east African coast with the aim to explore the coast.

He landed of the coast of Mozambique on March 1, 1498. The sultan of Mozambique was hostile to vasco d agama. He later sailed to Mombasa where he and his companions met a lot of hostility.

He left for malindi where he was warmly welcomed by seyyid ali, the sultan of malindi.

He was accorded all the assistance he needed including a gujerati pilot known as ahmed bin majid, to guide the crew to India.

The decisions to conquer the east coast of Africa was taken by the Portuguese after vasco d agama’s return to Portugal in 1499.he informed the king of Portugal about the lucrative trade between the coastal people and those from the middle and Far East.

In 1500 pedro alveres ras cabral led an expedition with the intention of capturing sofala but failed.

Vasco d agama led the next expedition against kilwa, which he conquered in 1502.

In 1503 ruy lourenco ravasco defeated Zanzibar and forced its sultan to pay tributes to the king of Portugal.

In 1505 a large expedition of 20 ships and 1500 men under Francisco de almeida was sent to east African coast. It conquered sofala, kilwa and Mombasa.

Reasons for Portuguese success.

  • They had superior weapons and well trained soldiers compared to the coastal traders.
  • They had better naval power like ships and dhows.
  • There was disunity among the coastal city states.
  • The Turkish and Persian navies in the Indian Ocean were too weak to offer any help to the coastal towns against the Portuguese.
  • The Portuguese made alliances with some local rulers who sent soldiers to fight alongside the Portuguese.
  • They were able to receive military assistance from their headquarters at goa in India.
  • There was lack of resistance from some towns like sofala.


They established their rule which lasted for 200 years and in 1507 they made Mozambique their headquarters.

It was under a captain who took orders from the Portuguese viceroy stationed at goa in southern India, later they divided thearea into two and another captain was in Mombasa.

The duties of the captains were to collect tributes from the local rulers, impose custom duties on import and exports and to suppress resistance or opposition to their rule. They also supervised the ruling families in the city.

Factors that led to the decline of Portuguese rule.

  • Inadequate personnel as compared to the vast east African coast.
  • Portuguese officials were greedy and corrupt who amassed personal wealth at the expense of administration.
  • Lack of systematic form of government.
  • Portuguese faced hostility and rebellions from the coastal people.
  • Decline in trade mad e them lose revenue for administration.
  • Distance between Portugal and east Africa coast slowed reinforcement.
  • Portuguese were attacked by tropical diseases.
  • They were challenge by the Britain, Dutch, France and the Turks.
  • At home, Portugal suffered annexation by Spain (1590 and 1640).
  • In 1588, the coast was invaded by the zimba warriors from Mozambique which undermined their position in east African coast.

Impact of the Portuguese rule.


  • Coastal towns and their people were exposed to heavy taxation.
  • They discouraged other trading powers from visiting the city due to their presence.
  • Some coastal towns declined due to people moving away to escape taxation and other interior traders avoided them.
  • The Portuguese demand for slaves on their plantations abroad increased raids, which were perfected with the use of new more powerful ammunition.
  • There was segregation of the local people.
  • The corrupt, ruthless Portuguese officials misruled the cities leading to misery and suffering.


  • There was introduction of new crops like maize, groundnuts, cassava, pineapples, pawpaw and guavas.
  • They introduced new word which enriched Kiswahili like meza(table) and mvinyo (wine).
  • They built historical monuments like fort Jesus and vasco da gama pillar.
  • Closer links were established between the east African coast and goa in India.
  • They also introduced Christianity.

The establishment and impact of oman rule in east africa coast.

In 1698, the Portuguese’s were driven out of the coastal region and taken over by the OmanArabs. The imam became the ruler of the east African coast.

At the initial stages of their rule, the imams could not come from the Oman to enforce their rule on the coastal due to civil wars in their homeland. So they were ruled by local Arab family the mazurui rule Mombasa and nabahan family ruled lamu.

The mazurui family were troublesome to the imams for they wanted to be independent as they forced towns like Malinda, pate and Pemba to pay allegiance to them.

Seyyid said’s reign 1804-1856.

He wanted to the master of the whole Indian Ocean trade. To consolidate his power and protect his east Africa interests, he transferred his capital to Zanzibar in 1846.

Reasons for choosing Zanzibar were.

  • Zanzibar was loyal to him.
  • Zanzibar was a green and pleasant island with a good climate compared to Muscat which was hot and dry.
  • Had good harbours in which ships could anchor.
  • Had good and clean water.
  • Its position was convenient for trade with the mainland and also with Mombasa to the north.
  • Its climate and fertile soils were good for cultivating cloves.

Seyyid controlled the whole of the coast and developed trade links with the interior and some communities in Kenya like akamba and mijikenda got involved in it.

The main exports were slaves, ivory and cloves, caravans were sent out into the interior to collect slaves and ivory.

Effects of Oman rule.

  • Growth of slave trade.
  • Growthof towns like Zanzibar.
  • Local, long distance and international trade grew.
  • Linked east Africa coast to the rest of the world.
  • Spread of Islamic religion.
  • Growth of plantation agriculture.
  • Missionaries came to east Africa coast in an attempt to stop slave trade.

Development of plantation agriculture.

It was the major cause of increased slave trade in the 19th century who became labourers in agricultural plantations. By 1840 clove plantations in Zanzibar and pemba had attracted slave labour and slaves were heavily overworked.

In 1840’s the Arabs and Swahili started growing grain on the mainland and this continued up to the beginning of colonial period. In Malinda several planters had acquired land of over 400 hectares where hundreds of slaves were used to plant millet and sesame. The success of plantations depended on the long working of slaves.

In Mombasa it was cultivation of coconut because their farms were small and required less labourers and more yield compared to grains per hectare.

On the mainland, the Swahili also became major planters. The mijikenda sub-tribe did not participate in plantation agriculture; they traded with the Arabs and sold ivory, cattle and grain.

Often slaves attempted to escape from plantations. There were efforts to improve their conditions; some of them whoran awaywere employed by rich Arabs and Swahili in their armies to fight against the sultan’s government.

Factors that facilitated plantations agriculture by seyyid said in east Africa coast.

  • Existence of slave labour.
  • Fertile soils that favoured farming.
  • Presence of large tracts of land for plantation farming in the mainland and the coast.
  • The coast had suitable climate and abundant rainfall.
  • There was high demand for grains at the coast and overseas.
  • Large number of Oman settlers who settled in Malinda, lamu, Mombasa acquired land for crop growing.

Effects of plantation agriculture on the east Africa coast.

  • Need for slave labour increased slave trade.
  • Growth of cash crops for export led to international trade.
  • Introduction of new crops at the coast.
  • Agro-based industries emerged.
  • Increased Omani Arabs settlement at the east Africa coast to do agriculture.
  • There was suffering and misery by the slaves who worked for long hours.

Development, organization and consequences of trade.

By the 19th century, trade connections among the Kenya communities and also between Kenya and other countries had already been established.

Development of long distance trade.

It connected the interior of east Africa with the coastal in Kenya with commodities like ivory and slave with exchange with clothes, utensils, ironware and beads.

The akamba and the mijikenda acted middlemen between the interior communities and the coast; they travelled to Mount Kenya region looking for slaves and ivory and all the way to baringo and Lake Victoria.

They tried to keep good relation with the communities they passed through and discouraged other communities from participating in long distance trade by spreading malicious tales.

The Arabs and Swahili in 1860s took control of the interior and used caravans into the interior as far as Uganda.

Organization of the trade.

The people involved were the akamba, yao, nyamwezi and mijikenda.trade routes went all the way to kilomanjaro, m.t. Kenya and lake Victoria region but they did avoid maasai region due to hostility.

They gathered in the coast and moved in caravans to the interior. The goods were carried to and from the coast by porters who were either free men or slaves.

Items of trade included guns, cotton, cloth, beads, glass, swords, porcelain vessels, bracelets and bangles. From the interior the traders obtained ivory, rhino horns, slaves, hides and skins.

The trade was financed by the Arabs and Swahili, it was a barter trade but cowrie’sshells were introduced as currency.

Effects of long distance trade.

  • There were increased contacts among the people of the interior like akamba and agikuyu.
  • New items were introduced like guns, cotton, cloth and glasses.
  • The presence of the Swahili and Arabs in the interior exposed it to foreigners who reached as far inland mumias.
  • Emergence of powerful chiefs and kingdoms like wanga kingdom and chief kivoi of ukambani.
  • There was spread of Islam into the interior.
  • There was introduction of new crop like maize, bananas, rice, sugarcane and mangoes.
  • Decline of indigenous industries due to many foreign goods which were cheap.
  • Promoted slavery and slave trade.

International trade.

These was achieved through the opening up of the interior by seyyid said  who took control of the east Africa mainland and encouraged foreign traders to trade with Zanzibar.

He encouraged Indian merchants (banyans) to come add settle in Zanzibar since they were traders and money lenders.

He did sign treaties with the United States of America (1844), Britain (1839) and France (1844).

He also opened up to trading links with Germany.

Exports from east Africa included ivory, slaves, coconuts and gum-copal which were exchanged for guns, American clothes, beads and hardware.

Impact of international trade.

  • It linked east Africa to the outside world that later to result to colonization.
  • Emergence of strong leaders who welcomed foreigner from whom they gained guns.
  • The coming of Europeans in the scene ended Arab dominance in the trade.
  • The existence of slave trade and Islam made missionaries come to abolish slave trade and spread Christianity.
  • There were new crops introduced.
  • New items were introduced.
  • Intensification of warfare during slave raids, which caused suffering and destructions.


It was introduced by the Portuguese at the coastal region and won converts in Mombasa and malindi.

As soon as they were driven out by the Arabs who established the Islamic culture and religion overwhelmed the Christians effort.

In the late 19th century there was a Christian revival in Britain and Western Europe. This movement was also known as the evangelical revival. This movement provided the inspiration for the missionaries to go out into other parts of the world.

Reasons for coming of Christians missionaries.

  • They came to spread Christianity to the Africans.
  • They came to spread western civilization.
  • They came to abolish slave trade.
  • They wanted to introduce legitimate trade.
  • There was formation of missionary society in Western Europe which competed to send their members out to Africa.
  • The missionaries wanted to counter the spread of Islam.
  • Missionaries were also interested in the geographical knowledge of Africa.

Missionary activities and challenges in Kenya.

It began in 1844 when a Germany missionary Ludwig krapf arrived in Zanzibar.

He was sent by church missionary society of England who obtains a letter from seyyid said asking the local people go give him any assistance he required. He was later joined by johann rebmann from Germany.

They started work at rabai, near Mombasa where they established a mission station in 1846.

In 1849, they were accompanied by jakob erhardt.

Krapf encouraged members of other Christian societies to help in spreading Christianity.

In 1862, members of united Methodist church arrived from Britain and settled at ribe, under the leadership of Thomas wakefield and open a mission at jomvu and lamu.

In the interior church missionary society opened stations at sagala in taita and at taveta.

There were challenges like the akamba were unfriendly to the missionaries when chief kivoi was killed while travelling with krapf.

In the 19th and early 20th century saw the spread of Christianity into the interior of Kenya. In 1891, the Church of Scotland mission began to work at kibwezi in machakos. After several missionaries died there, the mission moved to kikuyu in central Kenya.

The second group in ukambani was African inland mission from the United States of America. They open a mission station at nzaui, in machakos district later expanded to kijabe, nandi, kabarnet and nyakach.

After the Kenya-uganda railway reached Nairobi in 1899, some french catholic missionaries opened s mission station, st. Austin’s, near Nairobi.

In 1903 the consolata fathers from Italy opened a station in nyeri.

By 1914, several Christian societies-churches of God mission, the seventh Day Adventist and the Friends mission-were all working in western Kenya.

Factors that facilitated spread of Christianity in Kenya.

  • Some African communities were friendly to the missionaries.
  • The early missionaries enjoyed the support of seyyid said.
  • Missionaries were quick to realize the importance of studying the languages of the people among whom they worked.
  • Most of the missionaries at first used Kiswahili in their work.
  • African converts were used to spread the gospel.
  • Other activities like education, health influenced Africans into conversion.
  • Building of Kenya- Uganda railway facilitated movement.
  • Discovery of quinine enabled missionaries fight diseases.

Challenges faced by missionaries.

  • They were attacked by tropical diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness.
  • There was poor means of transport no roads or railways or vehicles.
  • Missionaries lacked adequate supplies of food, medicine, money and other necessary materials.
  • Hostility from some communities.
  • There was insecurity in some areas.
  • In areas were Islam was prevalent like the coast, missionary work was impossible.
  • The missionary were few and could not cover their regions effectively for they were too big.
  • The missionaries were from different denominations and had to compete for followers, this lead to hatred.
  • Slave traders were hostile to the missionaries because from their activities, business was adversely affected.

Effects of missionary activities.

  • They spread Christianity to the interior of Kenya.
  • Africans gave up their culture practices like female circumcision and burial rites.
  • Introduction of western education.
  • They build up rehabilitation centres where they taught vocational skills, reading and Christianity.
  • They built health centres where western medicine was administered to cure and control diseases.
  • They introduced new crops like coffee and new farming methods.
  • They pioneered the construction of roads to their missions.
  • They translated the bible into Kiswahili and local languages.
  • Africans who had received missionary education and trained formed a new elite social class which was a new creation in the African set-up.
  • Some missionaries combined evangelisation with exploration activities, naming mountains and rivers.
  • Missionaries became pioneers of colonialism as they appealed to their home countries to offer them protection as they carried out their work.
  • There rose independent churches and schools.
  • During colonialism missionaries represented African interest in the legislative council. Like Dr. John Arthur was appointed to represent Africans in the legislative council.




A citizen is a person who legally belongs to a state. Citizenship therefore is the act of belonging to a particular country.

There are two ways of becoming a citizen by birth and registration.

Citizen by birth.

Anyone born to parents who are Kenyan citizens is entitled to citizenship. It applies to one born in or outside Kenya. It’s also given to a child found in Kenya who is less than eight years, and whose nationality and parents are unknown.

A citizen by birth does not lose citizenship by acquiring the citizenship of another country.

Citizenship by registration.

This is where a person who is not a Kenyan citizen is granted Kenyan citizenship. Like.

  • A person who has been married to a citizen for a period of at least seven years.
  • A person who has been lawfully living in Kenya for a continuous period of at least seven years.
  • A child adopted by a citizen.

Revocation of citizenship.

  • If the person acquired the citizenship by fraud, false representation or failure to provide full information.
  • If a person supports or is found to have supported an enemy country during war with Kenya.
  • If the person has within five years been convicted to a prison term of three or more years.
  • If a person has been convicted of treason or offence of which a penalty of seven or more years.

Rights and freedoms of citizens.

Right of life.

Every person has a right to life and no person shall be deprived of life intentionally except where the law authorises. The life of a person begins at conception and abortion is not permitted.

The following are limitations to the right to life.

  • When a person acts in self defence or defence of property.
  • When security officers execute a lawful arrest.
  • When security officers act to prevent the escape of a person who is lawfully detained.
  • When security officers suppress a riot, rebellion or mutiny.
  • When security officers act to prevent an individual from committing a crime.
  • When the country it at war.
  • When a person is sentenced to death by a court of law.

Equality and freedom from discrimination.

Every person is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law. No one should be discriminated against on ground, of race, sex, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic, colour, age disability, religious belief and conscience.

Rights to human dignity.

No one should be treated in a dehumanising manner people should be respected and protected.

Right to freedom and security of the person.

This include the right not to.

  • Subject to corporal punishment.
  • Treated or punished in a cruel way.
  • Subjected to violence from either public or private sources.
  • Detained without trial.
  • Subject to torture.

Right to privacy.

Every person has a right to privacy which includes the right not to have:

  • Their personal, home or property searched.
  • Their possessions seized.
  • The privacy of their communications interfered with.
  • Information relating to their family or private affairs revealed unnecessarily.

A person’s right to privacy is not considered to deprive when.

  • Public officers inspect premises for purposes of tax.
  • Security officers enter premises to arrest suspected criminals or prisoners who have escaped from lawful custody.
  • Public officers affect a court order.

Rights to freedom of conscience, religious belief and opinions.

Every person has a right to hold their views and practise their own religion. No person may be forced to engage in acts that are against their beliefs, however, this rights is limited by:

  • All religious groups should be registered by the government.
  • Religious, beliefs and opinions that create hatred and suspicions are not allowed.

Right to freedom of expression.

Every person has a right to seek, receive and impart information or ideas. However, the right does not extend to:

  • Propaganda for war.
  • Incitement to violence.
  • Hate speech.

Access to information.

Every citizen has the right to access information from the state, or any other person.

Right to freedom of association.

Every person has the right to peacefully and while unarmed assemble, demonstrate and present petitions to public authorities. However, these are the limitations:

  • Demonstrations should not lead to breakdown of law and order.
  • There should not be a conspiracy against the government.
  • The police should be notified in advance.

Right to political activity.

Every citizen is free to make political choices forming a party, recruit members and campaign for a political party and final vote in free, fair and regular elections.

Right to freedom of movement and residence.

Every person has a right to move and live anywhere in the country. One’s freedom of movement may be limited under the following circumstances:

  • When preventing the spread of an infectious disease.
  • When affecting a court order requesting one to be arrested.
  • When one is suspected to have committed or about to commit a crime.
  • When securing education or welfare of a person below the age of 18.
  • When rehabilitating a drug addict.
  • When securing the welfare of a person of unsound mind.
  • There are restricted areas. E.g. military barracks and private property.
  • When a curfew is imposed in times of war or insecurity.

Right to property.

Every person has a right to acquire and own property in any part of the country. The following are limitations to this right.

  • The government may acquire property for public use provided there is compensation.
  • Property should not have been acquired unlawfully.

Labour relation.

Every person has the right to fair labour practices. Workers have the right to:

  • Fair remuneration.
  • Reasonable working conditions.
  • Go on strike.
  • From and join trade unions.


Every person has a right to a clean and healthy environment.

Economic and social rights.

  • High standards of health to emergency treatment.
  • Adequate housing and sanitation.
  • Adequate food of acceptable quality.
  • Clean and safe water in adequate quantities.
  • Social security.

Language and culture.

Every citizen has a right to use the language and to participate in cultural life of the person’s choice.

Right to family.

Every adult has a right to marry a person of the opposite sex.

Responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen.

Political responsibility.

Obey the law.

Every citizen has a responsibility to respect and obey the law in order to enhance peace and stability.

Protecting the law.

Every citizen should protect the law by reporting law-breakers and not harbouring law-breakers.

Participating in the democratic processes.

Like registration as voters, voting for leaders and offering them for electoral position.

Maintaining valid documents

Like identity cards, passports, driving licence and birth certificates among others.

Participating in public meetings.

Economic responsibility.

  • Every citizen has a responsibility to pay tax like income tax, value added tax and excise duty.
  • Citizens should take part in development programmes like harambee.
  • Citizens should participate in income generating activities to earn a descent living.
  • Every citizen should conserve the environment like natural resources.
  • Citizen should fight corruption in the country.

Social responsibility.

  • Promote gender sensitivity in relation to community.
  • Promote positive values in the society and good morals.
  • Promotion of good health practices like hygiene.
  • Helping in emergencies like disaster.
  • Taking care of the vulnerable in the society like the needy, orphans and poor.

Values of good citizenship.

  • One should be patriotic to the country.
  • One should have good morals.
  • One should be a nationalist.
  • One should have integrity.
  • A good citizen should adhere to work ethics.
  • One should be thrift that is wise and prudent use of resources.



It’s the act, process or means of bringing people of different or diverse cultures, religion, race, tribe, occupation and social status into forming one nation.

Importance of national integration.

  • Enhances conditions favourable for peace and prosperity.
  • Promotes national unity.
  • Promotes the achievement of rapid economic and development.
  • Eliminates and reduces inter-community conflicts and suspicions.
  • Enhances nationalism and patriotism.
  • Creates favourable investment conditions that attract foreign investment.

National unity.

It refers to a nation that is fully fused into one, or integrated where every member or citizen has a sense of belonging.

Factors promoting national unity.

  • The national language.
  • National philosophies like socialism, harambee and nyayoism.
  • National symbols like anthem, coat of arms and public seal.
  • Social and economic interaction.
  • Fair distribution of resources.
  • Government institutions like judiciary, the legislature and executive.
  • National days and events like mahujaa day, jamhuri and madaraka day.

Factors limiting national unity.

  • Religious conflicts.
  • Racial intolerance.
  • Divisive politics.
  • Economic inequality.
  • Cultural conflicts.

Conflicts resolution.

Conflict means serious disagreement between people resulting from each opposing views or interest like armed struggle.

Conflict resolution is the working out of a settlement to defuse or solve a conflict.

Causes of conflicts.

Political causes.

  • Differences among political parties over ideology or policies.
  • Failure to uphold the laws of a country.
  • Denial of citizens’ rights.
  • Improper conduct of election.
  • Border disputes between countries.

Economic causes.

  • Un-equal allocation of economic resources.
  • Disputes over natural resources.
  • Differences between employers and workers.
  • Differences over trading policies, e.g. tariffs among nations.
  • Failure to adhere to contractual obligations.

Social cause.

  • Religious differences among people.
  • Cultural intolerance between communities.
  • Influx of refugees from neighbouring countries leading to pressure on resources.
  • Mistrust between family and community members.
  • Tribalism, nepotism and racism within a nation.

Categories of conflicts.

Individual against individuals.

Individual against the state.

Communities against communities.

State against state.

Methods of resolving conflicts.


It’s a neutral person who is appointed to solve a conflict amongst people.


It’s an art of negotiation between individuals or countries to resolve conflicts and may involve creating understanding and room for reconciliation.


It’s done by the parliament through passing of legislation that control conflicts.

Use of elders.

Parties involved appear before the elders who listen to them and come up with a solution.

Religious action.

Religious leaders have been called upon several tomes to resolve political and social conflicts in Kenya.

Court action.

Legal action as a method of conflict resolution can be taken up by any of the parties in conflict.


The presence of the police helps to control crime that brings about conflicts.

International agreement.

International agreements on boarder security and utilisation of natural resources are a method of conflict resolution between countries.

The process of resolving conflicts.

Legal process.

The constitution of Kenya empowers the judiciary to resolve conflicts; the judiciary has established courts throughout the country with powers to solve cases.

There are cases which the parties at conflict may take to court or have them settled out of court.

Civil conflicts.

They are brought to attention of the court directly by the complainant in person, through a sympathiser or a lawyer. A process referred to filing a case.  The court will study facts presented by the complainant after which it determines if to file a case against the accused. It may dismiss or allow the case to continue.

The accused will attend court in person or through an advocate on a given date as both parties are allowed to call witnesses.

When all parties are through with their testimonies, a date is set for the verdict or judgement where the verdict is delivered and if any party dissatisfied is given chance to appeal to higher courts.

Criminal cases.

They are reported to police who arrest the suspects, interrogate them, record statements and investigate the crime.

They present the suspect before a court of law and prosecute. The suspect may be releases on bond as the case proceeds.

All parties in this conflict must be heard and their evidence considered, they are allowed to hire lawyers after which the magistrate sets a date for the verdict.


The process of solving conflicts out of court includes identifying the source of the conflict by the parties concerned. The party’s agents call on each other to sit and iron out their problems.

This is where the mediator is called and negotiates on the behalf of the parties involved in the conflict.

Armed forces.

A state of emergency can be declared in cases of serious social conflict or in the event of breakdown of law and order.

Effects of conflicts.

  • Massive displacement of people, they become refugees.
  • Fear and insecurity due to anarchy.
  • Losses of lives as people are killed.
  • Destruction of property.
  • Starvation due to crops destruction and disruption of agriculture activities.
  • People become poor due to economic decline.
  • Human suffering and misery becomes widespread.





Definition of trade

It’s the buying and selling goods or exchange of goods for mutual benefit.

Origin and development of trade

There were exchanges between countries of different environment in more favourable surrounding; there was an organised trade between hunting and gathering communities and their more advanced neighbour.

In Africa it was through the production and exchange of commodities such as cattle, salt-smoked fish, kola nuts, minerals and metals which were instrumental in maintaining trade flow, this shows that food was more important.

As people became more and more advanced, so did their needs, like clothing, improved methods of farming, improved crops and livestock and the use of modern tools in cultivation.

Modern civilisation has also contributed to world insecurity, which has lead to manufacture of weapons such as guns and ammunition.

Methods of trade

  1. Barter trade

Barter trade is the oldest method of trade in the history of human civilization. Barter involves the exchange of goods and services for other goods or services, like game meat with agricultural produces, cloth, horses, salt, copper foe gold, slaves, ivory, kola-nuts, animal skins and ostrich feathers.

These exchanges could take the form of silent trade or dumb barter. This is where is no common language and also in a form of sign language.


  • It’s suitable where there is no currency


  • It’s not easy to establish the actual value of the goods
  • Some goods could not be divided into smaller quantities
  • Lack of double coincidence of wants.( similar demand)
  • Bulky and perishable commodities had poor transportation
  • Lack of a common language
  1. Currency trade

It’s the use of money to purchase commodities or to pay for services. Currency is a medium of exchange accepted by a community as a measure of value for goods and services.

Important characteristics of currency

  • It should be accepted by society
  • It should be stable and retain value without depreciating
  • It should be durable and of quality to be kept for a long time
  • It should be divisible into smaller units
  • It should be convertible into other currencies
  • It should be portable to allow easy transportation

Major modern currencies

  • United kingdom- sterling pound
  • USA- dollar
  • Germany- deutsche mark (DM)
  • France – franc (FF)
  • Japan – yen
  • European – EURO


  • It can be divided into smaller units
  • It is possible to store wealth sine money is a store of wealth
  • Its portable since it’s not bulky
  • It is a measure of value/ worth of goods and services
  • It has intrinsic value as currencies are generally made from precious and rare metals


  • The value of the currency may fluctuate depending on the strength of a county’s economy

Types of trade

  • Local trade
  • Regional trade
  • International trade
  1. Local trade

This is the exchange of goods at the village level within a geographical region. It includes neighbouring villages; one village could produce baskets and exchange them for pots from another village.

Origin: it began due to

  1. Climatic and environment conditions. These affect the distribution of various kinds of animals and plants. Situations arise where peoples requirements are not found in the locality
  2. Uneven distribution of natural resources. No regions have all the natural resources they require
  • Specialization, some skills were preserving for a few people, like iron-working, pottery and cloth- making. The people who didn’t have such skills acquired what they could not produce through trade.
  1. Surplus production. There was also need for local demand; people exchanged the excess of what they had in plenty with what they needed from other communities.


Local trade developed in order to satisfy the need of goods that were not available in a village and production of surplus goods made it necessary to sell what was not required to the neighbouring villages, as continuous supply and demand of goods led to further development of trade.

Peaceful co-existence of neighbouring communities also contributed to development of trade.

Regional and international trade further encouraged the development


It was organised between individuals, families, clans and alter communities which exchanged trade goods like grains, pots, iron implements, skins and livestock.

It was organised along a common clan or tribal border on a regular basis such as weekly or fortnightly

Trade routes facilitated the easy movements of trade

It was conducted mainly using the barter method

Characteristics of local trade

  • It was carried out within a small area
  • The range of goods was limited to availability
  • The numbers of traders were few
  • It was the basis of regional and international trade
  • It was done by small- scale trade


  • It promoted good relations between the communities involved.
  • There was interaction between communities leading to the adoption of new cultural practices
  • There was intermarriage
  • Development of trading centres which grew into towns
  • There was availability of goods and materials
  • Early industries were established to produce items of trade
  • Chiefdoms emerge as a result of levies and tributes paid to traders
  • It provided a base for regional and international trade.
  1. Regional trade

It’s the exchange of goods conducted between two or more geographical regions like trans-Saharan trade.

The trans-Saharan trade

It was conducted between North Africa and West Africa. It derived its name from crossing of the Saharan desert by traders.


It’s not clear when this trade started, merchants were travelling o n horse drawn chariots between north and West Africa, due to increased aridity, the volume of trade decreased, but with the introduction of the camel from Asia the trade was revived. The Arabic who originally settled in parts of North Africa and from there they started moving south, first as traders and later as settlers.


  • The camel which was used as a means of transport made it easier to travel and conduct trade across the hot and hostile desert as the camel could withstand extremely harsh conditions.
  • The availability of trade commodities like, gold, ivory, slaves, leather, kola-nuts, pepper and gum were readily available in the West Africa. Similarly the commodities such as salt, horses, weapons, iron tools, cloth, silk, beads, cowries shells, glass ware and dries fruit.
  • Strong kingdom. There were strong kingdoms like Ghana, Mali and Songhai. The rulers ensured that the trade prospered and that trade routes were secure.
  • The tuaregs. They served as guides to the caravans as they were conversant with the desert routs. They guarded the caravans against hostile desert communities who sought to rob them; they acted as middlemen and maintained oases through providing food stuffs.
  • Wealthy merchants. They financed the caravans as an investment that hoped would bring those profits.
  • This lead to growth of trans-Saharan trade through refreshment and replenishing supplies.
  • As islam spread through the region, it served to unify the traders as brothers and sisters.




Wealthy merchants in the North African financed the caravans. It was done where merchants gathered commodities and commits them to their employees who would organise caravans and they would commit their merchandise as loans to their traders who would then organise caravans.

The traders would collect commodities that were in demand in West African such as horses and weapons. The trader’s would team up with other traders to form a caravan. The caravans would be made up of several hundreds of people.

The traders would engage the services of the tuareg or Berber guides, also known as takshifs who would guide the caravans to the locations with the highest demand at the time.

During their trips, the traders would engage local agents who would serve as intermediaries.

There were two types of trade routes used namely, the main or primary routes and the secondary routes.

  1. The western route. It began at fez in morocco and went through Sijilmasa, then Taghaza, Timbukutu, Audaghast and ended in the Niger belt.
  2. The central route. This route began in Tunis through Ghat, Agades, Kano and ended within the Hausa state.
  3. The eastern route. This route started from Tripoli then went through Murzuk ,Bilma and finally ended at Njimi in Karnem Bornu.

Difficulties encountered by traders

  • The journey was long and tiring, sometimes the caravan traders ran out of supplies for themselves and animals
  • The caravans encountered insecurity in the desert like robbers and terrorisms which were hostile
  • The routes in the desert changed frequently, the caravans would occasionally get lost
  • The desert climate was harsh with very high temperatures during the day and very low at night
  • There was a language barrier between the traders and the desert communities
  • Blinding sand storms hampered the progress of the caravan
  • The caravans were always danger of attack by various desert creatures such as scorpions and snakes
  • The takshifs would turn against the employers and attack and rob them
  • There was rivalry among traders over the monopoly and control of trade and trade routes

Factors that lead to decline of the trans-Saharan trade

  • The gold and salt fields got exhausted reducing supply
  • Fall of empires like Songhai caused political instability and insecurity in the region
  • External invasion by morocco cost destruction of some commercial centres like Gao and Timbukutu
  • The rise and growth of trans-Atlantic trade rendered trans-Saharan trade unpopular
  • European trading activities along West African coast undermine the trade
  • Abolition of slave trade from the 1840s denied the traders a main trade` item’
  • The tuaregs changed their roles as guides and became robbers of the caravans
  • The desert condition like sand storms and desert insects.


  • The trade provided an important link between western Sudan and North Africa
  • It stimulated the growth of small settlement which later grew into big ancient towns
  • It created a new social class in western Sudan
  • The trade brought about islamisation of people in West Africa
  • New types of goods were introduced to the people of West Africa
  • They built schools and university were Arabic literature and philosophy were taught
  1. C) International trade

It refers to trade between countries outside geographical regions. It can also be define as trade which involves travel across seas and oceans.

The trans-Atlantic trade

It also referred to as triangular trade, because it was conducted between Africa, America and Europe across the Atlantic Ocean


It began in 15th century as a result of Portuguese and Spanish exploration. At first Portuguese took slave to Europe, where they worked as domestic servants. In the 16th c. with the discovery and colonization of America, slaves were exported there from west Africa by European merchants.

Europeans in Portugal, Spain, Holland, France and Britain started plantation of sugar, tobacco and cotton in the lands. This created an agent need for cheap labour as indigenous red Indians were un willing and un fit to work in the plantation. The solution to labour problem was found in Africa.

Why African slave were more preferred than other races

  • The supply of African slave was high
  • They were cheaper to acquire
  • They were stronger than the European and Red Indian labourers
  • They were regarded as immune to tropical diseas
  • Their complexion prevented them from escaping them easily


This was influenced by the activities of Portuguese as they were to sail to West Africa and established trade links. They captured a few Africans slave whom they took too Europe to work as domestic servants. they were shipped to Hispaniola in 1510. The successes of their experiment lead to more slaves being shipped directly to America from Africa

Factors for the development of trans-Atlantic trade

  • European nations hand links with West Africa.
  • African chiefs had developed a taste for European goods such as glass, clothes, rum and fir –arms
  • The introduction of fire-arms in West Africa made it easier to raid communities for slaves and to conduct wars of conquest in order to capture slaves.
  • The establishment of mines and plantations and in new lands increased the demand for slaves
  • The increased demand of raw materials by European industries resulted in an increased in demand for slaves in America.
  • There was competition and rivalry among European nations to control the trade
  • The trade was lucrative and profitable to the merchants.
  • Ship – building technology improved with building of larger ships with a greater capacity for such as slaves.



It was conducted between three continents that are Africa, America and Europe; it involved Portugal, Spain, Holland, Britain and France. From Africa, slaves were shipped to plantations in the Caribbean and the America while raw materials including gold, pepper, ivory, hides, gum, bees wax, rice and ginger were sent to Europe. From plantations in America and Caribbean, raw materials such as sugar, tobacco and cotton were sent to factories in Europe for processing.

The slaves were the main commodity that were shipped from the West African coast and destined for plantations in America and Caribbean.

Cheap manufactured goods were shipped from European ports to middlemen on the West African coast. The middlemen held the merchandise in trust and used it to trade with the slaves captors. This lead to growth of the West African ports such as Accra, Lagos and Dakar.

When European traders arrived in the West Africa, agents of the local kings collected fees from them after which they were entertained.

Methods used to acquired slaves

  • They were sold by rulers such as chiefs and kings to the slave traders
  • The captives of war were sold to the slave traders
  • They were exchanged with other commodities e.g gun and cloth
  • Some lonely travellers were kidnapped by the slave traders
  • Commodities raided their neighbours and captured people who were sold to slave traders
  • Children were enticed with gifts liked sweets and then captured to be sold to slave traders
  • Debtors were sold to slave traders to pay debts through a method known as panyaring

Reasons for the decline of the Trans-Atlantic trade

  • There was decline in demand of sugar as France began producing cheaper sugar that penetrated and dominated the European market.
  • In the 1776, the U.S.A attained political independence from Britain, a move that deprived the British of profits made from the slave trade
  • During the industrial revolution in Europe, machines replaced human labour as they were more efficient.
  • The Christian missionaries began to advocate for the abolition of slave trade, as did humanitarians in Britain during 19th
  • Influential economists like Adam smith advanced arguments for a free enterprise economy; men were less productive when enslaved than free men.
  • The U.S.A. experienced a civil war between the north and south over the institution of slavery, the north which was against slavery won the war leading to the abolition of slavery in the U.S.A.
  • Leading Africans actively campaigned against slave trade. King nzinga mbemba of Congo wrote a letter to the king of Portugal requesting him to stop his men buying slave in the Congo.


  • The trade led to the development of ports like Bristol and Liverpool.
  • It contributed to the emergence of a class of wealthy traders who invested in plantation.
  • It led to settlement of Africans in America.
  • There was depopulation in Africa as slaves were captured and taken to America.
  • Slave raiding led to an increased in inter-tribal wars, the wars increased insecurity.
  • Kingdoms like the Fante, Asente, Dahomey and Oyo which controlled the trade became very powerful.
  • There was economic decline because the young and able were taken away, leaving the weak and old.
  • Slave raiding involved the destruction of property; villages were often burnt down and left in ruins.
  • There was decline in traditional industries due to introduction of goods such as clothes and glassware at the expense of local ones.
  • The trans-Saharan trade decline as goods were diverted towards the West African coast from them was exported overseas.
  • Long- lasting trade links were established between West Africa, Europe and America.
  • Slave market and ports like Lagos and Elmina from where slave were shipped, developed into urban centres along the coast of West Africa.
  • Slave trade weakened African societies to the level that they could not effectively resist colonisation.
  • The abolition of trade lead to the creation of Sierra Leone and Liberia as settlements for freed slaves




Definition of trade

It’s from two wards; Trans which means across, beyond, over or to the far side of and port meaning the carrying of goods. It’s therefore the carrying of goods and people from one place to another.

Traditional forms of transport

These are human port rage, pack of animals, raft, boats and sailing ships

Land transport

  1. Human port rage

This was carried on heads, shoulders and backs


  • It was readily available
  • It was cheap methods
  • It was flexible because it hard no fixed times for departure and arrival


  • It was time-consuming as movement was slow
  • There porter could carry only a small load
  • It was tiresome, forcing the porter to make frequent rest
  • Porters were affected by adverse weather condition
  1. Pack and draught animals

Animals were initially domesticated only for food, later they did carry goods and people. At first the load was placed directly on the animals back, later, some of the animals began to pull vehicles. Animals like ox, donkey, horse, mule, elephant, camel, reindeer and dogs


  • Animals are cheap to maintain since they require only feeding
  • Accidents are rare since animals do not over speed
  • Animals can be used in accessible areas
  • Some animals can sense danger by sniffing out an enemy from a distance.
  • Animals do not need fuel apart from teaching and training


  • Animals may be attacked by wild animals
  • It is slow and tedious mode of transport
  • The amounts of load which animals can carry are low when compared to motor vehicle.
  • Pack animals are stubborn when tired or heavily loaded
  • The animals can only cover a limited distance
  1. Vehicles without wheels

The earliest vehicles were crude contraptions without wheels. As they were cumbersome to drag along the ground, they moved slowly and carried small loads.

The sleigh (sledge)

The sleigh glided on runners placed from back to front. It was commonly used in the snow terrains of northern Europe and North America. It was initially pulled by people; later teams of dogs were harnessed to it. The reindeer was also used in some parts of the arctic and sub- arctic regions.

The travois

It was v-shaped with the narrower side harnessed to a horse or dogs using a pole. The broader side which was dragged along the ground, had cross-pieces that served as a base for the load. The travois was most commonly used in the North America because of its treeless, dry and flat terrain.

The sedan chair

This was a special chair fitted with two poles running on the sides from back to front. Four men carried it on these poles.

The development of wheel

The idea of the wheel was developed from the use of wooden rollers. These loose lengths of logs placed under a load. The load was then pulled forward over the rollers. As each roller was fixed at the back. It was carried and placed again at the front.

The wheel in Mesopotamia

It was first used by Sumerians in Mesopotamia about 5000 years ago. It was solid, heavy and fixed to the axle. The spoke wheel was developed around 2500 bc. It was used on a horse-drawn chariot, making them lighter and swifter. These were the 1st vehicles to be used in warfare.

Later rubber strip was added on the outside. A metal strip, instead of rubber, was introduced by Assyrians. All these made the wooden spoke wheel more durable. It was also used in shadoofs, a pulley system with which farms were irrigated in Mesopotamia.

Impact of the wheel in Mesopotamia

  • It enabled the Sumerians built war chariots which increased mobility of the solders.
  • It enhanced transportation of people and goods.
  • The chariots gave the Sumerians solders height advantage over their enemies, enabling them to fight more efficient.
  • It promoted trade through efficiency of transportation of goods and traders
  • It facilitated the construction of roads
  • It enhance the making of pots of high quality
  • It promoted early agriculture as the wheel was used on shadoof for irrigation.

The wheel in china

They invented the wheel about 4000 years ago. They used the potter’s wheel to produce fine porcelain vessels. They were fixed on horse- drawn chariots and carts drawn water buffaloes for carrying people and goods.

The wheel in Africa

It spread through Egypt from south East Asia when the country was invaded by the Hyksos in 1800 BC. The invaders used horse drawn chariots. When they were defeated, the Egyptians used the wheel to make their own carts, this spread to other parts of Africa.

The wheel in Europe

The Greeks were the 1st Europeans to use the wheel, during the Olympics which were held every four years; one event was a fourteen- kilometre chariot race.

Military chariots were 1st used during the reign of Alexander the great. Using horse –drawn chariots and wheeled siege to wars, the Greeks conquered turkey, Persia, parts of India and Egypt.

The Romans learned the use of the wheel from the Greeks. They improved two- wheeled chariots for sport, postal services and warfare.

Water transport

The 1st means of water transport was just a log to which a man could cling, the early people must have discovered that they could hold onto a tree trunk, remain afloat and actually be transported.


The earliest vessels


It’s made up of several logs tied together. This helped to improve on the stability of the log. A long pole reached the bottom of the river was to propel and steer the raft. However, it was still difficult to move upstream.

The dug-out canoe

The earliest boats were simply dug-out tree trunk. The hallowed out section provided room for passengers. These were used for crossing rivers over shallow waters and fishing , but they were not unstable.

Oar-driven boats

Oars were used to push or row the boat against water currents thus increasing the speed and power. They were used by Egyptians, Romans, Phoenicians and Greeks.

Sailing boats

They were propelled by wind; it was done by trapping winds in cloth that was attached to a mast on the boat. They had greater speed than oar-driven boats.

Sailing ship

They were larger and bigger than the sailing boats. A mast was erected in the centre of the vessel and a square sail attached on it.

Limitations of early forms of water transport

  • They could easily sink during strong wind and storms.
  • They could only move down stream as their movement relied on water current.
  • They carried only a few passengers and goods at a time
  • Passengers and goods were exposed to the elements of weather.

Development in modern means of transport

Road transport

Roman roads

The 1st road to be built was by Romans about 312bc. The main aim was to ensure rapid movement of troops and administrators.

Every region was accompanied by an engineer to supervise construction and maintenance. The building was done by soldiers, assisted by local labourers.

The roads had foundations of up to one and half meters deep and made with whatever local material that was available, usually heavy rocks were thrown in 1st, followed by other layers of smaller stones and rubble. There was a drain on each side and kerbstones to prevent the surface from sliding outwards.

The 1st roman road called the apian way, connected Rome and Capua, a distance of 209km. at the height of the empire; over 85000km of roads had been built.

Characteristics of roman roads

  • They were constructed straight
  • They were raised high above the ground to avoid flooding.
  • They were well drained on each side
  • They were built with bridges across rivers and tunnels through hills.

Macadam roads

John macadam (1756-1830) devised a faster but cheaper way of constructing roads. He realised that ordinary ground could still be used to make good roads if it was kept dry. He removed only the top soil and then put three layers of small, broken stones, carriage wheels were used to press the stones tightly and grit to break off and bind everything together. The surface was curved to allow water to run off into ditches on the sides. The soil underneath remained dry and made the road durable.

These roads were later improved by adding tar to produce a water proof surface called tar-Mac. The word was coined from the word tar, and from macadam’s name.

Advantage of macadam roads.

  • They were all- weather roads
  • The roads were wide hence could accommodate more traffic
  • They were durable
  • They were straight hence reduced accidents
  • They had a smooth surface hence the motoring surface was comfortable.

The bicycle

It means two wheels; it was invented in 1700 by a Frenchman de sivrac. It has two wheels were placed in front of the other on a framework rather than side by side on a single axle.

The velocipede

It’s also known as the hobby horse, this kind of a bicycle was 1st used in 1820. There was no transmission of power to the wheels. The rider sat on it and pushed it forward with his feet and some speed was built up.

The penny farthing

The name was derived from the British coins, the penny, and the farthing, because one wheel was bigger than the other. The rider transmitted power from pedals attached to the front bigger wheel over which the he sat.

The safety bicycle

It was developed from 1884. Chain gearing was invented by Englishman J.K Stanley. It consisted of two sprocket-wheels, the bigger one attached to the pedals in the centre and the smaller one to the rear wheel.

Another Englishman, J.B Dunlop, invented the pneumatic tyres which replace the uncomfortable solid rubber ones.

The last improvement was the invention of the free-wheel which allowed the rear wheel to rotate when the rider was not pedalling.

The motor-cycle

The motor-cycle is a motorised bicycle. The 1st was made by Gottlied Daimler in 1855. The frame was made stronger and wheels wider, an engine and a gear box were added to ease riding. It was faster than a bicycle and cheaper than an automobile, it could access rough terrain, carried only one passenger or a small load.

The motor vehicle

It was not a sudden invention of any one person. It was the result of a contribution of many people over several hundred years, in 1789, a French engineer, and Joseph Cugnot, built a three-wheeled vehicle powered by a steam engine. It moved at a slow, walking pace, although it could carry passengers, it was designed to transport cannons.

In 1858 petroleum oil was discovered in the U.S.A in 1859, Frenchman Etienne Lenoir developed the internal combustion engine instead of steam, the engine used petroleum vapour which was ignited to give an internal explosion.

An Australian, Marcu, built two vehicles but they were banned from the roads because they were too noisy.

A German engineer, Nicolas Otto also made significant contributions to design of the engine.

In 1886, Daimler built a four-wheeled car with a high-speed petrol engine. A converted horse-drawn carriage, this vehicle was the forerunner of the modern car.

Towards the end of the 1880s, a French company, Panhard-levassor, bought the right to use Daimlers engine within a few years, their factory produced its 1st car.

Advantages of road transport

  • It is the cheapest form of transport over short distance
  • Road transport is flexible
  • Its faster compared to water and rail transport
  • Can be used by many means e.g. human and animals

Disadvantages of road transport

  • Accidents are high on roads, leading to loss of lives.
  • Traffic congestion leading to jams
  • Exhaust fumes motor vehicles cause air pollution
  • It is expensive to construct all weather roads.

Rail transport

It was developed from the idea of vehicles moving along a fixed track. The 1st railways were used in Germany from 16th c in the coal mines.

The steam engine

Thomas savery, a British engineer, designed and built the 1st steam- drive pump which was used to pump water out of coal mine.

In 1780, a Scottish engineer, James watt developed a smaller, more efficient steam engine.

1n 1801, Richard Trevithick installed watts engine in a vehicle which ran on an ordinary road.

In 1813, Christopher bracket and William Hedler made another steam engine, nickname puffing Billy because of the smoke it produced.

The introduction of locomotion by George Stephenson and Robert which was the 1st steam locomotive to pull a passenger train along a public railway from Stockton to Burlington.

The diesel engine

In 1892, a German engineer, Rudolph diesel designed a heavy-oil engine to work on a compression ignition system. His engine, built in 1895, achieved compression far higher than that required for self-ignition in order to obtain the greatest possible efficiency.

The electric engine

The 1st electric railway system was built in Britain in 1883. Designed by Siemens brothers and john Hopkinson. Electric 240 volts, was picked up from a third rail.

In U.S.A many instillations involving electric tramways were built in the 1890s. They were operated by power taken either from overhead cables or live rail. They were designed by F.J. Sprague and C.J van depoele.

The trans-Siberian railway line.

This is found in Russia. It was built in 1891 from Leningrad to Vladivostok on the shores of the Pacific Ocean

The great American railway

It is found in the U.S.A it starts on the Atlantic coast and stretches to the Pacific Ocean coast on the west.

The Canadian pacific railway

It is found in Canada. It was built in 1881 and links the eastern coast of the Atlantic Ocean to the western coast of the Pacific Ocean.

Advantages of rail transport

  • It is suitable for transportation of heavy bulky goods
  • It is economical for transportation of goods and services over a long distance.
  • Electric trains are a fast means of transport.
  • It follows a regular timetable which enables passengers to plan their movement.
  • It is safe means of transport as accidents are rare.
  • Underground trains help to reduce traffic congestion on the roads.

Disadvantages of railway transport

  • It is expensive to construct railways and buy the wagons.
  • Accidents though rare are always fatal when they occur.
  • Diesel engines emit a lot of smoke leading to air pollution.
  • Rail transport is heavily affected by terrain.
  • Railway transport is not flexible and has to be supplemented by other means of transport.

Impact of railway transport

  • It has promoted urbanization as towns have developed along railway lines.
  • It led to the development of international trade as bulky goods could be easily transported to the markets.
  • It led to industrial revolution in Europe as raw materials could be transported to industrial and finished products to markets.
  • It opened remote continental interiors of Africa, Asia and n. America for agricultural and mineral exploitation.
  • It helped the colonialist to establish effective control over their colonies through quick movement of administrators and troops.
  • Railway transport has offered employment to many people.
  • It led to widespread migration and settlement of people.

Water transport


In the 18th c. it was discovered that steam power could be used to drive machines. In 1736, an Englishman, Jonathan hulls, built a boat driven by steam power. It was tested on the river Avon, but it was not a success. The 1st successful steam boat was built in 1783 by a Frenchman, Marquis de Jouffroy. It was driven by peddle-wheels, one on each side of the hull.

In 1787, John Fitch, an American, built a steam boat driven by sis oars on each side. In 1790 he built another ship which could travel at 112km/h with it he began services on the Delaware River between Philadelphia and Trenton.

Another was built by Scottish engineer, William Symington. His steamship was driven by two paddle wheels. Then Robert Fulton, an American, built the clermont, which was driven by two paddle-wheels. In 1807, the clermont began a regular passenger service between albanyon on the Hudson River and New York.

A propeller under the ship replaced paddle-wheels. The 1st propeller steamer was the Archimedes, built in 1838.

Three developments which increased the popularity of steamships included-:

In 1854, John Elder invented an economical two –cylinder compound engine which cut fuel consumption by about 60%.

The Suez Canal was opened in 1869; it shortened the route to the east by about 5000km.

Coal stations were opened all along the main sea-routs. It was no longer necessary to carry a lot of fuel and so there was more cargo space.

Development of modern ships.

The modern cruise ship is a luxurious ship designed to offer entertainment to passengers as the ship takes a cruise in the ocean.

These ships are about 3oom long and carry up to 2000 passengers


A canal is a man-made water channel usually dug on a straight course. The main reason for the construction of the canals in Europe and North America was the poor conditions of the roads and also shorten distance.

They also saves costs by reducing the distance this means they are cheap.

Ship canals

It’s deeper and can be used by ocean-going vessels. They were constructed to link the industrial centres to ports or to shorten routes, like the Manchester-Liverpool canal, the Suez Canal and Panama Canal.

Advantages of water transport

  • It enhanced the exploration of the world especially after the discovery of the magnetic compass
  • It promoted trade through transportation of bulky goods between continents.
  • It reduced the cost of transport by providing the cheapest means of transporting bulky goods over long distances.
  • Promoted exploitation of natural resources under the water.

Disadvantages of water transport

  • Its slow means of moving passengers and cargo.
  • Construction of port facilities is expensive.
  • It can only be used by countries that are bordered by oceans, hence land-locked countries are disadvantaged.
  • May lead to pollution of water through oil spills.
  • Delays are caused by port congestion especially where adequate loading and unloading facilities are lacking.

Impact of water transport

  • It is a convenient means of transporting bulky goods
  • It is a major source of employment
  • It has boosted international trade
  • It is a major source of government revenue.
  • It has enhanced inter-continental connections
  • It has expanded mans knowledge about the deep seas.
  • Some towns emerged where there are harbours and ports.

Air transport

The desire to fly was a dream of mankind for many countries; some pioneers were even killed while trying to get airborne.

Kits were probably the 1st objects to be flown.

The 1st was a hot air balloon designed and built by two brothers, Jacques and Joseph Montgolfier. It covered only eight kilometres that lasted twenty minutes.

Brazilian inventor, alberto Santos dumont, developed the 1st airship in 1898. Although it was a balloon, it was powered by an engine and called therefore be steered.

The aeroplane.

The 1st successful heavier than air powered flight was made by Orville Wright at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in the U.S.A.

Air transport and aircraft design advanced rapidly. By 1909, aeroplanes were being commercially produced, in 1911, the 1st airmail services was introduced.

The jet engine

The demand for higher speeds for military planes produced the gas turbine, which made possible the jet plane.

The jet engine gave greater power and higher speed to aircraft. In 1970s, the jumbo jets were introduced which can cruise long distances at speeds of up to 1000km/h with 400 passengers on board.

Today, the Concorde is the fastest passenger aircraft; it cruises at up to 2000km/h.

Impact of air transport

  • It has promoted international trade especially perishable goods.
  • It provides transport to in accessible remote areas.
  • It has revolutionised warfare as countries are able to strike their enemies with precision.
  • It has contributed immensely to space exploration through space shuttle and satellites.
  • Air transport has enhanced international co-operation and understanding.
  • It has enhanced emergency and relief services for example; it is used by flying doctors in emergency situations.
  • Accidents though rare are often fatal for all passengers and crew.

Space exploration

The discovery of the telescope in 1610 by Galileo Galilei made space exploration easier; astronomers began to study the moon through a telescope in the early 1600s.

The rocket

It was invented and 1st used by the Chinese around 1000ad. They were used as weapons and space exploration.

In a simple rocket, burning fuel produces large amounts of gas. This is freed out of a hole at back, causing the rocket to move forward.


It’s a small body that travels in orbit around a large body used as space exploration more than a hundred satellites are launched into the orbit around the earth by various countries every year.

They are used to facilitate communication between the continents.

They help geologists to prospect for minerals and assist astronomers in the study of the solar system.

Space shuttle

This craft is partly a rocket and partly plane. It is propelled into space like a rocket, bit it returns to earth like a aeroplane. Presently, several robotic missions have been sent into space. There is a permanent international space station orbiting the earth.

Advantages of space exploration.

  • It has enhanced human understanding of the universe like Pluto.
  • It has led to the development of advanced air defence system, like the American star wars system.
  • It has enhanced effective mapping and surveillance on earth through global positioning system.
  • Space exploration has encouraged space tourism.

Disadvantages of space exploration

  • Accidents though rare have fatal consequences.
  • It is very expensive and preserve of only the rich nations.
  • It is an activity that contributes to environmental degradation e.g. degradation of the ozone layer.

Impact of modern means of transport.

  • An efficient transport network reaching all corners of every country has resulted in great expansion of both internal and external trade.
  • There is migration of people from one part of the world to another is faster and easier.
  • Advancement of transport made people settle in places where there were good means of transport.
  • Faster transport has resulted into a quick transfer of ideas in technology.
  • Farmers can easily transport their produce even to the most distant markets anywhere in the world.
  • Raw materials have to be transported to factories, while finished goods have to reach markets.
  • Enhance tourism as people require efficient transport services to visit areas of attraction in other parts of the world.
  • Modern transport has created millions of jobs as aeroplanes, ship, trains and cars have to be built and serviced.
  • It’s new possible to rush help to victims even in very remote places by air.
  • Modern means of transport have expanded mans knowledge about universe and deep seas.
  • It has also encouraged the exploitation of natural resources.
  • Government benefit from revenue collection for the issuance of several types of licences and sale petroleum.
  • Security is also boosted because personnel and officials can be moved easily from one part to another.

Negative impacts

  • There are accidents which lead to loss of many lives and causing permanent injuries.
  • Increasing numbers of vehicles have resulted in serious traffic jams in many cities.
  • Vehicles emit dangerous gases into the atmosphere.
  • Fast and efficient systems of transport have changed the nature of modern warfare. Troops can be moved quickly to trouble spots.
  • The rapid interaction of people encourages spread of diseases e.g. aids, avian flu, ebola.

Definition of communication.

It’s the sending and receiving of messages through a medium. This involves the receiver sending back a response to the sender.



Factors to consider for effectiveness.

  • The languages of the receiver of the message.
  • It’s also important to consider the distance of the receiver from the sender.
  • Consider the urgency of the message.
  • The cost of sending messages is also another factor to consider.
  • Also consider the geographical factors in which the receiver is operating from.

Traditional forms of communication.

As people began to live together, they found it necessary to share ideas, information and experiences.

  1. Fire and smoke signals.

It was lit on raised ground, where it could be seen from a distance. It was used to send urgent message i.e. warning of an approaching invasion.


  • They were visible
  • The message was delivered very fast
  • It was a cheaper way of passing a message.
  • The message was limited to the users and outsiders could not understand.


  • It was difficult to start fire in wet conditions.
  • Smoke was not visible on a cloudy misty day and on a windy day it is easily blown away.
  • The signals were of no use if no one was on the lookout.
  • Messages could only be sent over short distance.
  • They conveyed limited range of messages.
  1. Drum beats

It was paled by skilled drummers who could imitate the sound of speech. Drums were used to announce village festivities, weddings, deaths or even to summon warriors to assemble in a squire. Drum signals could be relayed from one village to another.


  • They could relay a wide range of messages.
  • Messages could be conveyed over a wide area.
  • Could be used at any time, e.g. day or night, wet or dry season.
  • The message conveyed faster.


  • The message could not be clearly interpreted
  • It needed the expertise of skilled drummers.
  • There is no privacy of the message sent.
  • The distance covered was short.
  1. Messengers

Runners were often sent to deliver messages particularly longer ones that could not be communicated by fire, smoke or drum boats. Confidential messages were also safely derived by messengers.


  • Suitable where there are no other means of communication.
  • Messages were delivered instantly.

Disadvantages of messengers.

  • It took a long time to reach the recipient since travel was by foot.
  • The messenger could forget the message they were to deliver.
  • The information could be distorted.
  • The messenger could be attacked on the way and killed by wild animals.
  • Distance covered by the messenger was limited.
  1. Horn blowing

A variety of messages could be sent by means of long and short blast of a horn, such as public announcements. Such sound could also be relayed.


  • A wide range of message could be conveyed through tones.
  • Could be used at any time of the day or night under any weather conditions.


  • The horn could be blown when no one was listening.
  • The messages were restricted to those who knew the tones.
  • Messages could not travel beyond hills and mountains.
  • The privacy of the message was not assured.
  1. Screams and cries

This was done from hills or mountain tops for maximum effects due to echoing.

Different ways of screaming conveyed different message, wailing signified bad news e.g. death or attack by raiders.

Ululations signified good news e.g. birth of a new child or feasting.


  • A wide range of message was conveyed.
  • The message reached the recipient fast.
  • Messages were sent at no cost.


  • The distance covered by the message was limited
  • It had no secrecy in the message delivered.

Written messages.

  1. It’s a roll of paper used for writing, it was 1st used in ancient Egypt by splitting, soaking in water and drying papyrus roads- pens were also made from the reeds, while ink was derived from glue, gums, charcoal and other substances.
  2. It was made from dried skins of goats and other animals. It proved better than papyrus because it could be folded and cut easily into pages.
  3. Stone tables. In Mesopotamia, a system of writing called cuneiform was developed from about 3500 years ago. Writing was done on a clay tablet using a wedge-shaped niber stylus; this had to be done while clay was wet.

Advantages of written

  • The message was reliable as it could not be easily forgotten.
  • In most instances the message was accurate.
  • The message could be stored for future reference.


  • The change in language used could affect the message as the meaning of words would also change.
  • It is also effective in communication among the literate people.
  • There are many forms of writing which create a problem of interpretation.

Development in modern means of communication.


It’s sending and receiving of message quickly over very long distance.

  1. The telephone and cell phone

The telephone is technological systems that send and receives voice message over a long distance by means of wires connecting to a local exchange.

The cell phone is also known as a cellular or mobile phone. a cell phone is a two-way radio system which connects the caller to the telephone network using radio waves instead of wires.

It sends picture and sound messages by radio from a transmitting station to a distant television set. The station changes light and sound waves from a scene into electronic signal and sends them. These are received in a television set which changes them back into pictures and sounds.

  1. Radio

A radio set is a device which receives electro- magnetic radio waves and them into sound waves.

  1. The telegraph

The telegraph sends coded electronic messages by wire over long distances, for example, from one continent to another. The message is called a telegram if it travels over land; or a cable if it is sent or received from overseas.

  1. Electronic mail.

Is the exchanged computer stored messages by telecommunication between connected computers. The computers are linked by telephone. Local and international computer networks enable e-mail to be sent. E-mail was among the 1st and is still the most widely used application on the internet.

  1. Computer

This refers to an electronic device that works under a command or programme to reach a conclusion based on data supplied. A computer works in seconds, it is made up of two basic parts, the body work (handwork) and the programme of instructions (software)

  1. Fax simile trans-receiver (fax)

The fax machine is also connected to a telephone line. It resembles a photo-copier; it transmits exact copies of pictures, letters, drawing or any other documents to another fax machine anywhere in the world.

  1. Telex

It’s a modification of the telegraph. It sends and receives messages electronically which are printed in ordinary language. Neither does it need the presence of an operator to physically receive the message.

  1. Pager

Is a small receiver that delivers short radio messages, the message is read on the pagers screen? It’s a portable communication message service.




  1. Internet

A computer may be linked with other computers within an organization in order to easily exchange information. This linkage forms one network. The internet is a huge, worldwide system of millions of inter-connected networks.

Advantages of telecommunication.

  • They are fast and efficient means of communication.
  • They store information for future reference.
  • They enable instant transmission of information.
  • Information can be transmitted all over the world.
  • They enable transmission of message to more than one recipient at the same time.


  • They can only be used where there is electricity.
  • They rely on experts to operate and be maintained.
  • They are expensive to buy and maintain, hence not accessible to all people.
  • Their use is limited to place where there is network and reception.


  • They have increased interactions between people in many parts of the world.
  • They have enabled people to manage information efficiently.
  • The disposal of telecommunication gadgets may result in environmental pollution.
  • Some means of telecommunication erode moral values e.g. pornography
  • Use of some means of telecommunication may become addictive.
  • Continues use of some means of telecommunication may be a health hazard.
  • Provided government revenue through paying taxes and revenue.
  • Provided employment to many people all over the world.
  • They have promoted security by using radio and telephone to fight crime.
  • They have promoted entertainment through music, films and sports.
  • They have promoted trade as business people are able to communicate information about their products and services.

Print media

It’s refers to written and published document which provide information e.g. news letters, newspaper, magazines, journals and books.

  1. Newspaper

Is a document produced daily to disseminate information about significant local and international news.

  1. Magazines

Is a regular publication providing specialised information on a particular issue? It is usually bound within covers and published weekly, fortnightly or monthly.

  1. Periodical (journals)

It’s a regular publication issued at weekly, monthly or quarterly intervals. They range from technical and scholarly journals to magazines for mass circulation.

Advantages of print media.

  • They provide a permanent record of information for future reference.
  • Provide material for reading and reference.
  • They can be distributed in many parts of the world.
  • They can be translated into many languages.
  • They provide detailed information.


  • They can only be used by the literate people.
  • They are expensive to obtain, making it difficult for many people to access them.
  • They can be used to spread malicious propaganda.

Impact of print media.

  • They have enabled transmission of information all over the world.
  • They have promoted literacy and education through provision of reading and defence material.
  • They have created employment for many people.
  • They are a source of government revenue.
  • They have promoted moral decadence through publishing of obscene information.

Impact of modern means of communication.


  • It has enhanced educational and research.
  • It has created entertainment.
  • It has led to space exploration.
  • It has lead to improvement in air and water transportation.
  • It has led to improvement in trade.
  • Creation of employment to people.
  • It’s also a source of revenue.
  • It has opened up remote areas.
  • It has lead to weather forecasting.

Negative impacts.

  • It has led to rise in global crime.
  • It has led to erosion of moral values.
  • It has promoted addictive tendencies like , t.v programmes.
  • There is also exposure to radioactive rays.
  • It has lead to noise pollution.
  • Telecommunication services have been used greatly to improve weaponry and conduct war.
  • There has been the issue of cultural imperialism.





Meaning of industry.

Industry is the manufacture of new goods from raw materials.

Early sources of energy

Energy is the force that produces motion, it also does work.


It’s the earliest source of energy used by man during the middle stone age, man invented and used fire which was used to cook and roast food.

He late used it to burn wood to harden clay pots and smelt metals and later in 18th century it was harnessed for heating water to produce steam.


  • It was cheap to obtain.
  • It was readily available from extensive natural forests.
  • It was a renewable source as trees which were cut down regenerated.


  • Continued use of wood fuel resulted in desertification.
  • Wood produces smoke that pollutes the environment.


It’s a moving air with the capacity to create energy in objects upon contact. It was used to winnow and dry grains. It was also applies for turning wind mills and propelling sailing boats and ships. As a source of power to propel dhows, boats and ships, wind influenced the Indian Ocean trade.

Wind mills are still used today to generate power and pump water.


  • It was cheap to obtain.
  • It was naturally available.
  • It was a renewable source of energy.


  • It was unreliable since it was not always available.
  • It was irregular as it was influenced by the prevailing weather and topography.
  • Excessive wind could result in destruction of life and property.


For a long time man has used energy generated by water, when water drops from a cliff or over a fall, it can be harnessed to generate power because of its high speed.


  • It was readily available in certain regions.
  • It was easy to trap and use.
  • It was renewable and non-exhaustible.
  • When coast were compared to other source it was cheap.
  • It is a clean source of energy.


  • It depended on river levels which were influenced by rainfall.
  • Excessive water could result in destruction of life and property.
  • It was renewable and non-exhaustible.

Uses of metals in Africa.

The new Stone Age was succeeded by the metallic age.

They used metal tools for agriculture and other domestic works. Metals were also used to make weapons.

Advantages of metals over stone.

  • The metals were durable and could not break easily.
  • The metals maintained the cutting edge over a long period of time.
  • Metals could be turned or made in various shapes.
  • Broken metals could be smelted and reworked into useful items.


It’s an alloy ( a mixture) of copper and tin. It began in Mesopotamia from 3000 B.C  and spread to Egypt.

Uses of bronze.

  • Weapons, like daggers, arrow-heads, spears, shields and helmets.
  • Tools like machetes (pangas) hammers and axes.
  • Ornaments like bracelets, rings and anklets.
  • Artistic items like sculptures, masks, plaques, flower vases and decoration of kings palaces.


  • It required frequently sharpening as they became blunt quickly.
  • It was expensive to produce.
  • Copper and tin necessary for manufacture of bronze were not always found at the same place.
  • It was not easy to mix copper and tin in correct proportions.
  • Availability of copper and tin depended on trade which was not always possible during war.


It’s the earliest metal used by man in its natural state.

Uses of gold.

  • House hold items, in manufacture of vases and utensils such as cups, plates and bowls.
  • Jewels and other decorative products were made from gold like sword handles, headgear and bangles.
  • It was used in commerce as an item of trade and a currency.
  • It was used to make coins and served as measure of wealth.


  • It’s easily obtained on the surface of the earth and river –beds.
  • It was easy to use in manufacturing of tools as it was soft.
  • Gold had a dark yellow attractive appearance.
  • Gold was easily moulded into different shapes as it was malleable.
  • Gold did not need much smelting as it was mined in almost pure form.


  • Tools made from gold easily became bent as gold was soft.
  • Gold tools were difficult to use because they were heavy.
  • Gold was not easily available in many parts of the world.


It’s a soft brown durable metal. The Egyptian was among the earliest people to use the mineral in its raw form.

Uses of copper.

  • It was used to make sheets, pipes, masks and shields.
  • It was used to make household items like vases, mirrors and pots.
  • It was used to make tools like axes, chisels, pins, fish hooks, knives and other items for use in the home.
  • It was used to make weapons like arrow-heads, spearheads, daggers, swords, helmets and shields.
  • It was used to make ornaments like bangles, rings, beads, anklets and bracelets.
  • To make alloys, copper was mixed with other metals to produce stronger metals like brass. (copper and zinc)
  • It was used for trade; copper was used as an item of trade and medium of exchange in central Africa. Egypt and West Africa.

Advantages of copper.

  • It was easy to use in making tools as it was soft.
  • Copper tools were durable as copper was harder than some other metals.
  • Copper mixed easily with other metals to produce stronger alloys.

Disadvantages of copper.

  • Copper tools bent easily because copper was soft.
  • Copper was not easily available in many parts of the world.


Items made from iron are better and stronger.

Origin of iron working in Africa.

There are two theories which have been put forward to explain the origin of iron-working in Africa.

  1. Diffusion theory

This theory holds that knowledge in iron-working came from outside the continent into North Africa from the Middle East by the Phoenicians and Assyrians.

In the course of their migration and trade, they introduced iron-working into ancient carthage (north Africa), iron –working spread to west Africa, central Africa and south Africa.

  1. Independent development theory.

Iron-working emerged independently at independent centres within the continent. This is supported by archaeological work in Buhaya in North West Tanzania.

Factors which facilitated the spread of iron-working in Africa.

  • Migration where Bantu had acquired knowledge about iron-working migrated from their original homeland in the Congo and settled all over Africa.
  • Traders spread the knowledge of iron-working to the Kush and Chad basin.
  • Iron-working knowledge also spread through warfare.
  • It was also spread through intermarriages.

Uses of iron in Africa.

  • It was used for the production of stronger weapons like spears, dagger and arrows.
  • Iron was baked into pots for various uses.
  • It was used to make household items like knives and blades.
  • Smelted iron was made into usable farm implements like hoes, axes and machetes.
  • Smelted iron was made into artistic shapes of items such as sculpture and other technologically designed goods.
  • were used in construction and building like reinforcement of building such as pyramids, tombs and concrete-built palaces
  • The metals were used in empire-building and expansion of kingdoms.
  • They in its raw and smelted state, iron were used as an item of trade.

The impact of metals in Africa.

  • It led to migration as the metals were used to clear bushes and forest.
  • It also improved agriculture as large tracts of land were put into use as methods of farming changed.
  • It also leads to specialisation like division of labour.
  • With improved farming tools crop production increased leading to increased population.
  • The use of metals gained fame as they became widely used and regarded in religious rites and in the royal palaces.
  • It also leads to urbanization as trading and industrial settlement developed in major mining centres.
  • With use of metals, trading patterns and methods changed.

The industrial revolution in Europe.

It can be defined as economic and technological changes which saw the replacement of cottage industry.

Chacteristics of the industrial revolution.

  • Invention of new system for mass production.
  • Use of machines instead of human labour.
  • Rise of factory system which replaced the cottage industries.
  • Production of goods in large quantities.
  • Continuous production with workers organised in shifts.
  • Use of new sources of energy e.g. steam, coal, electricity and oil.

Uses of various sources of energy.


It’s an underground organic mineral. It is found in tree state namely.

Anthracite coal. It’s a soft type that burns at high temperature to produce coke.

Bituminous coal. It can also be used for cooking and coal gas production. This has low heating power.

Lignite coal. It is like dirty brown coal with even less heating power.

Uses of coal.

  • It was used in iron-smelting.
  • It provided lighting.
  • Used as a raw material in the manufacture of dye and pharmaceuticals.
  • It was used to heat water to providence steam which was later converted to fuel for driving locomotives.


Disadvantages of coal.

  • It was bulky and difficult to transport.
  • It caused environmental pollution by releasing dark carbon and sulphur dioxide smoke when burning.
  • It is expensive to mine and transport.
  • Coal mining was risky as miners would get buried alive when mines collapsed.
  • It is a non-renewable source of energy.


It is found in a thick aqueous natural formation.

Oil-based energy was found to be most convenient with the invention of machines and engines.

Uses of oil.

  • It is used for domestic lighting e.g. kerosene.
  • It provides energy that drives motor vehicles, aeroplanes, ships e.t.c
  • It is used to provide power to produce thermal electricity.
  • It is used to run factory and domestic machinery.
  • It is used in lubrication of machinery.
  • Its by-product, tar, is used in the tarmacking of roads.
  • It is used in petro-chemical industries to make plastics and synthetic fibre.

Advantanges of oil.

  • It is cheaper than the other sources of energy.
  • It is easy to transport.
  • It is convenient as it can be purchased in various quantities.
  • It can be used for various purposes.

Disadvantages of oil.

  • It is non-renewable source of energy.
  • It causes a lot of environmental pollution.
  • It is highly inflammable and may cause accidents.
  • Prospecting and extraction of oil is expensive.
  • It is expensive to the non-producing countries.


Water as a source of power was cumbersome and unreliable, so steam power was developed. In the 1st century B.C, the hero of Alexandria used steam power to open the massive doors of temples in Egypt.

Uses of steam.

  • It was used for driving, spinning and weaving machines in the textile industry.
  • It was used to drive heavily machinery in factories.
  • Used in driving turbines that generated electricity for industrial use.
  • Used in driving early locomotives and steamships.

Advantages of steam.

  • It was readily available from heated water.
  • It produced a lot of energy compared to any other source of energy available at the time.
  • It was adaptable to many uses i.e. driving locomotives and generating electricity.
  • It did not pollute the environment.



  • Its generation depended on coal and this made it expensive.
  • Steam engines were huge and cumbersome hence not adaptable to many uses.
  • It was suitable only for heavy machinery in factories making it inaccessible for wide domestic use.


This is power supplied by electrically charged electrons, transmitted through cables invented by Michael faraday in 1831.

Uses of electricity.

  • It is used in lighting.
  • Used in heating and cooking.
  • Powering machines in industries.
  • Used in telecommunication system.
  • Used in running electric trains.

Advantages of electricity.

  • It is easily and conveniently controlled from one switch where a generator dynamo or motor is fixed.
  • It is further easily distributed to various users through regulatory or control switches along the cable line or lines.
  • Electric cables are flexible and can be installed as per specific requirements such as for cooking, lighting, heating and to link or connect transport and communication machines.
  • It’s used to produce different sizes and shapes of electric-charged items including heaters and refrigerators or coolers.
  • The use of electricity is further advantageous because of its production by various sources such as water, petrol and more recently the atomic, nuclear and geothermal-generated machines.
  • It’s convenient for many uses.
  • Its use can be controlled through rationing when not enough.

Disadvantages of electricity.

  • Potential sites for its production are limited.
  • The harnessing of electricity-generating resources is expensive and requires heavy capital machinery to install.
  • It’s highly dangerous and requires careful handling.
  • It requires well trained personnel for installation and maintenance.

Iron and steel.

Iron is a mineral obtained from ferrous ores. Steel is a product of highly heated iron exposed or mixed with carbon.

Uses of iron.

  • Making of water pipes.
  • Making of ox-drawn ploughs.
  • Making of machines for industries e.g. textile industries.
  • Making of steam engines.
  • Construction of trains, railway lines and ships.
  • Construction of bridges.

Disadvantages of iron.

  • On its own, iron was weak and brittle. It could not be relied on in making of heavy machinery.
  • On exposure to water or moist air, iron easily rusted.
  • It was too heavy to transport thus its usage in construction and building was hampered.

Uses of iron and steel.

  • Construction of storages buildings such as the crystal palace.
  • Making utensils/
  • Construction of railways and bridges.
  • Manufacture of machinery and motor vehicles.
  • Ship-building.

Advantages of steel over iron.

  • Steel does not rust like iron.
  • Steel is strong compared to iron.
  • Steel is not as heavy as iron.
  • Steel can bend without breaking.

Disadvantages of steel.

  • Iron was combined with other metals making steel products expensive.
  • It was difficult to mix the various metals in the correct proportion to produce good quality steel.
  • All the required metals were not always available.

Industrialization in Britain.

Up to about 1670, Britain was the most industrialized country and a major world power with a wide trading market.

Factors that favoured industriasation in Britain.

  • Inventions in the British textile industries pioneered the revolution arising in the British industries.
  • Britain hard accumulated large amounts of wealth from her trading empire and colonies.
  • Through colonisation Britain had acquired industrial raw materials and market for industrial products.
  • Britain underwent a period of developments in agriculture; these agrarian changes had great influence on industrialisation.
  • Its large population provided a market and cheap labour for the industry.
  • It had good transport and communication, her road and railway network facilitated the movement of industrial goods and products.
  • The naval forces were important as it guarded sea routes from pirates and other intruders as well as protecting the merchants in trading ports.
  • Uses of slave labour in plantations and mines in colonies greatly influenced her industrial development.
  • Britain was and has been one of the countries with a well maintained banking and insurance infrastructure.
  • Britain had for a long history of internal political stability.
  • There were cottage industries that became the pioneers in large-scale factory investments.
  • Britain had an abundant supply of skilled labour for her industries and economy.
  • The country had adequate energy resources.
  • The government encouraged a free and open-market economy.

Industrialisation in continental Europe.

The industrial revolution started from Britain in about 1750, this spread to continental Europe by 1850.

Factors that led to industrialisation in continental Europe.

  • Most of the countries had adequate supply of resources such as coal and iron-ore to provide energy and new materials.
  • These countries also experienced political stability.
  • The high population in these countries offered both skilled and unskilled labour for the factories.
  • In all countries they strived to improve transport network through construction of roads, railways and canals.
  • Most of the countries had undergone agrarian revolution.
  • These countries had capital for industrial development through investment by wealthy merchants.
  • They had varied sources of energy for industrial development.
  • Availability of new skills in science and technology.

Effects of industrial revolution in Europe.

Political effects.

  • It leads to the scramble and partition of Africa.
  • It led to the birth and growth of maxims. This was ideology which was advanced by karl marx (1818-1863). It condemned capitalism for its exploitative tendency.
  • It led to growth of a middle class, comprising of urban workers who became vocal in demanding for reforms and took on active role in the decision-making process.
  • The revolution led to the emergence of the trade union movement.
  • There were many unemployed people who offered a fertile ground for grievances and organisations opposed to the state.

Social effects.

  • It created new social groups notably the urban and rural society.
  • It led to rural-urban migrations as many people migrated to the towns.
  • It also led to population growth in Europe.
  • It also led to improved medical services.
  • High population in towns led to a shortage of housing.
  • There was growth in pauperism or state of begging due to high levels of unemployment in towns.
  • High incidence of child labour, where children and women workers were exposed to dangerous working conditions for long hours.
  • It led to sound air and water pollution.

Ecomonic effects.

  • It led to improvement in agriculture due to market, fertilizers and machines.
  • There were marked improvements in transport and communication patterns in Europe.
  • It led to expansion of international trade as industrial countries were looking for markets to sell their products.
  • Urban factories could not cope with the large numbers of rural- urban migrants who were seeking jobs. This led to high unemployment rate.
  • The development and spread of factory based industries slowly forced the decline and collapse of cottage – based set-ups.
  • Through the industrial revolution, European nations were able to make a lot of wealth.
  • It also led to urbanization in Europe.
  • It also led to scientific inventions related to machinery, transport and communication.

The scientific revolution.

It refers to a period in history when many discoveries were made about the universe. The discoveries and development in science increased human knowledge and understanding about the universe.

It began in Europe during the renaissance period (1400AD). This was a period of rebirth of leaning and exploration.

Early scientific inventions.

The world ancient civilizations contributed in various fields of science such as medicine, biology, chemistry and geometry.

Ancient Egypt: Egyptians were famous mathematicians and used their knowledge to construct wonderful pyramids (tombs) they also invented geometry which they used on their farms.

Ancient china: they were main contributors in astronomy. The Chinese were the 1st to record what came to be called“ Halley’s Comet”. This is a heavenly body with s very bright head and less luminous tail orbiting round the sun.

Arab and Muslim scholars: in astronomy, they studied the writings of Ptolemy, a Greek scientist, about the solar system. In mathematics, they borrowed the idea of zero from the Indians.

Ancient India: they develop mathematics by introducing zero which made multiplication easier, in medicine, Indians found cures for snake bites and leprosy.

Factors which facilitated the scientific revolution.

  • The need to find solutions to day to day problems encouraged scientific research.
  • The renaissance period in Europe encourage scholarship in different fields of scientific research.
  • Discovery of the printing press by Johann Gutenberg of Germany in 1447 enabled the printing of books and journals and this enhanced the spread of scientific ideas.
  • Government and wealthy individuals provided funds to support scientific research.
  • Voyages of exploration led to discovery of new lands and encourage interest in new spheres of knowledge and research.

Key personalities in the scientific revolution.

Robert boyle: worked on an air and discovered that air was important for combustion and respiration. He also established that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional.

Copernicus (1473-1543): he gave an account of the rotation of the earth on its axis and its movement around the sun.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): he discovered force of gravity. He proved that the same force attracted the moon to the earth. The earth itself was similarly pulled to the sun. He also invented the reflecting telescope.

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-94): he made successful experiments in chemistry to show the composition of air. He showed that it was made up of different elements, hydrogen and oxygen.

John Dalton (1766-1844): he discovered the atomic theory. According to him all substance are up of atoms which are the smallest particles of matter in the universe. He also discovered and described colour blindness.

Michael faraday (1791-1867): played a key role in the field of electricity. He produced electricity form a magnet and in the process made a dynamo which efficiently provided electricity.

Charles Darwin’s (1809-1882): he invented a vaccine for smallpox.

Louis Pasteur: he discovered the process of pasteurisation for the conservation of liquid foods such as milk.

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790): showed that lighting was a form of electricity.

William Merton (1819-1866): discovered that ether could keep patients asleep during an operation and so make them either feel less pain or no pain at all.

Alexander graham bell. Invented the telephone in 1877.

The impact of the scientific inventions.

Positive effects

  • It has led to improvement in farming methods and animals – husbandry.
  • The invention of machines to replace human labour has quickened the agriculture process.
  • Discovery of food preservation method has minimised lose of agriculture produce.
  • Agriculture has been transformed from small-scale subsistence farming to a large scale economic activity.
  • It has led to fast transportation of farm inputs; this has reduced on time and enabled farmers to earn maximum profit.
  • Marketing of farm inputs and outputs has been improved by scientific invention through availability of telecommunication.
  • Scientific invention has resulted into setting up of industries which consume agricultural produce directly as raw materials.

Negative effects.

  • Continuous use of artificial fertilizers had led to siol impoverishment.
  • Continuous use of hybrid species has led to loss of some traditional plant and animal species which are more resistant to diseases.
  • Pesticide, fertiliser and the farm inputs are expensive.
  • Some agro-chemicals, e.g. pesticides, fungicides, fertilisers are toxic and therefore harmful to both plants and animals life.

Impact on industry

Positive effects.

  • The invention of machines and new sources of power has led to emergence of more factories and mills.
  • The invention of vaccines and drugs to control human diseases led to population growth rate.
  • The invention of printing press has led to mass production of newspapers, magazines, periodicals and books.
  • The discovery of steam power greatly revolutionaries transport industry as it led to the railway age with the invention of George Stephenson’s rocket.
  • The discovery of steam, electricity and petroleum has led to the building of new iron and steel factories.
  • Industrial developments have created job opportunities both skilled and unskilled.
  • Production of industrial goods in large quantities has promoted the growth in trade.

Negative effects.

  • Widespread industrialisation has led to an increased in industrial affluent hence leading to environmental pollution.
  • Automation in industries has led to loss of jobs.
  • Invention and production of military hardware has led to massive loss of lives and destructive wars.

Impacts of medicine.

Positive effects.

  • Scientific inventions led to i.e. eradication of killer disease e.g. smallpox
  • It led to cleaner, safer and less painful surgical operation.
  • It has made it possible for one to have a new face or look through plastic surgery.
  • The invention of x-ray has made it possible to examine the extent of broken bones.
  • The development of babies in the tubes through external fertilisation has helped childless couples to have children.
  • It has made it possible for one to have a heart, liver and kidney transplant.

Negative effects.

  • Some of the inventions are expensive and beyond the reach of many people.
  • Overdependence on drugs has weekend immune system due to development of resistance.
  • Invention of safer abortions has led to immorality and loses of life in some countries.
  • The failure of some scientific inventions and research has led to emergence of some resistance strains of diseases.


Emergence of selected world industrial powers.

The united states of America (USA)

It has 52 states that are in the union or confederacy. It is one of the largest countries of the world, extending from the western Atlantic coastline to the Pacific Ocean in the west.

It became independence in 1776 from England and recognised as an independent nation in 1781.

Factors that lead to industrial revolution in U.S.A

  • Raw materials were readily available like iron ore, oil from the oil fields in Texas, copper and coal.
  • There was both skilled and unskilled labour who was European immigrants.
  • S.A government developed transport system and communication like railways lines, telephones, fax and internet.
  • There were scientific innovations as education system in U.S.A also promoted research with further boosted industrialization.
  • The government in U.S.A allowed foreign investments especially from Britain and other countries.
  • America had ready markets; America’s high population ensured a large domestic market for her industrial products.
  • There were enterprising citizens. The Americans were always ready to venture into business.
  • S.A had long periods of political stability since independency in the second half of the 18th century.
  • There was available source of energy like coal, petroleum, gas and hydroelectric power.
  • The U.S.A philosophy of capitalism encourages both local and external investors because it allowed private ownership of property.
  • The government of the U.S.A under presidents’ Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson provide transport system.
  • During the 1st and 2nd world wars the European industrialized nations were not able to produce industrial goods as they were busy fighting. This enabled usa to expand her market for manufactured goods since she initially decline to keep off the war.


Until 1871, Germany was not united as one nation with a single ruler, with the completion of the france-prussian war of 1870-1871; these small states were united with Prussia to form Germany.

Germany then began to develop her industries and by the start of the 20th century she had achieved a lot in terms of industrialization.

Emergence of Germany as an industrial power.

  • Establishment of the customs union, zollverein. This was a customs union which linked the Germany states together and removed trade barriers hence leading to free trade and economic growth in Germany.
  • Availability of energy for use in industries like coal.
  • There was natural resources which were used in industries like water and minerals like iron ore.
  • There was availability of labour which was willing to work.
  • The industrial products in Germany found a wide market in Germany’s large population.
  • Existence of good transport and communication networks.
  • Their existence along period of political stability in Germany after the unification in 1871 by prince otto von bismark.
  • The availability of finance for industrial growth, this capital was from the rich Germany citizens who went for loans from local banks and U.S.A in 1924.
  • The hardworking and enterprising nature of the Germans.


Until the middle of the 18th century agriculture was the backbone of her economy, she also faced years of civil war and conflict.

Emergence of Japan as an industrial power.

  • She had enterprising citizens who were hard working and determined community.
  • Japan has experienced a long period of political stability especially after world war 11.
  • The japans work for life. This policy means that when one is employed in Japan, they put the interest of the employer first.
  • Japanese goods, e.g. motor vehicles are high quality and have a wide market in Africa, U.S.A, and Europe.
  • Japan has highly developed renewable hydro-electric power.
  • Skilled and unskilled labour was readily available.
  • Japan developed a good system of transport and communication.
  • The existing industrial base before world war 11, Japan had already attained a certain level of industrial development.
  • The Japanese government invited foreign expatriates and deployed them to local industries.
  • Geographical factors also favoured industrialization in Japan.
  • Japan had an open investment policy which encouraged the west to invest in her industries.

Industrialization in the third world.

  • The third world refers to the developing countries which depend on foreign aid and grants for their development ventures.
  • Many developing countries have lagged behind in industrialization due to a number of reasons.
  • Long periods of colonization relegated them to the role of suppliers of raw materials and as a market for industrial goods from develop countries at the expense of their own industries.
  • There is poor transport and communication has undermined industrialization.
  • Most developing nations have poor economies which can’t support meaningful industrialization.
  • Most of the developing countries are lagging behind in the use of appropriate technology required in the manufacturing of goods and in the exploitation of natural resources.
  • A large portion of the population in developing countries is made up of illiterate and semi- literate people.
  • The protectionist policies adopted by developing countries have discouraged private enterprises and foreign investment.
  • There is low market due to low purchasing power of most of the population.
  • There is political instability in third world countries.
  • Third world nations often have poor disaster management strategies.
  • There is lack of skilled personnel in third world countries.


It’s the fourth largest nation in the world after Canada, china and U.S.A. It attained independency in 1882 from Portugal and gained republican status in 1889. She has established technology, sophisticated industries, especially in the field of telecommunications, electronic data-processing, and biotechnology.

Four main sectors of Brazilian industrialization.

Petroleum and petrochemical industries. It has produced enough oil to supply 55% of the Brazilian demand.

Motor vehicle industry. It produces more than two million vehicles and earns about us$ ₂ billion in foreign exchange.

Aircraft and aerospace industry.

Electricity generation industry.

Factors influencing industrialization in Brazil.

  • Availability of both skilled and unskilled labour supply from the country’s large population.
  • External markets with other countries have increased.
  • Enough natural resources are available like coal, iron ore, uranium, manganese, gold and oil, provided raw materials for industries.
  • Improved transport and communication like railway lines and telephone and telegraph lines.
  • Development of banking for provision of loans to individuals who wanted to venture into the business.
  • Good economic policies which encouraged development of transport and communication, HEP and oil exploration.
  • Foreign capital which was used to establish industries in the country.
  • The countries industrialization was boosted by the HEP and coal which were readily available.
  • The main obstacles of industrialization in Brazil.
  • High poverty levels as more than 40% the Brazilian population is poor and therefore has low purchasing power.
  • Inability to fully exploit her natural resources.
  • Stiff competition from already industrialized nations for manufactured goods.
  • Huge foreign debts as a lot of money are used to service these loans instead of investing it in industries.
  • It has poor technology to allow for the effective exploitation of her resources.

South Africa.

It has struggle along time against the policy of apartheid which had subjected the black majority in the country to economic, political and social hardship up to 1994.

Many industries during the apartheid period, the main industries included iron and steel industries, engineering, locomotive, chemical, textile, cement, light industries and tourism.

Factors influencing industrialization in SA.

  • Availability of natural resources for process by her industries like iron and steel industries, lead, zinc, bauxite and tin.
  • The industrial goods from SA are of high quality and can therefore compete favourably with those from the developed nations.
  • The high population provided both skilled and unskilled labour for the industry.
  • Development of source of energy like (HEP).
  • Road, water and railway transport system are greatly developed in SA.
  • Air transport is also well developed. The international airports enhance business operation.
  • Availability of capital. The government of SA gets her capital mainly from trade in other materials.
  • Political stability, especially after the end of apartheid rule.
  • The government of SA has adopted good policies of promoting industrialization in the country by putting tariffs on the imported commodities.
  • SA is also endowed with a variety of wildlife and scenic landscape that attracts tourists to the country.

Challenges facing industrialization in South Africa.

  • The discriminatory apartheid policy that discriminated Africans.
  • The apartheid policy embraced by the minority white rule often met stiff resistance from the majority black population.
  • Completion from the more developed countries like western European countries with superior goods.
  • There were rampant industrial strikes in the country, especially during the apartheid periods.
  • High poverty levels, a big number of the SA population are poor, therefore low purchasing power.
  • SA has a high level of insecurity which, at times, discourages foreign investors.
  • The HIV and AIDS scourge has ravaged the countries labour force, especially industrial labour.


Industrial development is associated with European entry into the country from the 15th century.

During the middle ages, European trades established trading posts along the coast of India.

India attained her independence from Great Britain in 1947, since then she embarked on vigorous and ambitious industrialization programmes, by the end of the 20th century India had emerged as one of the most successful stories of industrialized states in the developing or third world.

Factors that contributed to industrialization in India.

  • Through colonization and colonisers industrialisation was brought in India.
  • There was good transport and communication like railway and roads.
  • There were cottage industries like weaving of cotton to make cloths.
  • Indian had raw materials like coal, iron0ore and manganese.
  • The 1st independent government of prime minister pandit nehm, embarked on policies to modernise the economy and expand established factories.
  • The independent government formulated five-year plan to boost her industries like agriculture sector.
  • Indians adopted a unique foreign policy on industrialisation.
  • India’s large population has been a great asset for the supply of labour and the provision of ready market for industrial products.
  • India developed her coal resources for the supply of fuel to locomotives and industries in support of her industrial establishment.
  • Dual state private investment where Indian government has success fully used as duel approach to industrialise.
  • Indian industries enjoy a large domestic market with foreign market within the third world.
  • There was good entrepreneurship with good investment largely in India and a good number of the business or commercial acumen has penetrated third world cities.

Challenges facing industrialisation in India.

  • Natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes which destroy infrastructure, leading to economic losses.
  • High poverty level among the Indian population has resulted into a low purchasing power.
  • Indian suffers massive brain-drain.
  • India has on many occasions fought with Pakistan and sectarian unrests.
  • The HIV/AIDS pandemics are spreading at a faster rate in India.
  • Indian products face stiff competition with other products from developing countries.
  • Problems hindering industrialization in the third world.
  • Lack of adequate funds to invest in the industrial sector is caused by high rate of population growth and rampant poverty.
  • Lack skilled manpower mainly because of the poor education system that lay less emphasis on scientific, technical and vocational training.
  • Poor means of transport and communication in third world countries have greatly hindered transport of raw materials.
  • There is stiff competition from high quality and cheaply produced goods from developed countries.
  • There is a free open local market but the purchasing power is low because is low because of poverty.
  • Political instability does not offer a conducive and enabling environment to attract foreign investment.
  • The issue of colonial and neo-colonial legacies.
  • There are rapid population growth rates due to improved medical and health services; this effect has called for massive expenditure on food impetration.
  • Third world countries have been subjected to epidemic catastrophes.
  • Industrialization in the third world is greatly checked by large expenditures on military hardware for defence and security.

Solutions to challenges facing third world industrial programmes.

  • Provision of capital and credit to their people to reduce poverty.
  • Improve the purchasing power of their people by increasing incomes.
  • Encourage industrial investment by giving incentive and protection to local manufacturing sectors.
  • Develop and extend the transport and communication infrastructure.
  • Diversification of the economy and manufacturing industries.
  • Promote and provide scientific and technological education to the people.
  • Reduce military expenditures and divert finds for the manufacture of products for wide domestic and external markets.
  • Boost and encourage regional co-operation for a wider industrial market.




It’s the process by which people are attracted to settlements of large human population. It may be described as a city or town; it may have more than 20,000 people.

A town: over 20,000 people and up to 100,000 people.

A city between 100,000 -500,000 people.

An urban centre with population of over 500,000.

There are various factors that determine the location of urban centres like commercial activities, like trade and transport; others were strategically placed for defence.

Administrative centres would also grow and develop into urban centre.

Early urbanization in Africa.

The process of urbanisation dates back to the new Stone Age and it occurred due to a variety of reasons.

Factors that led to early urbanisation in Africa.

  • The presence of major centres of education such as universities contributed to the growth of urban centres.
  • The issue of religion also led to urban development like timbukutu.
  • Urban centres grew around fresh water sources like rivers, springs and oases.
  • There were administration centres like emperors and kingdom.
  • Mineral deposits like iron-ore, gold and salt led to urbanization.
  • There was also trade in Africa this lead to urbanization.
  • Route junctions also led to urbanization.


It’s the capital city of present day Egypt. It was founded in 969AD. It’s located on an old Greek settlement that was protected by the Romans against any external attacks.

Egypt faced number of invasions on a number of occasion’s e.g. by the Syrians (1171-1249) Turkish mamaluks (1249-1517), ottoman Turks (1517-1798) and the French (1798-1801).

Egypt acquired self-governance in 1922 but the Turkish dynasty continued dominating them until 1936 when they were overthrown. It attained in 1952 after the monarch was overthrown by Colonel Abdel Nasser in 1952.

Factors for the growth of Cairo.

  • It was centre for education and medicine like university of Cairo, America University and Azhar University.
  • The development of various industries in Cairo including food processing and construction attracted people to Cairo.
  • It’s a cultural centre being home to treasure preserved from the early Egyptian civilization and Islamic culture in their museum.
  • International trade between Egypt and other regions was disrupted during the two wars.
  • The Aswan high dam was opened in 1902 which enhanced food production through irrigation.
  • The Suez Canal was opened in 1869 and opened new trade route which encouraged the arrival of thousands of Europeans.
  • Transport services during the 19th century improved due to the construction of railway lines and roads.
  • Through Nile, the town attracted caravans which would pass through Cairo from north, west and central Africa.
  • Cairo has continued to expand along the river Nile to the north and the south, the Nile not only provides water, for domestic use, but as also a means of communication.

Functions of Cairo.

  • It was a national capital and a political centre of the Arab world.
  • It serves as the transport and communication centre.
  • It has many recreational facilities like stadiums and entertainment halls.
  • Cairo has been a historical centre being house to the Egyptian civilization for over 5000 years.
  • It also serves as an industrial centre.

Problems facing Cairo.

  • There is high population pressure.
  • Due to population there is scarcity of food.
  • There is unemployment among the people.
  • Housing problems.
  • There is traffic jams.
  • There is industrial pollution.
  • High crime rate due to unemployment.
  • Solutions to the problems.
  • Food shortage has been addressed by reclaiming land for agriculture and water for irrigation from Aswan high dam.
  • Housing problem as the government has developed industries in the suburbs.


It was situated on the bank of the river Nile about 130 miles north of modem Khartoum; it is believed to have emerged at around 350 AD.

It was founded by the Nubian origins, and that they were the former rulers of Egypt.

Meroe increasingly became an important centre for iron working, an important industry that produced not only weapons, but also hunting and farming tools.

Factors for growth.

  • It had abundant wood fuel, which was key to the prosperity of the iron working industry, because the town was located at the meeting point of blue and white Nile.
  • It was strategically located at the intersection of different transportation and communication routes.
  • It was located in a region whose soils were rich in iron; indeed, archaeological evidence has shown that iron working started as early as 500BC.

Social effects of growth.

  • Meroitic language was developed.
  • New architectural developments took place in the region.
  • In addition to iron working other industries also developed.

Functions of Meroe.

  • It served as a capital of the kingdom of Kush.
  • It was a major iron-smelting centre in the region.
  • It served as a major centre for agriculture and trade in the Kush kingdom and upper Nile.
  • It was a religious centre where the lion-god-Apedemek was worshipped in the lion temple.

Decline of Meroe.

  • The rise of the Aksum kingdom in modern Ethiopia.
  • The increasing desertification of the region, perhaps due to the rapid deforest ration also led to meroes decline.
  • Iron-smelting consumed a lot of wood fuel. This exposed the soils to soil erosion through clearing of forest.
  • Attack and conquest of king Ezana of Axum in 350AD


It was located on the east coast of Africa between the mafia islands and the mouth of the Ruvuma River. It was established by Swahili-speaking Muslims who had migrated from the northern cities of shunwaya and lamu to make room for migrants from Persia and the gulf.

It was prosperous and powerful autonomous city and had conquered most of the settlements between Zanzibar and sofala.

Factors for the growth of kilwa.

  • It was strategically placed for the Indian Ocean trade and ship could sail.
  • It participated in the Indian Ocean trade and became both wealthy and powerful as a result.
  • The majority of the people on the island were Muslims, thus the region was used by the rulers to unify the people, especially in times of war.
  • Gold was one of the major commodities of the Indian Ocean trade.
  • The shirazi leaders founded a dynasty which provided able leadership.

Functions of kilwa.

  • Kilwa served as a major trading centre in the Indian Ocean trade.
  • It was a centre of Islamic religion in the southern coast of east Africa.
  • It was a major Arab and Muslim settlement along the east African coast.
  • It served as a link between the coast and southern Tanzania hinterland.
  • It was an administrative centre which housed palace of the rulers.

Factors for decline of kilwa.

  • The disruption of the gold trade due to civil wars.
  • There were dynastic revelries caused by competition for power by some royal families.
  • Constant rebellion by vassal states weakens the city state.
  • Attack, conquest and eventual occupation by the Portuguese.

Early urbanization in Europe.

Early urbanization in Europe dates back several thousand years and has its cradle in the Greco-roman civilisations.

The early inhabitants of the continent were mainly rural folk who engaged in subsistence farming, hunting and gathering.

There was also crafting such as blacksmiths and carpenters.



Is the capital city of the United Kingdom and is located on the banks of the Thames River.

Roman soldiers occupied the current location in 43AD and built an early precursor to the London Bridge in 50AD.

Factors for the growth of London.

  • The location of London on the banks of river Thames enabled the city to access both the interior and the sea.
  • Trade has taken place in the London since the roman times.
  • London was a cultural focal point for the whole of Britain.
  • London was also a religious centre from 597 AD when st. Pauls cathedral was built.
  • There was educational centre financed by the city to build public schools such as charterhouse and st. Pauls.
  • London had good administration which was laid down by Romans.
  • London developed into a trading centre, the city also grew into financial hub of Britain.
  • Throughout the history of the city, the building industry has played a significant role.
  • There were industries like cloth production was England’s biggest industry and vast amounts were exported through London.
  • London had an effective and efficient city administration.

Functions of London.

  • London served as an important part of the United Kingdom for exports and imports.
  • It was a major trading and commercial centre.
  • The city was a major religious and cultural centre with monasteries, cathedrals and churches.
  • It was a financial centre.
  • It served as the capital city of the United Kingdom and the administrative centre of the city government of London.


It’s one of the early states in ancient Greece.

The Athenians were thinkers and liked to talk. They spent much time developing theories of the who’s and whys of the world.

Athens was a beautiful city; it is most famed for its carvings, pottery and buildings which were done by very fine workman ship.

Athenians were divided into four classes.

The 1st class was made up of the richest that were the most heavily taxed.

The 2nd class provided cavalry for the army.

The 3rd class provided soldiers for the infantry.

The 4th consisted of the poorest and who paid no taxes.

Factors that led to the growth of Athens.

  • The town engaged in trade, selling wine, olive oil, wool and ceramics in exchange for grain.
  • The city had good security located on a hill, making discreet ascent by enemies difficult.
  • Athens was an important cultural centre in the ancient world.
  • There was good education like mathematic, astronomy, medicine and philosophy.
  • It was a religious centre with a large temple, the Parthenon.

Functions of Athens.

  • It was a major trading centre for wines, oil, and wool, ceramic and agricultural products.
  • It was served as a major cultural and arts centre with well developed theatre and play grounds.
  • It served as an educational centre with well developed academic centre led by great philosophers and scientist.
  • It was a religious centre of traditional Greek goddess Athena and later to the Greek Orthodox Church.

Emergence of modern urban centres in Africa.


It’s the capital city of the republic of Kenya situated on the Athi plains. Originally it was a meeting point of the kikuyu and maasai communities.

The area was inhabited by the maasai who called it enkare Nairobi “the place of cool waters”

In June 1899, the railway reached the Athi plains and Nairobi.

Factors for the growth of Nairobi.

  • Nairobi had a high attitude which led to cool and pleasant temperatures.
  • The presence of Nairobi River ensured about water supply.
  • Trading activities, 1st between the maasai and the agikuyu and later the Swahili-Arab caravan trade enhanced the growth of the city.
  • The transfer of the colonial government headquarters from Mombasa to Nairobi in 1907 further led to the growth of the city.
  • The site was a level ground or plain which favoured the construction of buildings.
  • The area around Nairobi had great economic potential.

Functions of Nairobi.

  • Nairobi is the administrative headquarters of Kenya government.
  • It’s a transport and communication centre for the east and central Africa with railway, road and air links.
  • The city is a tourist centre with various attractions like Nairobi national park.
  • Nairobi is a commercial and financial centre with various financial institutions e.g. banks and stock exchange.
  • It is a residential centre with schools, polytechnics, colleges and universities.
  • It is a cultural centre with the Kenya national theatre and bomas of Kenya.

Problems facing Nairobi city.

  • The city’s water and sewerage services have been overstretched.
  • There is an increase in slums, where the housing and sanitation conditions are poor, mainly due overcrowding.
  • The city is faced with the daunting task of providing social service such as education and health facilities.
  • There is population growth which leads to traffic congestions.
  • The waste disposal, as it generates mountains of garbage on a daily basis.
  • There is a large number of unemployed people that are drawn to it daily in search in a better life.

Solutions to problems facing Nairobi.

  • Expansion of water projects to supply water to the rising population of the city.
  • The government should partner with the private sector to provide sewerage and garbage collection services.
  • Building of affordable housing to replace the slums.
  • Development of infrastructure such as road bypasses and flyovers to decongest the city.
  • Implementation of cost, sharing programmes to expand social services.



It’s located on the highland plateau of the Gauteng province.

In 1886 gold was discovered in the Witwatersrand region of the province.

This prompted the government to send two officials to go and investigate the claims and identity a suitable site for settlement. These were Johann risk and Johannes Joubert.

It is from their names that the city got its name.

It is nicknamed Egoli, which means “place of gold’’, as 40% of the worlds gold is found there.

Factors for growth of Johannesburg.

  • The discovery of gold led to its growth.
  • There was large number of population to provide labour which was to be used in industries and mines.
  • The government initiated policies that favoured industries and encouraged their establishment in Johannesburg.
  • The location of the town on a veld (plain) near the Vaal River made construction work easy and development.
  • The availabity of coal which served as the major source of the city’s energy.
  • There was a variety of industries like iron, diatomite and chloride.
  • There was availability of food stuffs grown in the province that ensured food stability.
  • The banking services were introduced in Johannesburg to serve the mines.

Functions of Johannesburg.

  • It is a transport and communication centre with road, rail and air links to major towns.
  • It’s an industrial centre with major manufacturing industries.
  • It has commercial, financial institutions and companies from other parts of the world.
  • It is an educational centre with many educational institutions.
  • The city is a tourist centre and attracts many tourists from various parts of the world.

Problems facing Johannesburg.

  • Over population has resulted into shortage of housing and growth of slums.
  • There is a high level of unemployment due to the influx of the people from the neighbouring countries.
  • The city has high crime rate which may be attributed to unemployment.
  • Heavy concentration of industries has led to industrial pollution.
  • In adequate social amenities like schools, hospitals and sanitation.

Solutions to problems facing Johannesburg.

  • Development of infrastructure.
  • Encouragement of investors to start business so as to create employment.
  • Improvement of revenue collection in order to provide better services to the city residents.
  • Building of better and affordable houses to replace the shanties.
  • Partnership between the police and the community to reduce the high rate of crime.

Impact of agrarian and industrial development on urbanization.

  • The practise of agriculture forced human beings to adopt a sedentary lifestyle as they had to settle at specific sites to attend to their crops and livestock.
  • It led to growth of urban centres.
  • There was increased food production.
  • There was promotion of trade due to surplus produces.
  • There was also production of raw materials for industries which led to growth of towns as the industries attracted settlement.
  • Export and imports of agricultural produce and manufactured goods led to expansion and growth of part towns.
  • There was rural-urban migration which resulted into overcrowding and congestion in urban centres.
  • High concentration of industries in the urban centres led to air, noise and water pollution.
  • There was also increase in unemployment rates.



















Factors for its growth.

  • Hard strong rulers that is kibugwa, katerregga and mutebi. (bunyore-kitara).
  • Had good, strong and able rulers in the 19th century, who were able to unite their people and restructure the existing administration system.
  • It was a small and compact kingdom which was to hold together.
  • It enjoyed strategic, social and political advantages like geographically it lies next to l. Victoria with good means of internal communication and natural defence against neighbours.
  • It also traded with waswahili and Arab traders for commodities like plates, cups, saucers and glassware which lead to arms acquirement.
  • It also enjoyed good climate with ample rainfall for the growth of bananas which was stable food.
  • It had good security which made it concentrated on political organization.
  • It had a strong army which was loyal to the king as he appointed his own loyal chiefs with royal navy that kept guard over l. Victoria.
  • The ganda tradition also contributed to the growth of the kingdom, farming done by women, men in activities of politics, carpentry, war, bark-cloth making and smiting.
  • They also acquired a lot of wealth from areas she conquered like ivory, slaves, livestock and iron ore us it held the kingdom to be strong.
  • The centralized government that was introduced in Buganda enhanced her growth.
  • It had a centralized kingdom lead by kabaka who had absolute power and kabaka was hereditary upto his death and inherited by the son. Kabakas court was nerve centre and all symbols of royal authority were kept in court, like the throne (namulondo) royal drums, spears and stools.

Work of kabaka.

  • Head of traditional religion ( the lubaale)
  • Hard supernatural power.
  • He was judiciary head and final court of appeal.
  • He was the commander-in –chief of the armed forces.
  • He had a wife from every clan in the community.
  • He could appoint and transfer or dismiss whoever he wanted.
  • There were officials like queen mother and queen sister (ubanga), katikiro (prime minister), omulamuzi(chief justice), omuwanika (treasurer) and mugama( haeds of clans). Others were musenero( the chief butter) and mfumbiro( the chief baker).


  • He organised tax collections.
  • Planned wars in kabakas name.
  • Protected kabaka during war.
  • He was to inform the kabaka of the decisions he made on court issues.



  • It was an assembly of chiefs and kabaka had 69 members.
  • It was a law making body.
  • It was nominated by kabaka.

Had the following roles.

  • Advised kabaka mainly on matters affecting the country.
  • They represented the people’s concerns and needs to the kabaka.
  • Acted as final court of appeal in setting disputes.
  • They directed collection of taxes in the kingdom and planned expenditure.
  • They helped the kabaka in general administration.


  • They were minor chiefs in charge of clans and answerable to mugema.
  • They were guardians of the clans land.
  • They inherited their positions.
  • They collected tributes and maintained law and order.
  • They were rewarded land due to loyalty.
  • Their sons appointed to serve the kabaka( bagalagala)

Political organization.

  • It was headed by kabaka(king) who was respected as the suprime judge.
  • The kingdom had counties called sazas lead by a saza chief.
  • The counties were sub-divided into sub-counties called gombolola.
  • The gombolola were divided into smaller divisions called miluka which were presided over by muluka chief.
  • Kabaka also appointed some leaders to govern the vassal states.
  • The kabaka was hereditary.
  • There were courts to judge and symbols in the kingdom.
  • Kabaka hard superhuman powers.

Social organization.

  • Thos was based on clans which had its own traditions.
  • They were divided into classes (4 classes).
  • They believed in supreme creator, katonda to whom the head of the homestead prayed every morning.
  • They believed in other gods, balubaale.
  • They had prophets who consulted balubaale.
  • They had royal shrines which opposite kabakas palace.

Economic organization.

  • It was based on the agriculture, peasants cultivated millet, sweet potatoes and vegetables.
  • The most important crop was banana.
  • There was also other economic activities like canoe building, bark-cloth manufacture, fishing, salt mining, herding, iron-working and basketry.
  • There was crop rotation system.
  • Trade had become very important economic activities and markets were a regular part of life.
  • There was foreign trade with Swahili and Arab traders.

Factors for the decline.

  • Kabaka mwanga was inconsistent and incompetent in policy making.
  • There were religious conflicts between the Christians, Muslims and traditionalist all who were competing for influence at the kabakas court.
  • The authority of the kabaka was undermined by the Christians court officials.
  • The kingdom came under British control after anglo-buganda agreement.
  • Daudi chwa being an infant could not exert his authority as king hence the kingdom was managed by the court officials collaborating with British.



They are the largest group of akan-speaking who make half of Ghana population. They migrated from the north between 1000AD and 1300AD, by the 16th century the akan had created states like denbyna, akwamu and fante.

The Asante kingdom emerged in the late 17th century occupying the central part of the present day Ghana. It grew so powerful that for the next two centuries it determined the politics and trade of the region.

Factors for growth of the Asante Empire.

  • The golden stool brought unity.
  • The 1st three rulers or asantehene were able, shrewd and courageous politicians. ( obiri yoboa, ose tutu and opuku ware).
  • The growth of the trans-Atlantic slave trade brought a lot of wealth.
  • Several city-states emerged around Kumasi and supported each other.
  • The kingdom also had a strong agricultural base.
  • The centralized political system under asantehene provided stability.
  • The Asante kingdom had a large efficient standing army used gun and gun powder.
  • The odwira festival that was held annually helped to make the state more cohesive.
  • The asante were barve and proud people and the need to free themselves from the oppressive rule of denkyria.

Political organization.

  • The Asante Empire was ruled by the asantehene with the advice of the confederacy or union council. State kings were called the omanhene.
  • The Asante had a centralized political system.
  • They had the nucleus of the Asante Empire was made of five city which were Kumasi, dwaben bekwel, kokofu and nsula.
  • The Asante Empire demonstrated highstandard of political organization.
  • The empire had three parts, Kumasi (metropolitan), amatro and provincial Asante.

Metropolitan Asante.

  • It was ruled directly by the asantehene as suprime authority.
  • The golden stool. It was introduced during the reign of osei tutu provided a solid base for unity among the Asante. A priest called okemfo anokye is credited as having intended the idea of the golden stool which came from the sky in 1695. It made the office of asantehene, which was considered sacred acceptable, it was a source of unity.
  • The government of the metropolitan Asante consisted of the confederacy council made up of kings (omanhene).


Work of omanhene.

  • Give the right of declaring war on other omanhene.
  • Recognize the right of asantehene to impose national levies, especially during wars and national calamities.
  • Attended the annual odwira festival, to pay allegiance to the asantehene, honour the dead and settle disputes.
  • Grand own subjects the right to appeal to the high court set up by the four unions in the capital.
  • Provincial Asante. These comprised of all the state conquered by the Asante in the 18th
  • These states pledged loyalty to the asantehene by paying taxes.
  • They also had members in the asantehens army.

Economic factors.

  • It was located in a rich area in terms of land fertility and rainfall.
  • It had Atlantic trade routes converged in this region.
  • It provided gold, slaves and ivory to the trans-Atlantic traders.
  • They also received cotton cloth, guns and gun powder.
  • The Asante also served as middlemen and carried goods from Cape Verde and Benin to the gold coast in exchange for gold and ivory.
  • Slaves became a very important item of trade.
  • Asante also kept livestock such as cattle.
  • Asante grew many crops in their rich agricultural land.
  • They practised iron working and made other crafts such as baskets and pots.

Social organization.

  • They are part of akan-speaking people.
  • They observed a forty-day calendar and had the same marriage and naming rites.
  • They had matrilineal taboo against marrying from within ones maternal or paternal clan.
  • They had odwira festivals.
  • They also had the golden stool ceremony.
  • There were also slaves who provided labour.
  • They also hard polygamous families.

Decline of the asante empire.

Internal factors.

  • Opuku ware, who was succeeded osei tutu in 1720, failed to incorporate the conquered areas in the Asante union as his predecessors had done.
  • After his death in 1750, there was no immediate personality to unify the empire after the death of opuku ware.
  • There followed a long period of rebellions after 1750.

External factors.

  • In 1896, the British occupied Asante and arrested the asantehene.
  • The traditional rivals of the Asante, the fante, enlisted the support of the British in a number of wars in the 19th
  • In 1894, the Asante were defeated. The subject states took advantage and broke away.



The shone are a bantu-speaking group that inhabited the high fertile plateau between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers. This area is part of modern Zimbabwe.

Factors for the growth of shone kingdom.

  • The kingdom was situated in a region that was well endowed for cattle and crop-growing.
  • There was also development of trade.
  • There was able leadership by powerful kings.
  • The kingdom had a strong standing army which enabled her to conquer her neighbours.
  • There was availability of mineral resources such as gold and copper.
  • Religion brought unity to the kingdom whereby the king acted as the chief religious leader.
  • The shone acquired firearms through trade with the east African coast.

Political organization.

  • By the beginning of the 19th century, the shone did not have a strong centralized state.
  • They formed a confederation known as the Rozwi Empire.
  • The empire was headed by an emperor; the seat was hereditary which created unity in the empire.
  • The following helped the emperor run the state.
  • Queen mother, queen sister, kings nine wives, head door keeper, chief justice, military commander, head drummer and chief cook.
  • The title of the king was mwene mutapa and he was the chief religious authority.
  • Religion and politics were intertwined.
  • The spirits were believed to enhance peace and stability in the empire.
  • There was the royal fire. This was lit at the court of mwene mutapa and would not be allowed to go off or dwindle until the end of the king’s reign.
  • Each vessel chief carried a flame from this fire to his own chiefdom to demonstrate loyalty to mwene mutapa.
  • The empire was divided into provinces which were ruled by lesser chiefs.
  • The chiefs sent their sons yearly to pledge loyalty to the mwene mutapa.
  • The kingdom had a strong standing army.
  • Revenue from trade was used to run the empire and sustain the army.

Social organization.

  • The shone were polygamous and organized into clans.
  • They had a partrilineal inheritance system in their kinship.
  • They were influenced by religion.
  • The king was regarded as a divine king and was venerated.
  • The religion was based on the mwari cult. Who was supreme and creator.
  • Several priests led the people in worship of mwari.
  • They believed in the existence of ancestral spirits who acted as intermediaries between the people and God.
  • Work in shone community was communal and divided according to sex.
  • They lived in stone houses.
  • Their education was informal.



Economic organization.

  • They were mixed farmers.
  • They were hunters and gatherers.
  • They did fishing around river Zambezi.
  • They mined gold and copper.
  • Were iron workers.
  • Practised trade long distance with Arab – Swahili and Portuguese.
  • Made clothes from wild cotton and barks of trees.
  • Practised carving producing variety of items for decoration from ivory and soapstone.

The decline of the shone kingdom

  • The great Zimbabwe declined because of lack of salt and the trade routes that passed in the kingdom had shifted to north towards the Zambezi valley.
  • There was an increase in population which exerted pressure on land for cultivation and pasture.
  • King mutapa who succeeded mutota as king of mwene mutapa was not as powerful as his father.
  • The Portuguese presence in the kingdom resulted in chaos in the kingdom.
  • The Rozwi Empire was conquered by the Ndebele from South Africa who ruled the shone up to the time of the British invasion.






Meaning of constitution.

It’s a set of principles and rules which states how a country is governed, its organization and aspirations and establishes the structure of government and distributes of power among various arms of government.

It also spells out the rights of the citizens as well as their responsibilities and duties in relation to the state.

Types of constitutions.

Written or unwritten

Written constitutions.

It’s where the fundamental principles and rules of the state are contain in one document.

Its prepared by a designated body then enacted and adopted through a clearly defined procedure like the American constitution that was written in 1789 and enacted in 1789.

Advantages of written constitution.

  • The document is readily available for reference in times of crisis.
  • It’s rigid and not prone to tampering with.
  • It is clear and definite in addressing various issues.
  • It clearly outlines the powers, terms, relations and duties of different organs of government, ensuring they don’t come into conflict with each other.
  • It helps to promote national unity in a country.
  • It helps in safeguarding the interests and rights of minority groups.


  • It sometimes fails to respond to emerging issue due to its rigidness.
  • The procedure of amendment is slow and cause delays which could lead to civil disorder
  • Some are detailed and rarely understood by ordinary citizens.
  • It tends to make judiciary too powerful as it is the organ that interprets the document.

Unwritten constitution.

It’s where fundamental principles and rules of a state are not contained in a single document but are drawn from various sources.

Examples of unwritten documents.

Constitutional milestone: like magna carte (1215) this was agreed between king john and the nobility that guaranteed certain privileges for all Englishmen.

Legislation: These are part of the fundamental principles of the state and contribute to its aspirations like.

  1. The petition of right act (1628) that prevented the state from raising taxes without the consent of parliament.
  2. The habeas corpus act (1679) that established the right of prisoners to an immediate trial.
  • The bill of rights act (1689) that limited the power of the monarchy.
  1. The act of settlement (1701) that granted independency to the judiciary.
  2. The act of union (1707) that united the parliament of Scotland and England.
  3. The parliament acts (1911, 1949) that limited the powers of the House of Lords to delay legislation.
  • Parliamentary act (1918, 1928) that allowed women to vote.
  • The peerage act (1963) that prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, colour or ethnic origin.
  1. Representation of the people act (1969) that lowered the voting age to eighteen.

Case law: this refers to specific rulings made by the British courts that have had an impact on the principles of the state.

Parliamentary customs: These are traditions, customs and rules of British parliament form part of constitution and are contained in the hansard.

Commentaries: these are the writings, opinions and assertions of respected scholars.

Constitutional conventions: these are political traditions or agreements which have been followed or applied over a period of time.

Advantages of unwritten constitution.

  • They are simple to amend as they are altered like ordinary law.
  • They are acceptable due to its home-grown.
  • They are flexible and easily adoptable to prevailing situations in the state.

Disadvantages of unwritten constitution.

  • It tends to be indefinite and imprecise in comparison to the written ones.
  • The ease and simplicity with which such constitutions can be amended leaves them open to manipulation by the legislator.
  • Too much power is given to the judiciary that has responsibility of interpreting the constitution.
  • It does not guarantee sufficient protection of the rights of citizens.
  • It tends to overload the judiciary as they look for constitutional principles not only in judicial decisions but in statutes.

Characteristics of a good constitution.

  • It must define its content clearly.
  • Comprehensive so as to cover all aspects of government.
  • Able to protect the fundamental rights and freedoms of the citizens.
  • Durable and elastic.

Constitution making.

The independence constitution was not made directly by the people. It was negotiated in London at Lancaster house between the British government and representatives of Kenya’s political parties who were members of the legislative council.

Since independence many amendments to the constitution have been done.

The interparties parliamentary group. (IPPG)

The parliament formed a forum as part of constitution changes in august 1997, this forum agreed on limited reforms to ensure free and fair general elections in 1997.

Constitution of Kenya review act.

This was passed in 1997.

It was to provide a legislative framework, structure and vision of the constitution review process after the 1997 elections.

The act, however did not satisfy all, stakeholders held a series of meetings in 1998 at bomas of Kenya and at safari park hotel in Nairobi to try and find a consensus which lead to amendment of the act in 1998.

The major parties did not agree on the nomination of the members to the constitution of Kenya review commission. (CKRC)

This led to establishment of two parallel review processes, one, the CKRC appointed by the parliament and the president under the review act and the other led by a coalition of religious and civil organisation, with support of political parties.

This was called ufungamano initiative held in ufungamano house, to avoid stalemate, negotiations were held between November 2000 and May 2001, resulting in the amendment of the review act may 2001.

The 2001 act established a number of organs to guide the review process like.

  • The constitution of Kenya review commission.(CKRC)
  • The constituency constitutional forum.(CCF).
  • The referendum.
  • The national assembly.

The constitution of Kenya review commission.

  • It had 29 commissioners nominated by the national assembly and pointed by the president.
  • Its main function was to facilitate the comprehensive review of constitution by the people of Kenya.
  • It was chaired by professor yash pal ghai.

Constituency constitutional forum.

  • It was based at every constituency.
  • It was to collect and debate the views of the members of the public.

The national constitutional conference.

  • It was to debate, amend and adopt the draft constitution.
  • It had 629 members as shown below:
  • 222 members of national assembly.
  • 210 representatives of districts elected by county councils.
  • 29 members of the CKRC.
  • 42 members representing political parties.
  • 125 representatives of religious, professional womens group, trade unions and other non-governmental organisations.
  • It discussed the views of the people and came up with a draft constitution, famously known as bomas draft.

The referendum.

It provided for a referendum to be held within one month if there was no consensus on any issue during the national constitution conference.

The national assembly.

The act empowered the national assembly as the sole body to enact the bill to change the constitution.

Once the NCC had adopted the draft bill and the people had approved it at the referendum, the CKRC would prepare the final draft bill to be presented to the attorney general for tabling before the national assembly which will enact the bill under the parliamentary select committee.

Reconvening of the national constitutional conference.

The national constitution conference was reconvened after the 2002 elections.

In march 2004, the conference adopted the draft constitution, however professor yash pal ghai was stopped by the court from presenting the draft to the attorney general for tabling in parliament.

The parliament went ahead and revised the draft in naivasha and kilifi. These came up with a draft which was harmonised by the attorney general. It was called wako draft which was presented to a referendum in 2005 and majority of Kenyans rejected it.

The committee of experts.

  • The constitution of Kenya review bill was passed in 2008; it established a committee of experts headed by nzamba kitonga. Its mandate was to:
  • Harmonise the previous draft constitution and come up with an agreeable document.
  • Conduct civic education on the proposed new constitution.
  • Organise national discussion of draft constitution.
  • On completion of its work the committee of experts presented their draft to the parliamentary select committee which tabled it in parliament.
  • The draft was then published by the attorney general on 6th may, 2010.
  • It was subject to a referendum on 4th august, 2010 and passed overwhelmingly.


It was promulgated by the president on 27th august, 2010. This means being adopted and made effective.

Amendment to the constitution.

The constitution provides two ways through which it can be amended. There are:

Amendment by parliamentary initiative.

A bill is introduced in both house the senate and parliament.

If the bill is passed, the speakers of the two houses submit it to the president for assent.

Amendment by popular initiative.

  • A proposal to amend the constitution may be signed by at list 1 million registered voters in form of general suggestion.
  • The initiative is delivered to the independent electoral and boundaries commission to verify the list of voters and submit it to the county assemblies.
  • If the draft bill is approved by a majority of the county assemblies, it is introduced in parliament.
  • If passed by parliament, the bill is presented to the president for assent.
  • If either house or parliament fails to pass the bill, the proposed amendment is subjected to a referendum.

Aspects of the independence constitution of Kenya.

This involved decolonisation of Kenya. Kenya gain internal self-governance on 1st June, 1963 where the main characteristics of the new constitution were a Westminster government with a federal or majimbo system.

  1. The executive.

The head of the state was the governor- general acting on behalf of the queen. He enjoyed wide ranging powers concerning internal, security and foreign affairs: in addition, he could vote legislation.

The government of Kenya was headed by the prime minister, appointed by the governor-general. The prime minister was to be chosen from among the members of the House of Representatives and was expected to enjoy the support of majority of the members.


  1. The legislature.

There were two houses the senate and national assembly who did the legislative work.

The House of Representatives had 112 directly elected members, representing constituencies and served for five years.

The senate or upper house comprised of 41 directly elected members, each representing a district and one for Nairobi.

  1. The judiciary.

The constitution established an independent judiciary, according to the judges and the attorney-general security of tenure.

Kenya was divided into seven regions, each of which had its own legislative and executive structures.

  1. Rights and freedoms.

There was a section that spelt out the right and freedoms of all of the Kenya’s citizens i.e. a bill of rights.

Members of all the indigenous Kenyan communities were entitled to Kenyan citizenship, as were specific members of the migrant communities, especially the European and Asian.

It also spelt out the necessary conditions for the acquisition of citizenship.

It provided for multi-party democracy in Kenya.

The issue of independent electoral commission and competitive electoral process.

Constitutional changes since independence up august 2010.

Changes in the legislature.

  • If a member of parliament is sentenced to prison term of six or more months he would lose his seat.
  • A Member of Parliament who missed eight consecutive parliamentary meetings without the speaker’s permission would lose his seat.
  • A member who resigned from the party that sponsored him to parliament was to vacate his or her seat.
  • The bicameral legislature, were merged, establishing a unicameral legislature called the national assembly.
  • All candidates vying for an election were to be nominated by a political party.
  • The 12 specially elected members were substituted with 12 members nominated by the president.
  • English and Kiswahili were used as a means of communication.
  • Section 2A of the constitution was amended.
  • The number of parliamentary constituencies was raised to a maximum of 188.
  • Section 2A was repealed making Kenya a multi-party state.
  • The number of parliamentary constituencies was fixed at a maximum of 210.
  • The power to appoint nominated members of the national assembly was passed to the political parties.
  • Members of parliament were increased from 210 to 290.
  • Bicameral legislature was introduced.
  • County assemblies were introduced in the counties to pass legislations.

Changes in the executive.

The post of executive president who was the head of state and government was created.

The position of the prime minister and governor-general was abolished.

The public security act was passed, allowing the president special emergency powers such as detaining people without trial.

President elected directly by all voters.

The vice- president would act for 90 days in case a vacancy in the office of the president.

All members of electoral commission members were appointed by the president.

President was allowed to pardon election offenders.

Public servants who desired to vie for positions in general elections were required to resign six months before the general elections.

The position of chief secretary as the head of civil service was created.

Membership to the public service commission was increased from 7 to 17 members.

The security of tenure of the offices of attorney-general, controller and auditor-general was lifted.

Chief Secretary Position was abolished.

The security of tenure attorney-general, controller and auditor-general was restored.

The presidential term of office was limited to two.

The number of electoral commissioner was increased to 24.

Detention without trial was abolished.

Public order act was amended to allow meetings without seeking permission from the police.

The chiefs’ act was amended, limiting the chief’s power to arrest people, compel attendance at barazas and procure labour.

National accord created the position of prime minister and two deputy prime minister.

A coalition government was created and president to share power with the prime minister.

Presidential appointments were to be made in consultations with the prime minister.

Devolution of power through creation of county governments.

The position of deputy president was created.

Position of cabinet ministers was renamed to cabinet secretaries was set to a minimum of 14 and a maximum of 22.

Cabinet secretaries were not to be members of parliament.

All presidential appointments were to be approved by the national assembly.

Changes in the judiciary.

The title of the Supreme Court was changed to the high court.

The Kenya court of appeal was established to replace the east Africa court of appeal which had collapsed along with the east African community.

The high court became the highest court of appeal for election petition.

All capital offences were made non-bailable.

The period of detention before charging criminals was increased from 24 hours to 14 days.

The security of tenure of the judges was removed.

The security of tenure of the judges was restored.

The Supreme Court was established as the highest court.

The position of deputy chief justice was created.

The judiciary service commission was reconstituted to include representatives of the public,judges,magistrates and the public service commission.

Appointment of the chief justice was to be made by the president with recommendation of the judicial commission and subject to the approval of the national assembly.

Changes in citizenship.

Section 89 of the constitution that provided for the acquisition of citizenship by everyone born in Kenya after December 1983, was repealed.

Dual citizenship was introduced.

Citizens of the countries applying to be Kenyan citizens were not required to renounce their citizenship.

. Changes in communication.

Kenya broadcasting corporation act was amended to compel KCB to give fair coverage to all political parties.

The film and stage plays act was repealed hence licensing of stage plays abolished.

The communication commission of Kenya act was passed which allowed the establishment of more radio and television stations. Mobile phone companies were also allowed to operate.

Changes in electoral laws.

Electoral commission of Kenya was replaced by interim independent electoral commission.

The interim independent boundaries commission was established to review electoral and administrative boundaries.

The independent electoral and boundaries commission was established.

Features of the constitution of Kenya.

The Kenya constitution is a written constitution. It has 264 articles which are divided into 18 chapters.

  1. Sovereignty of the people and supremacy of the constitution.

The constitution is the supreme law of the republic which binds all persons and all state organs at national and county levels.

  1. The republic.

Kenya is a democratic state with multi-party.

It outlines the entitlement of citizens, retention and acquisition of citizens and states how citizens may be revoked.

  1. Bill of rights.

it contains the rights and fundamental freedoms of the citizens.

  1. Land and environment.

It outlines the principles of land policy, provides a classification of land and establishes a national land commission.

It gives the obligations of the state in respect of the environment and national resources.

  1. Leadership and integrity.

It stated the responsibilities. Conduct, financial, probity and restrictions on activities of state officers.

  1. Representation of people.

It outlines the general principles of the electoral system and process. Like:

  • Legislation on election.
  • Voter registration.
  • Code of conduct for candidates.
  • Voting process.
  • Mechanism of dealing with electoral disputes.

It also establishes the independent electoral and boundaries commission and provides for 290 constituencies for election of members to the national assembly. It regulates the establishment of political parties.

It established the bi-cameral legislature.

It touches on:

  • Composition and membership of parliament.
  • Qualifications for election as a member of parliament.
  • Representation of marginalised groups.
  • Election of members of parliament.
  • Clerks and staff of parliament.
  • Terms of parliament.
  • Vacation of office of Member of Parliament.
  • Parliament’s general procedures and rules.
  • Bills concerning county government.
  • Officers of parliaments.
  • Right to recall.
  • Procedure for enacting legislation.
  1. The executive.

It has the president, deputy president and cabinet.

The president is the head of state and government.

It creates and independent judiciary.

It has system of courts with superior courts and sub-ordinate courts.

The superior courts are the Supreme Court, the high court and the court of appeal.

Subordinate courts are the magistrate and kadhis court.

There is the judicial service commission and the judiciary fund.

It’s the sharing of power between the national and county government.

  1. Public finance.

There is equitable sharing of national revenue.

There is an equalisation fund, consolidation fund and revenue funds for county government.

There is a commission on revenue allocation and a central bank.

  1. National security.

There is establishment of a public service commission and teachers service commission.

The values and principles of public service are outlined.

  1. National security.

The Kenya defence forces.

The national intelligence service.

The national police.

There is also the Security Council.

  1. Commissions and independent offices.

These are established constitutional commissions like judicial service commission, national police service commission and national land commission.

Independent offices are also established, e.g. auditor-general and controller of budget.

  1. Amendment of the constitution.

Amendment by parliamentary initiative.

Amendment by popular initiative.

  1. General provision.

Mechanism for enforcement and interpretation of the constitution.

  1. Transitional and consequential provisions.

Outlines the legislations required to effect the constitution and gives the transitional and consequential provisions.




The term democracy is derived from the Greek word democratia; which is formed from twp words demos, (people) and kratos(power or rule). This there means rule of the people.

Democracy is a form of government where the political decisions are directly in the hands of the citizens.

Abraham Lincoln, he definite it as a government of the people, for the people and by the people.

Aspects of democracy.

  1. Political aspects. Its where there is sharing the consent of the governed is sought when making political decisions which is expressed directly or indirectly through their elected representatives.
  2. Social aspects. Is stress the value of human dignity, people are free to organize their own lifestyle, hold and express opinions, move about and enjoy the company of others.
  3. Economic aspects. It aims at providing equal opportunities to all citizens and seeks to eliminate exploration of humans by fellow humans.

Types of democracy.

Direct (pure) democracy.

This is where all adult member of the society are free to participate directly in the affairs of state like legislation, policy and appointment or dismissal of public officials.

It is practised through various ways like referendum, plebiscite and initiative recall.

  1. Referendum: this means must be referred to the people.
  2. Plebiscite: it is a device to obtain a direct popular vote on a matter of political importance.
  3. Initiative: the people initiate the legislation and refer it to the legislature for consideration.
  4. Recall: this is a method by which and elected representatives or official can be removed or dismissed. It also features in the constitution of Kenya.

Indirect (representative) democracy.

This is a system where the members of a state choose representatives to run their affairs.

Characteristics of indirect democracy.

Universal suffrage.

Every person of age 18 and above has a right to vote.

Free and fair election.

There should be a transparency in election.

People supremacy.

The supreme controlling power is vested in the people and they exercise it through voting at regular election.

Principles of democracy.

Consent of the people.

The supreme controlling power is the people; leadership in a democratic society should accommodate people’s needs and aspirations.


There is need for equality among the people regardless of colour, sex or creed and provides every participant with equal opportunity to participate in the process of airing their views.


The location in which democracy is expected to flourish should be free of all forms of intimidation and unrest that would deter people from freely expressing their opinions on various issues.

The rule of law.

Democracy recognises equality of everyone before the law with fair and outcome acceptable to the majority.

Balance of liberty.

The state makes the laws based on the consent of the people who are obliged to obey the law without feeling that their liberty is unduly restricted.

Transparency and accountability.

There is openness and accountability; this gives the citizens the confidence to trust their institutions.


In democracy, different ideas compete for the citizens, attention and opinion.

Free press.

A responsible, free, independent and objective press is one of the pillars of democracy.

Regular and free elections.

The elections should be free and fair, this allows citizens to express their will.


There is need to have many political parties in the country due to democracy.

Economical freedom.

There is economic freedom through private ownership of property and a free market economy. Citizens are free to pursue professions of their choice.

Bill of rights.

This is where bills of rights and freedom of the individuals are spelt out which forms part of constitution.

Advantages of democracy.

  • It is widely accepted form of government.
  • It allows fair competition for power between all people.
  • Promotes a sense of accountability and responsibility among leaders.
  • Promotes fundamental rights and freedoms.
  • Enables citizens to peacefully change their governments regularly and this minimises chances of political instability.
  • It promotes co-existence thus encourage international co-operation.
  • Serves as a means of political education since civic education is carried out before elections.

Disadvantages of democracy.

  • It disregards the interest of the minority.
  • It is expensive to implement since both civic education and general elections require funding.
  • The wealthy use their resources to influence the voters at the expense of those with limited resources.
  • Its time consuming since certain procedures must be followed and the views of the majority sought before important decisions are made.
  • It may promote inefficient leadership. As those elected are the most popular but may not possess the best leadership qualities.




They are powers of free action, which every individual is endowed with by virtue of belonging to the human race.

The United Nations charter on human rights.

This was formed after the Second World War in a conference in San Francisco in 1945.

It emphasised respect for basic human freedoms and set declaration on general principles of human rights and a convention to define specific human rights. On 10th December 1948, it adopted universal declaration of human right which was known as UN Charter on human rights.

All countries which signed the charter undertook to promote human rights which the charter outlines as:

  • Right to self determination.
  • Equality among gender.
  • The right to work.
  • The right to just and favourable working conditions.
  • The right to and adequate standard of living.
  • The right to physical and mental health.
  • The right to life.
  • The right to fair trial.

The importance of UN Charter on human rights.

  • Protection of venerable groups that is the minority like children, women, the disabled from discrimination and exploitation.
  • Provision of health care to the citizen by the government.
  • The charter guarantees the individual’s right to a fiar trial.
  • It promotes human dignity by emphasising the protection of fundamental human rights.
  • There is protection of gender by equal opportunities and treatment for both men and women.
  • It helps to promote the secretarial integrity and sovereignty of nations.

The Kenyan bill of rights.

The bill of rights is an expression of fundamental human rights and freedoms spelt out in a convention or constitution of a state which is contained in chapter four of the constitution of Kenya. It’s divided into five parts.

  • General provisions relating to the bill of right.
  • Rights and fundamental freedoms.
  • Specific application of rights.
  • State of emergency.
  • The Kenya national human rights and equality commission.

Purpose of the bills of rights.

  • To preserve the dignity of individuals and communities.
  • To promote social justice.
  • To realise the potential of all human beings.

General application of bills of rights.

  • This applies to all laws and binds all state organs and all persons.
  • It’s the duty of the state to observe, respect, protect, promote and fulfil the fundamental rights and freedoms.
  • Every person has a right to institute court proceedings if a fundamental right of freedom is denied, violated or threatened.
  • In the enjoyment of the fundamental rights and freedoms, one should not break the law of infringe into others rights.

Application of Kenyan bills of rights to specific groups of people in Kenya.


  • The Kenyan bill of rights guarantees every child the right:
  • To a name and nationality from birth.
  • To free and compulsory basic education.
  • To basic nutrition, shelter and health care.
  • To be protected from abuse, neglect, harmful cultural practices, inhuman treatment and exploitation.
  • To parental care and protection.
  • Vote to be detained except as a measure of last resort.
  • Persons with disabilities.
  • To be treated with dignity and respect.
  • To access educational institutions and facilities.
  • To reasonable access to all places, public transport and information.
  • To use sign language Braille or other appropriate means of communication.
  • To access materials and devices to overcome constraints arising from the persons disability.


  • Access relevant education and training.
  • Have opportunities to associate, be represented and participate in all spheres of life.
  • Access employment.
  • Are protected from harmful cultural practices and exploitation.
  • Minorities and marginalised groups.
  • Participate and are represented in governance and other spheres of life.
  • Are provided with special opportunities in educational and economic fields.
  • Are provided with special opportunities for access to employment.
  • Develop their cultural values, languages and practices.
  • Have reasonable access to water, health services and infrastructure.

Older members of society.

  • To fully participate in the affairs of society.
  • To pursue their personal development.
  • To live in dignity and respect.
  • To be free from abuse.
  • To receive reasonable care and assistance from their family and state.

Rights of arrested persons.

  • To be informed promptly, in language that the person understands of:
  • The person for the arrest.
  • The right to remain silent.
  • The consequences of not remaining silent.
  • To remain silent.
  • To communicate with an advocate and other persons whose assistance is necessary.
  • Not to be compelled to make any confession or admission that could be used in evidence against the person.
  • To be held separately from persons who are serving a sentence.
  • To be brought before a court as soon as reasonably possible but to later than twenty four hours after being arrested unless the twenty four hours fall on a day outside of court hours.
  • To be charged or informed of the reasons for the detention continuing or to be released.
  • To be released on bond or bail on reasonable condition.
  • Not to be remanded in custody for an offence which is punishable by a fine only or by imprisonment for not more than six months?

Rights of persons detained, held in custody or imprisoned.

  • Retention of all fundamental rights and freedoms except those incompatible with being detained held in custody or imprisoned.
  • Entitlement to rights of habeas corpus.
  • To humane treatment as spelt out in a parliamentary legislation.
  • Treatment in keeping with relevant international human rights instruments.

Kenya national human rights and equality commission.

It was constituted by the constitution and has at least three and not more than nine members.

The chairperson and members are identified and recommended through national legislation.

Its function.

  • To promote gender equality and equity generally.
  • To promote the protection and observance of human rights.
  • To promote respect for human rights and develop a culture of human rights in the republic.
  • To monitor, investigate and report on the observance of human rights.
  • To receive and investigate complaints about alleged abuses of human rights.
  • To take steps to secure appropriate redress where human rights have been violated.
  • To investigate or research on matters of human rights and make recommendations to the state.
  • To ensure state compliance with obligations under treaties and conventions relating to human rights.




European invasion and activities began long before 19th due to exploration. The Portuguese, wanted to gain geographical knowledge about the continent led by Portugal’s Kings and Princess like Henry the Navigator.

Trade: They wanted to have a share of Africa’s trade in gold, ivory and slaves so that they could derive revenue.

Religion; They wished to spread Christianity to the non- Christian inhabitants of Africa, and intended to find Prester John, the legendary Abyssinian Christian King of Africa. They hoped that he would help them against the Muslims of North Africa who had dominated the Liberian Peninsula for several centuries.

Technological and Scientific Developments

There was caravels build by Portuguese, Navigators had learnt how to use charts, which indicated harbours along the coastline, and they could note the direction of the winds and currents and used a sophisticated compass marked with 30 points to show direction.

Millitary Strength

They had advanced naval warfare, their guns and cannons were of superior quality this gave them an advantage over the people they came into contact with.

Spirit of Adventure

They were curious to see other lands and people, they came to Africa for the sheer joy of being the first to find and conquer new lands.

Competition to Dominate

This due to a fact that many countries were involved in Africa with varied activities.


The last quarter of the 19th century witnessed on increase in European interest in Africa, by countries like Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Belgium and Portugal were in Africa competing for colonies. They partitioned Africa amongst themselves after convening the Berlin inference of 1884 – 1885.

The Balins conference was convened by other van Bismarck, the German, and Chancellor, to avoid involving his country in quarrels with other states over African colonies.

During the scramble for a partition of the continent, the Europeans adopted carrot and stick methods to acquire as many colonies as possible for themselves. This involved persuading Africans to collaborate by offering them a rewards or a punishment if they did not cooperate.

This elicited different renotions from Africans, must communities resisted, while only a few collaborated. Despite their resistance, most African societies except Liberia and Ethiopia had been colonized by 1914.

Defining Scramble and partition.

Scramble means to rush for, compete or struggle with others in order to get or do something. The scramble for Africa refers to the rush and struggle for different parts of Africa by Europeans powers.

To partition is to divide something among people, or to apportion something among contenders or competitors. The partition of Africa refers to the dividing up or sharing of Africa by European nations.


European powers agreed to validate their claims on any part of Africa by informating others.  The powers used different methods to acquire colonies in Africa, like individual European nationals with direct or indirect support form their mother countires made claims for their countries. Despite the occasional compliets, these claims were settled and specific countries recognized as being effective occupants of a declared sphere of influence.

Diplomacy they established diplomatic relations with African leaders like those of the tribal in Nigeria and eventually occupied their lands.

Treaty signing.There was two types of treaties, that is, trieties between Africans and Europeans on the one hand and those between the Europen powers themselves. Most of the treaties signed after 1885 were protection treaties between African rulers and representatives of European governments and private organsiation. Once these treaties were accepted by the home government, the arms become a protectoreate of that particular European power.

During the partition, some European states dashed in areas where they had common interest, in cases where spheres of influence were contested, the European countries involved settled their disputes through mutual agreements. Such agreements were called partition treaties like Anglo-German agreements of 1886 – 1890.

Luring Of Chiefs

They gave presents of cloth, beads, tools, weapons and even intoxicating drinks for example, the Baganda and Lozi. There chiefs were cheated through such gifts and ended up losing their independence.

Divide and Rule. They instigated war between different societies by playing off one society against another. After such societies had fought and were weekend, the Europeans stopped in and occupied their land like Baganda and Banyoro.

Military Conquests

Whenever treaty making failed they used military conquest. The French in particular favoured this methodian West Africa and also the British used it in conquest of Asante.

Factors that had to be scramble for Africa

The main causes of the scramble for Africa were a combination of political economic and social factors.

Bismark and the rise of Geography

In 1870, France and provision fought in Europe in the France – president war, and France was defeated. This resulted in the completion of the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire by the Treaty of Frankfourt. The French lost Alsace and Louranine region an area rich in coal and iron.

Otto van Bismark, the former chief Minister of Prussia became the German Chancellor. The rise of Germany altered the balance of power in Europe because she became the most powerful state in place of France. He encouraged France to seek for colonies in Africa as compensation and consultation for her losses in Europe and Africa, his activities, they partly caused his scramble.

Industrialization in Europe

Britain was the 1st European state to industrialize, followed by Belgium and Belgin and France. At 1st, markets for manufactured goods and sources of raw materials were readily available. But when other European countries became industrialized, there was a lot of competition and protectionism. European powers that relied on reports made by their explorer and travelers in Africa turned to Africa for markets for their manufactured goods and sources of raw materials.

Europe Rivalry

European merchants in Africa asked for perfections from their mother countries whenever they faced competition either from African merchants or those of other European, suspected mineral wealth also led to the scramble for colonies in Africa. The competition and rivalry of the European powers led to the scramble for colonies.

They Egyptian Question

Modern European involvement in Egypt bean with Nepolc’ans Egyptian campaign of 1798 which led to construction of such canal in 1859 – 1869. This canal was strategic importance to Britain because of her economic links with India.

From 1863 to 1879, Egypt was ruled by Khedive Ismail. He had great aims for the modernization of Egypt but had no money. It is reliance on foreign loans and his extravagance led to Egypt’s bankruptcy and the sale of her shark in the canal to the British. British and French intervened in Egypt’s finances to that she might be able to pay her debts. Khedive Ismail clashed with these commissioners and dismissed them. Consequently, the European powers put pressure on the Sultan of Turkey to overthrow Ismail, who was accordingly deposed in 1879, Ismail was succeeded by his son, Tawfiq who was just but a puppel of the Europeans.

The British and Franch dual control of Egypt caused a nationalist uprising in 1880. It was led by colonial Ahmed Urabi Pasha. The British supposed this revolt and later defeated the Egyptians at the battle of Tel-el –Kabir and occupied the country in 1882. The Britain occupation of Egypt offended the French, who planned to occupy other territories in Africa.

The French Activities in West Africa and Congo

The French established a protectorate over Porto Novel in 1882 and made plans for the occupation of more territories in the region. These plans worried the British traders already stationed in West Africa. Even Germanys which had kept a lot changed her mind concerning the acquisition of territories in Africa; she joined the race for colonies and later occupied Togo, Cameroon, South – West Africa and Tanganyika.

Savergan de Brazza, an Italian adventurer in the service of Franco, obtained treaties from the Congolese King, Mokoko, dated September/October 1880. In 1882, the French government accepted those treaties as valid documents. Thereafter French activities intensified the scramble for colonies in Africa.

The Rise of Nationalism and Racialism 

Each nation claimed superiority over others since the possession of colonies was regarded as proof of nation’s superlioty. Europeans believed that a nation must spread overseas to provide its national vigour. Industrialization also gave rise to theories of white man’s racial superiority over the black man who was not yet industrialized.

The Missionary factor

The aim of missionary was to spread Christianity civilize the Africans, abolish slave trade and encourage legitimate trade whenever they were faced with problems with the local people, they asked for protection from their mother countries.

King Leopold II Activities in Congo

King Leopold II of Belgium formed the African International Association in 1876 for the purpose of curving out for himself a personal empire in the Congo region. In 1879, he employed Henry Marton Stanley and sent him out to explore the area. The result of Stanley’s journey was the creation of the Congo Free State, which was recognized by other Eruopean powers.

Portugal fault threatened by the activities conference to solve these territorial disputes in Africa was held. The conference was held in Berlin, the capital of the German empire under the presidency of the German chancellor, Otto Ven Bismark, leading to pertition of Africa.

The Process of Pertition

From 1870, antinisastic European interest increased with demands and urges to have colonies. By 1884, the campaigns to set up colonial witnessed a period of intensive scramble for Africa which nearly resulted into war in Europe over claims in Africa. European process or their nationals encouraged the guest for occupation of Africa and the German chancellor Otto Ven Bismark, in an effort to avert war in Europe over Africa, called the Berlin conference in November 1884.

European powers, led by Britain and France as they contestants over Africa agreed to attend the conference, by February by Effectively sharing and allocating specific regions among  claiming powers. This is the Berlin conference became the starting point of partitioning Africa. Rules and conditions were set by the conference on the occupation claims.

Terms of berlin conference

Shepher of influence. Any European power occupying any part of Africa had the obligation to inform others. The helped to avoid double conflicting claims. The first power to inform others was regarded as the rightful claimant.

Effective occupation

It was passed that any claim of any African territory had to be followed by effective occupation. A claim was regarded valid only if a European power    nationals or agents effectively settled or averted her authority in a region.

Protection of the Whiteman

The process of partitioning Africa after the Berlin conference was boosted by the realistic protection principle stipulating that European powers or their nationals who established spheres of influence in Africa were under obligation to protect and safeguard the Whiteman’s interest irrespective of their nationality.

  • There was to be freedom of navigation for trade on river Niger, Congo and Zambezi.
  • King Leopold of Belgium was recognized as the head of the New Congo independent state by all the powers.
  • The European powers agreed in the stoppage of slave trade and encouragement of legitimate trade.

The Impact of Partition of

  1. a) Political Impact
  • European administration based on direct, indirect and assimilation approaches were established.
  • Loss of independence and state organization among African communities under European powers.
  • Africa was introduced to would geo-political system by the colonizing powers.
  • Modern African states boundaries were drawn during the partition.
  • African communities found themselves split into different states without consultation local African rulers lost their internity to European colonizing powers.
  • Africa was given to chartered companies which administered the continent.
  • Intensification of tribal or ethnic difference as colonial powers played a one tribe against another.

Economic Impact

  • African colonies provided and supplied industrial raw materials and markets European industries.
  • African labour was expected for European economic gains.
  • Labour was reunited in Africa through forced legislation and taxation.
  • Infrastructure was developed to link major mining and agricultural areas.
  • European invaders alienated African lands, creating room for European settlements as Africans were pushed to low productive reserves.
  • African economic activities were disrupted, especially among the nomadic pastoralist. Their animals were taken and area of grazing limited.
  • Africans were introduced to international commerce through trade, financial institutions and the use of currency.
  • Wage labour was introduced in Africa.

Social Impact

  • Permanent European settlement was established.
  • Many Africans lost their lives through resistance and European pacification wars.
  • The Intensification of the spread of Christianity
  • African cultural values were exposed to systematic erosion in the face of European settlement.
  • Western education was encouraged by Christian missionaries.
  • The establishment of Christian missionaries.
  • The establishment of Christian mission centres was accompanied by medical facilties.
  • The development of urban centres ensured roads and railways were built to link those areas.
  • There emerged racial sigigation in Africa as a result of European superiotity complex.


This varied from the region to the other. The nature and character if reaction was influenced by a number of factors.

The response to European colonization was basically determined by the nature and methods of European entry and rule.

It was also determined by the social, economic and political state of the colonized society.

  1. a) Resistance

This was the use of military force to try to prevent European colonization like Tanganyika by Maji Maji uprising (1906- 1907) against the Germans, West Africa the mandiana under Samori Tune resisted the French occupation (1882 – 1898), Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) where the Ntebele under Lebengula (1883 – 1897).

The Maji Maji Rebellion 1965 – 1907

The German colonialists had suppressed other revolts such as the Abushiris at the coast, the Hehe under Mkwawa, the Nyamwezi under Isike and the Chagga in the Kilimanjaro area.

By 1900, the Germans had conquered must of Tanganyika and established effective control over the people.

Communities come togethere and formed a revolt named maji maji because by the uprising, there arose a mediceneman called Kinjekitele Ngwale who introduced and distributed some magic water (maji) to the people, claiming that it would make him immune to the German bullets. It was believed that the dead ancestors would protect the people.

The causes of the maji maji rebellion.

Oppressing of Africans: The German rule was hated becaue it was brutal and inhuman in its treatment of Africans like hut tax, forced labour.

The Forced cotton- growing programme

The people were to plant cotton on communal plots and share the profits with the marketing organization under the Akidus and Jumbes.

Disrupt for the African Culture and custom. They didn’t respect African culture and customs. They misbehaved with Ngindo woman.

Land Alienation: African land was forcefully taken away from them. They were pushed into infertile areas.

The Role of Religion; It boasted the people’s miracle and gave them courage to fight against the Germans because of the promised immunity against German Lullels by the medicainal water.

Employment of Arabs and Swahilis: They employed Arabs and Swahilis as Akidas (Chiefs) and Jumbas (headmen) to role over the Africans.

Desire for revenge by the Ngoni. The Ngoni wanted to revenge the 1989 massacre by the Germans.



The revolt broke out at the end of July, 1905 in Umatumbi. The rebels attacked German government officials and Arab shopkeepers and government officials and Arab shopkeepers and government stations and outposts.

The Pogoro of Kitope refused to pick cotton. Nyindo joined the rebels; the town of Samanga near Kihoa was located and burnt to the ground. The Ngoni joined the revolt in September 1905.

The Germans had not expected a revolt from this area so they lacked the means for immediate suppression. The governor, Graf Von Gotzon had to wait for reinforcement from Germany and other territories of German in Africa.

When at last they arrived, suppression was ruthlessly executed leaders who were caught were killed.

Those who escaped arrest fled to Mozambique by 1907 the revolt had been totally and ruthlessly suppressed by the Germans.


Poor organization: The Africans were poorly organized in their resistance. The magic water did not perfect the warriors and this denerdized them. The Hehe and the Nyamwezi did not join the revolt morever, as the German’s increase their military pressure, some tribes simply surrendered. Leaving others to fight in their own.

Superior weapons by the Germans. They had better weapons than the Africans and when they received reinforcement by troups and arms from Germany and other parts of German colonies in Africa, they overwhelmed the rebels.

Lack of military Unity: Africans lacked military unity and strategy. They didn’t have a single leader to co-ordiante their military operations. Each tribe had its own fighting force under a tribal leader. Some Africans like hehe. Supported the Germans because their traditional enemies, the Pogoro, Mbunga, Sagara and Ngoni were fighting against the Germans.

SCORCHED – earth Policy: The Germans burnt crops, destroyed livestock and other property. This weakened and starched the Africans.


  • The maji maji rebellion led to great destruction of property like houses and crops.
  • Generally, the area was depopulated because about 75,000 Africans died during the war and from the famine that was caused by the revolt.
  • There was displacement for those who survived the war and famine as they moved to other areas in search of food some of the leaders who didn’t die daring to fight were arrested by Germans and executed.
  • The failure of the revolt caused ill- feelings among the people and created Krocher tribal deference that lingered throughout the 1st half of the 20th.
  • The Germans 9150 learned a lesson from the maji maji. They studied their colonial system of administration and resolved to make some reforms.
  • The people of Southeastern Tanganyika learned that it was important to unite against a common enemy if they needed to attain freedom.
  • They also learned that it was futile to resort to armed resistance against a colonial master possessing better weapons.




Resistance, 1891 – 1897.Samori Ibn Latiya Toure was the founder of the Mandinka Empire and one of the greatest leaders’ f the reistance of European colonization in West Africa.

He was born in 1830 in Sanankoro, a village situated to the south – east of Kankan in the present day Guinea. He was of the Malinke origin and belonged to the dyula, a clan of long distance traders who traveled to may parts of West Africa and traded in gold and cattle.

His mother was captured by Suri Birama, a local chief when he was a teenager he enlisted in Suri Biram’s army where he served for seven years to secure the release of his mother.

He began the creation of his empire in the 1860s by capturing Kamanduga. He made Bisandugu his capital city in 1886.

He conquered states like Toron, WA Sulunke, Konia and Kankan. In 1874, he took the title of Al-Iman, that is , the spirtitual and political leader of his people.

He controlled a large empire, which he divided into 62 districts consisting of about 20 villages each. The districts were grouped into ten provinces.

Chiefs, soldiers and religions leaders were involved in the administration of the empire.

He had a large standing army, which had the job of expanding and later defending the empire it was composed of professional soldiers called sofa as well as cadets called bilakoro.

He had Sud especially trained budge guards and he was the commander – in – chief of his forces.

In 1882, he came into contact with the French for the 1st time he used both diplomacy and warfare to encounter the French incursions into his territory.

He sought the friendship of the British but didn’t receive it as the British didn’t want to interfere in areas French interest in conformity with the terms of the Berlin conference of 1884 – 85.

  • He wanted to retain Mandinka Empire as the French had begun invading it.
  • He wanted to retain his independence against the French rule.
  • He wanted to protect some of his important centres. Like Bure God mines,
  • As a Muslim, the French were infidels who were to be chased away.
  • Saman had confidence to fight because of his wealth and well equipped military.


Between 1882 – 80 the French and Samori was      their forces. The French even approached Somari for a boundary settlement. This resulted in the Treaty of Bisandugu on 28th March 1880.

Somari gave the French all his territories north river Niger in return for their friendship, the French met Somaris territory their protectorate Somari protested but to the local and the British, from who he expected support, didn’t resist him.

Sameri resorted to warfare between 1991 – 98 he had an army of about the one’s the French had. He used guerrilla warfare and fielded only part of his army at a time.

He had divided his army into three gaps. The 1st one, armed with rifles, engaged the French and then retreated. The second organized the people, evacuated them and led them on their cast wards exodus. The third conquered new areas for the settlement of the people.

As they moved, they carried out the scratched – earth policy, whereby, they burnt villages, crops and everything else of value after taking what they needed.

The location of Samaris second empire was not as good as the 1st one. At babakala, he was cut off from the gold fields of Wangara where he used to obtain the gold and buy five arms.

The British occupied Asante in 1896, so Samari could not advance in that direction likewise the French had occupied all the other surrounding areas by 1898 and Samari was, therefore stuck at Dabakala.

He surrendered to the French in 1898, as he was departed to Gabon where he died in 1900.


Religion inspiration. Samori was a devouted Muslim ruler who was determined to reamin independent his was

A well equipped army. He used his enourmous wealth to buy from arms and horses for his large army.

Aims workshops. Apart from the arms purchased, he used had gunsmiths who manufactured gns and rifles.

Guerilla war. He used both guerilla war and the scarched -policy that is destryog everythin as he

Diplomacy, when he was not ready he peace tactics where time to prepare.


  • During the assistance the British and not protect Samari and his kingdom as they had agreed.
  • He Samari expanded is empire; he came into conflict with other African rulers such as Tieba of Sikasso and Seku Ahmadn of the Tieba of Sikasso and Seku Ahmadu of the Tokdar Emipre. Those rulers later supported the French against samari, leading to his defeat.
  • Samari was a Muslim jihadist who became unpopular among non-muslims in the territories he occupied such people usually supported the French for they Saw them as their saviour from Islamic imperialism. The scorched earth policy used by Samari during the war led to the destruction of properly in the territories.
  • He lost some of the territories he had earlier occupied like Goldmines.
  • The movement carloads also made difficult for him to purchase fire-arms easily from the coast due to the long distance and the presence of Europeans along the way.


  • Many people lost their lives due to war and famine.
  • There was destruction of property by useful. Scotched – earth policy
  • He formed the background of mid- twentiethcentruary African independence campaigns against the French West Africa.
  • The Mandika lost their independence some they colonist as the French established their in the area.
  • They did loss control over all their trading activities gold mines.
  • Samari Toure was finally captured and reported to Ghana where he died in 1900.
  • The people of mandika were forced to from their areas and therefore became refugrees because of the war.
  • The people of Mandika experienced mass starvation due to scarched – earth policy and neglect of Farming activities.


The British occupation of Matebele land and mashona land in Southern Rhodesia (modern Zimbabwe), took place during the reign of Lobengula, son of Mzilikazi. The kingdom collapsed at the hands of the British South Africa Company.

In 1888, he faced the ambitions South African millionaires, Civl John Rhodes, whose aim was to idenise central Africa for Britain. Rhosed convinced the British high commissioner at the cape idengy to get the help of Rev. Joss Moffat, to obtain a treaty from Lobengula. Rev. Jos Moffat was the son of Herbert Moffat, the pioneer missionary in Bechaanaland who had been freidnly to mzilikazi.

The result of moffats visist was the signing of the Moffat treaty of 11th February 1888. This was understood by Lobengula to be a friendship treaty with terms that he should not enter into diplomatic relations with any other power without the sanction of the British.

As more concession seekers continued to visit Matabeleland, Rhodes wanted the British to have a monopoly over the area, so Charles Rudd with two companions Thompson and empire to see Lchungula and sick a treaty giving the British in his kingdom. This led to the signing of the Rudd concession of 1888, which Cecil Rhodes used to abstanin a charter for the British South Africa company in October 1889 and the British government.

The Rudd concession gave civil exclusive rights to exploit minerals in Lobenugla’s territory. Lubenugla agreed to grant the concession of land or mineral rights without Rudds consent in retion, he was to receive a monthly payment of  100 rights and ammunition, and a gunboat on River Zambezi or instead.

After getting the charter Rhodes made plans for the occupation of mushonaland. This was successfully done in 1890 by the pioneer columna.


Causes of War

  • It was caused by the British occupation of Matabele land and Mashonaland and Mashonaland following the 1889 Charter.
  • Lobangula and the Ndebele lost control over their subjects, the shona.
  • The Ndebele were prevented by the British from raiding the Shona.
  • The Ndebele had lost their land and property.
  • They also reseated forced labour in the mines, farms and homes of the British South Africa company officials.


War broke out in October 1693 when Ndebele killed the Shona Servants belonging to the whites. Lobengula evacuated Bulawayo, his capital and fled northwards people. He died in 1884 and his Indunas, as his generals then surrendered to the British.

Having failed to find minerals in mashonaland the settlers helped to do on Matabeleland. The Ndebele order-in-council of 18th July, 1894, empowered the company to improve it tax, establish a native department and control the colonial of Southern Rhodesian

By 1895, most of Matabeleland had been occupied and reserves crated for the Ndebele. There cat were confiscated and they shona were forced to work in European homes, mines and farms.

The Results of the War.

  • There was widespread starvation among the Ndebele as their livestock had been seized by the British.
  • There was disruption of Ndebele economic activities as they were prohibited from carrying out agricultural activities before they had surrendered.
  • The Ndebele lost their land which was alienated for settlement by the British.
  • The Ndebele lost their independence as British rule was declared over their territory.

THE SHONA – NDEBELE (Chimurenga) 1`896 – 1897

The 1893 Ndebele war led to another aimed conflict from 1896 to 1897. This war was known as the Shon – Ndebele war or Chimurenga war. It begun in March in matebeleland and in June 1896 in Mashonaland. The Shona was Ndebel had various grievances against the British.


  • The Ndebele lost their independence
  • They lost their land which was occupied by the British settlers.
  • They also lost their cattle to the company whose officials thought belonged to Lobengula.
  • The company administration also imposed a hat tax which was collective with too much brutality.
  • The Africans were forced to work on European farms and mins.
  • The Ndebele also disliked the native police force which was mostly composed of the shona.


The revels started by killing European on their isolated farms and the African policeman employed by the British South African Company.

Within a week they had killed about the Europeans. The Shona and the Ndebele used al the weapon they could by their hands on.

The Shona and the Ndebele were organized by their Mlimo cult and medium spirit leades.

Mkwati and signgamatisha were very active in Matabele land with the encouragement of Lobengula’s son, Nyamanda and the Ndebele chiefl priest, Ungulu.

Banda and Tshiwa organized the Shona into military regimats, men, women and children were all involved in the efforts to send the whiterman away.

Reinforcements had to be      in from other parts of Southern Africa to suppress the revolt. The Africans resorted to guernilla warfare in the Matope and other hills. This revolt ended in December, 1896. While that of the Shona Continued until October 1897.


  • The Shona and Ndebele were defeated due to lack of Superior weapons many nations lost their lives.
  • The B.S.A.C confiscated earlier and annexed there land as compensation for the destruction due during war.
  • The Shona and Ndebele had united during the ware were settled in different areas and find separated so as to proect any future alliance against the British.
  • The defeat of the Shona and the Ndebele let to their using faith in their traditional religious beliefs as they followed Christianity.
  • The unity of Shona and Ndebele had some upcoming in their struggle for independence in the 20th
  • Since the Ndebele, surrendered earlier than the Shona, thing govenemtn some factors from the unites which were denied the Shona.
  • The famine that resulted from the war prompted Khoeds to order for, 1,000,000 bags of grain from South African.

This was the process of accepting and accommodating Europeans occupation without resistance. They did this to safeguard their positions against internal power struggles or as a protection from stronger external or neighbouring societies.


It was ruled by Kabakasi it had a large army and navy and was engaged in long distance trade with the Arabs and Swahilis from the Coast.

The 1st European to reach Buganda was John Speke, a traveler in 1862 and followed by James Grant.

Henry Marton Stanley, a reporter from the New York herald. He first visited East Africa in 1871 whom he was sent to look for Dr. David Living stone he also visited Mutesa court in d1875.

Kabarak Mutesa agreed Christian missionaries due to

He wanted help against Khadive Ismails threats in his Northern Districts.

The Mukama of Bungoro was his traditional among, so be sought help.

He also wanted technological experts to teach the people some those skills.

The 1st missionaries to arrive were protestants of the church missionary society(EMS) from Britain in 1877 followed by the Roman Catholic while fathers in 1897 Kabaka Mutesa confined the missionaries in his capital Rubaga  converted people to chrisitanity.

When mutesa decided, four religious reactins had emerged. Protestants, Roman, Catholic, Muslims and the traditionalists.

He was succedded by his son Mwanga who was 18 years old Mwanga associated himself with lyoung Christians but turned against them and killed 30 in May 1886 for organsising to give up their faith.

The period from 1888 – 90 was lime of political upheaval in Buganda Mwanga was overthrown and exiled to Sese Island on lake Victoria but he was help by Christian (catholic and protestants) that he was able to recapture his throne in 1890.

In 1890, Uganda officially became among the British spheres of influence it was to be administered by the Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEAC).

In 1891, Fredrick Lugard signed a treaty of protection with Kabaka Mwanga realized that he was expected to be just a puppet while the real power rested in the hands of the British administrators. He revolt against the British in 1897. Which failed as some of his people supported the British he was arrested and exiled to Kismayu in 1899 and later to the Soychelles, where he died in 1903.

The British made Daudi Chwe, Mwanga’s infant son the new Kabaka. Since he was too young to rule, three senior ministers the katikiro (P.M), Chief justice and treasurer were made his agents. They were Apollo Kg Star   Mugoanya and Zachary Kisingiri respectively.


It was signed between the British and Baganda. The agreement considered four factors, namely; Boundaries the system of government land ownership and finance.

Terms of the Buganda agreement.

  • Her boundary was defined and her size almost doubled by the inclusion of areas recently acquired from Bungoro.
  • The government could not make laws to do anything contrary to the wishes of the protectorate government. A British Resident was to be stationed in Buganda to advise the Kabaka and his government and safeguard the interest of the protectorate government..
  • Half of the land was made crown land and people were allowed to live on item tenancy basis.
  • A hut tax of three mpees and a gun tax were imposed. All revenues were to go to the protectorate government.


  • It gave them a basis for the administration of Buganda, whose position in the protectorate was strengthened.
  • The Kabaka’s Saza chiefs were the real beneficiaries of this agreement. The new land tenure gave them land and the right to impose land rent.
  • The increase of the Sazas from 10 to 20 by the confirmation of Buganda’s annexation of several countries from Bunyoro, caused friction later, with Bunyoro over her lost countries


  • The introduction of Christian and European influence in Buganda.
  • The conversion of the most of the workers of the Kabaka to Christianity ensured the establishment of British rule in Uganda.
  • Islamic influence to the kingdom declined as that of the Christians grew stronger.
  • The Bunganda kingdom used their Christians spreads to check and counter the omukama of Bungaro.
  • Kabaka’s powers were reduced in the face of growing educated members of the Lukiiko.
  • The Buganda was given an advantage and position in the colonial administration.


Thye were ruled by Hewanika. He had asconded the chieftaincy in 1884, but it was only after suppressing a bloody revolt that he was able to establishe himself firmly on the throne on which he set up to 1916.

Lawanika responded to the European advance by asking for British protection through Sir Sydney Shippard, the British administrator of Buchanaland.


  • He wanted assistance as he had a serious revolt in Barotseland in 1884 as he wanted to secure his position as the king of the 1021.Ndebele laided the 102os from time to time, so Lewanika wanted to protect is people from them.
  • He was also influenced into making a decision about British protection by Khama, the paramount chief of the Ngwato of Botswana who had accepted British protection in 1885.
  • Lewanika wished to protect his kingdom against external invasion; he was threatened by Portuguese and Germans.
  • He desired Western education and civilization for his people.
  • He realized the futility of resisting against the British.
  • He was encouraged by missionaries to seek British protection.

The process of collaboration

Lewanika realized that the Europeans were stronger than the people of his land; he therefore sacked British protection through Franco’s coillard, a missionary of the Paris evangelical mission who wrote a letter asking for British protection, because of interest from the Boars, British and Portuguese.

Harry Ware visited Lewanika in 1889 who mineral prospector, who wanted mineral concssions Lewanika did shew remarkable powers of diplomacy leading him to sing a treaty will have allowing him to prospect for minerals for period of 20yrs.

Ware sold his concession to Cecil Rhodes. Rhosed bought iton behalf of the British South Africa company which had just been granted acharter.

This charter allowed the company to do more than mine, Rhodes sent Fredrick E. Lchner to explain these matters to Lewanika.

Lonchner met Lewanika and after some negotiations, signed the Lewanika Lochner treaty in 1890.

These guaranteed the company mining rights, and to Lewanika and his people, protection from outside attacks, Lewanika was to receive ₤2,000 a year and a royalty on all minerals imported under his concession.

Robert Coryndon established his headquarters at Socheke and soon after, negotaions began for another treaty which was signed on 25th June, 1898 in the presence of Arthur Lawley.


  • There was colonial rule which was established over Northerm Rhodesia without any bloodshed.
  • Lewanika retained his position as parameant chief of the lozi until his death in 1916.
  • The British were able to use their frothold in Barotscland to subjugated the surrounding communities whid didn’t co-operae with them.
  • The Lozi rulers were given authority over Bartoscland but under European administrator’s supervision.
  • Though Kwanika retained his position, his authority had been stripped.
  • Barotselands’s rights over Ivory and elephants trade were reserved.
  • Courts Rhodes company fully exploited minerals following the Lewanika Lochner concessions.



Background to the Scramble and partition of east Africa.

The European nation were interacted in the Africans from the 15th Century led by Portuguese’s, Britain, French and Nation who had interest in the Indian Ocean trade in the 10th

The Portuguese led by Oman who attacked them continuous led to the decline of the Portuguese rule. European explorers, traders and missionaries made frequent visits to the East African coast and by the mid 19th C. some of them traveled into the interior of the region.

The activities of the missionaries influenced the European imperialism in the 19th century. They started to scramble for possessions and spheres of influence in Africa. This was haphazardly done and Africans were never put into consideration.

In East Africa, the scramble began with Bismarck’s recognition of treaties signed by a German, Karl Peters.

Factors for the Scramble and Partition of East Africa.

 Economic factors.

  • There was industrial revolution in Europe led to new interests in East African’s they were looking for areas which they could supply them with raw materials.
  • They were looking for markets for their manufactured goods. In addition to this, there was also the hope that precious metals might be found to enrich those concerned.-
  • There was political rivalry and mutual distrust in large nationalism which influenced the scramble for and partition of East Africa.
  • The question of balance e of power was a major weary to the European nations particularly Britain, France and Germany.
  • National prestige was also another struggle factor in European imperialism.
  • Britain was concerned, she was anxious about her position in Egypt and India, Lake Victoria, the source of the Nile, was Egypt’s lifeline. The scaroute to India through Suez equal had to be secured.
  • Moreover, Britain had to secure her position in Egypt because her communication with her Indian Empire could only be done through the Suez Canal.
  • To further safeguard her position in Indian and generally in the Indian Ocean, Britain had to secure her position along the East African Coast.
  • There was also a belief, particularly among the British, that European rule was the best. They considered that whoever was under the British rule was blessed.
  • For new nations like Italy and Germany, Colonies provided them with a sense of pride and identify. They all sought to have colonies for the old established nations like Britain and France; Colonies were an added source of Strength.


  • They were interacted in introducing their culture to the Africans. They believed in their “civilizing mission” protection of their missionaries and abolish slave trade.
  • They were also concerned about the activities of the Muslims thus they scrambled to be pioneers in removing Islamic influence in Africa.
  • They increased productivity both in industry and agriculture in Europe led to the growth of population.


The 1st Europeans to penetrate into the interior were the agents of the church missionary society, Dr Ludwing Kraft and Dr. John Rebman, who established a mission at Rubai. In 1848, Rebman became the first European to secure Mt. Kilimanjaro, and in 1849, Kraft ventured still further Inland and Saw Mt. Kenya.

By the end of the 19th century, there were about 300 missionaries in East Africa including British East Africa, German East Africa and Zanzibar. They were subjected to a variety of hardships and trials.

In 1885, the Agglican Bishop James Hannigton traveled West through IBEA. He was killed in October when he reached the Nile in his attempt to set up a diocese in Buganda, mwanga ordered his death.


Before 1884, European powers who were involved in East Africa sought clearance from the Sultan of Zanzibar before proceeding to the interior after the Balin conference there ensued a better struggle between the British and the Germans over the control of East Africa.

In September 1884, a Britain, Sir Henry Johstone, with the Sultan’s permission, signed treaties with the chief in the Kilimanjaro area. He did this on behalf of the British commercial gaps which intended to trade there and construct a railway.

In the same year, a German, Karl Peters also singed treaties with the chiefs of Osaga, Uziga, and Ukami and Nguru areas without consulting the Sultan. The Sultan protested without much success.

When Karl Peters went back to Europe, Bismark recognized those areas as failing under German influence so they were declared German protectorates and the German East Africa Company was to administer them.

It’s a struggle between the Germans and the Southern of Zanzibar ensued over the lutters dominions. The British entered struggle in favour of the sultan of Zanzibar.

Demanded out a commission to look into the actual extent of the Sultan’s dominions. The work of the commission led to the singing of the Anglo – German   agreement of 1886.




The souther of Zanzibar was given a 16km (10miles) coastal strip and the offshare Islands of Pate, Mafila, Pamba, Zanzibar and Lamu.

Germany got the territory between river umba in the north and Ruvuma in the South and Coastline of Wabu.

Britain got the territory north of river Umba stretching up to river Juba in the North.

The Western bunding was left undefined thus living Uganda upon to any power that got there 1st.


After 1886, there was rivalry between the British and German trading companies. The I.B.E.A.CO was favoured by Sultan Barguish of Zanzibar. He granted it judicial and political powers as well as the right to levy custom duties over his mainland dominions. Soon the IBEAC of about 300km into the interior from the coastaline. This annoyed the Germans and it sparked off a despute between the two companies. At the same time, Italy had joined the colonial race and was disputing with the British company over the parts owned by the Sultan in the Northern coast. These were Kismau, Merka, Mogadishu and Warssheikh.

The British were, however, determined not to allow the Sultan’s northern parts to fall into German hands. Therefore, Britain handed over Lamu to the Sultan, who in turn relinquished it to Britain. The other northern parts were ended to Italy and like the Sultan gave them back to Britain.

In the interior, contest over Uganda was inevitable, in1889 the IBEA Co, sent Fredrick Jackson to investigate British prospects in Buganda. But before he got there, Karl Peters had already secured a treaty with Mwanga. When Jackson arrived it was too late to have the Kabaka change his mind. This marked the beginning of another struggle between the two companies over another East African Territory.

Meanwhile in Europe, lord Salisbury was engaged in diplomatic negotiations on behalf of Britain with the German government. The negotiations were concluded by the second Anglo – German. Treaties also known as Heligoland Treaty in 1890.





Uganda was recognized by German as an area within the British sphere of influence. This ended the Anglo-German rivalry in the area.

Germany agreed to abandon her claim over her territory of with she also accepted a British protectorate the Islands of Pemba and Zanzibar.

The German possessions include a strip on Lake Tanganyika acquired from Britain and the coastal region of Tanganyika from the Sultan for a fee.

The Western boundary was defined.

The Sultan was left with the 16km strip along the coast.

The British ended the North Sea Island of Heligoland to the Germans in return for the British identified East African interest areas.

This brought the period of scramble and petition of East Africa to an end. The Anglo – Italian agreement of 1891 was to safeguard the British prospects in Buganda. But before he got there, Karl Peters had already secured a treaty with Mwanga. When Jackson arrived it was too late to have the Kabaka change his mind. This marked the beginning of another struggle between the two companies over another East Africa territory.

Meanwhile in Europe, lord Salisbury was engaged in diplomatic negotiation on behalf of Britain with the German government. The negotiaotins were concluded by the second Anglo – German. Treaty, also known as Heligoland Treaty in 1890.



Uganda was recognized by German as an area within the British sphere of influence. This ended the Anglo- German rivalry in the area.

Germany agreed to abandon her claim over her territory of with she also accepted a British protectorate the Island of Pemba and Zanzibar.

The German possessions include a strip on Lake Tanganyika acquired from Britain and the coastal region of Tanganyika from the Sultan for a fee.

The Western boundary was defined.

The Sultan was left with the 16km strip along the coast.

The British ended the North Sea Island of Heligoland to the Germans in return for the British indefied east African interest areas.

There brought the period of scramble and partition of East Africa to an end. The Anglo – Italian agreement of 1891 was to safeguard the British financial, commercial and strategic interests in other areas besides the EAC, especially in relation to the Nile.


Once granted a Royal charter in 1888, the imperial British East Africa Company leased the land between Mombasa on the coast and Lake Victoria from the Sultan of Zanzibar. The aim of the company seems to have been partly political countering German, French and Italian influenced in the area, partly commercial, though it never paid a dividend, and partly philanthropic, supporting the campaign to suppress the slave trade between East Africa and Arabia.

They established parts and bomas at diverse places like Kismayu, Malindi Vanga, and Lamu with Takaunga, Machakos, government smith and mumia. However, the company had insufficient resources and a myriad of other problems to effectively occupy and control those areas.


  • The general work of administration and development required a lot of capital which was not forthroning.
  • Residing Africa gaps meant that the company required a force to maintain law and order yet it was financially constrained.
  • The land was too large as compared to the far company administrative.
  • Scarcity of natural resources and profitable commodities for expert hindered the work of the companies.
  • There was key little trade between the interior, this made transport slow and expensive.
  • There was no co-ordination between the company’s officers in Europe and agent in East Africa as each had their own vision and priorities that sometimes were in conflict, leading to delays and confusion in E.A.
  • Those who were sent to work in East Africa had neither the knowledge nor experiences which help them to accomplish their missions.


  • The company handed over its lenses to the British government.
  • The company staff moved to save the new protectorate administration.
  • The company also passed over the infrastructure such as posts and a small police force to the British government.


Treaties this method was used where Africans were peaceful and readily accepted British colonial protection and payment of taxes e.g the Maasai agreement oif 1904 and 1911.

Force military expeditions were sent to areas where people had refused to co-operate with from like Nandi.

Construction of administration, communication and trading centrs at 1st British officials used the posts were constructed by the IBEA Co. but later built their own operational bases, commercial centres and communication lines.

Collaboration: The British found it necessary to co-operate with the local leaders especially these whom they thought had power and prestige.

Response of the peoples of Kenya to British Invasion and occupation.

Some Africans viewed colonialism as a treat to her soveignty. Others thought it as a good opportunity to build up personal power and accumulate wealth. The former opted to resist colonialism while the latter to co-operate with the colonial administrators.

The communities that resisted the British included the Bukusu, Gusii, Kabras, marakwet, Nandi, pokot, Somali, Taita, and Turkana.

They resisted because

  • They wanted to maintain their independence
  • They wanted to protect their land.
  • They wanted to protect their culture.
  • The form of resistance ranged from non-co-operation by not providing labour or paying taxes toattracting British outposts and stealing from them.

Resistance lead to

  • Loss of lives
  • Destruction of property such as homes and farms.
  • Disruption of economic activities.
  • Famine
  • Many Africans especially those in the highlands, lost their land.
  • Most of the attempt at armed resistance failed because the Kenyan societies were divided into small autonomous units which were no match for the British military strategy.
  • Local rivalries that allowed the British to pla the communities against each other.
  • The Africans relied on weapons and strategies that were inferior to the British
  • Natural calamities like epidemics weakened the Africans.
  • Lacked professionally trained soldiers


  1. i) Nandi

They were dorminant community in Rift Valley having replaced the dreaded Maasai whose power had declined because of epidemics drought and internal strife. They resisted for a longer period than any other community.


  • The Nandi regarded themselves as superior to the other people they had come into contact with like Maasai, Luo, Luhya and Gusii. Thus, they viewed the arrival of the British as a threat to their dominance over the region.
  • Kimnyole, an orkoiyot of the Nandi had prohisied that the Nandi would be subdued and ruled by foreigners. This resistance was an attempt to avert the fulfillment of a prophecy made by a discriminated prophet. This Nandi had stoned Kimnyole to death in 1890 on the suspicion that he had caused a drought.
  • The pale colour of the Europeans skins and the clothes that they were led the Nandi to believe that they were devils that had come to inhabit their territory.
  • The Nandi were not only socially and politically dominant in the region, but were also economically dorminatn. This was mainly doest their raids that they successfully carried out against other communities.
  • The British were viewed as competitors who would take away their land and properly in addition to raiding the communities the Nandi had thriked on.
  • In Koitalel Arap Samoei, an Orkoiyot, the Nandi had an Inspiring and Heroic leader. When captain meinerzhagan killed him and his advisors (Maotik) the Nandis fought more terminally than before to revenge.
  • They were opposed to hut tax.
  • They were also opposed to forced labour conscription by the colonialists.
  • They were also against land alienation and building of the Kenya – Uganda Railway across their territory.
  • They were also determined to maintain their independence.


The Nandi did attack traders using the Uganda road, prompting the British to send an ineffective punitive expedition to the area. The expenditure was unsuccessful as the Nandi warriors used their knowledge of the terrain to their advantage mounting surprise gacirilla attacks.

In 1897 expenditure was sent in response to a Nandi attack

Reached Nandi country raiding bands attacked the crews, killing them and stealing materials like rails and telegraphic wire which used to make ornaments are weaponing.

The Indian, the Swahili, the Maasai and Baganda soldiers failed to subdue the Nandi warriors in 1900.

Meinertzhagan arranged for a peace meeting with him and a Nandi delegation because he had ploted to kill Koitalel areas Samari as he was the pilar of the Nandi.

Samoei was captured and killed as soon as he arrived at the meeting. This disheartened the Nandi warriors and bought the most active phase of their resistance to an end.

Now that the orkoiyot was gone, the largest expeditionary force yet was sent to Nandiland in October, 1905, 1,500 Indians, Swahili and Somali soldiers. There were also 1,300 anxiliaries, a warned pertas, 10 machines guns and 100 armoured trains. This brought about an end to the rebellion.


  • The mountamors forested landscape was suitable for gueraila tactics.
  • The pororict ensured a steady and constant supply of warriors who were as disciplined as the British forces.
  • Their mixed economy ensured a reliable supply of food.
  • The Nandi had gained valuable military experience from wars with the Maasai and raide on the neignbouring communities.
  • The Nandi were naturally warlike – had al lot of self – pride since they had managed to subdue neighbouring communities.
  • The Nandi were united under the leadership of Orkoiyot who was also a religious leader.
  • The climate was harsh for the British invaders.


  • The British were supported by some Africa communities.
  • Superior British weapons such as rifles as compared to the arrows of the Nandi.
  • Natural calamities, such as small pox and rinderpest weakened the Nandi.
  • Trickey used by the British when they invited Koitalel arap Samoei only to have him killed, demoralizing/weatherizing the resistance by his followers.
  • The British used scorched – cash policy left the Nandi without food.
  • After Samoei, other leaders lacked courage and organizational skills.

Result of the Nandi Resistance

  • Loss of independence to the British.
  • Nandi territory was dully incorporated as one of the provinces of the B.E.A Protectorate.
  • The Nandi did loss lives and their animals.
  • Lots of properties like homes and farms belonging to the Nandi and later the British settlers were set on fare or damaged.
  • There was famine due to destruction of property.
  • Nandi people were dispossessed by their most productive land.
  • Displacement of the Nandi as they were forced to make North wards to local reserves that were located in marginal area.

It was one of the important participants in trade with both the East African Coast and the interior communities.

Caused of the Agiriama Resistance

  • They lost their lands that were productive for plantation.
  • They forced Africans to work on the British plantations.
  • Taxation was imposed on all able bodied mean
  • The Africans were forced to join the army because of war.
  • The Agriyama traded widely in Ivory and local brew from coconuts (tembo) as the British stop this trade.


They did refuse to present themselves for walk on the while plantations. Instead, they opted to sell their produce in order to raise the required tax.

Other migrated cut of his jurisdiction into the Tam disert, prompting Hobley, the then pet visit the area.

When the Agiryama’s grievances were presented to him, hobley dismissed them.

This visit together with the Skirmishes at Chakana, when the British soldiers opened fire onsome Agiryama warriors served as the impectus fro the formation of the resistance mechant.

It was under the leadership of Mekatilili WA menza a charismatic Agiryama woman who together with Wanje was Matoriak. Rallied the people to returen to their traditions and more specifically to a meeting at Kenya fungo.

They bound themselves to this by traditional caths Mukushekushe for men and first for women.

The British arrested Mekatilili and Wanje and departed them to Kisii. They peole were still defiant, they even resisted a decree for them to move and build a new Kaya at Mangeu prompting the British to destroy Kaya Fungu.

This outraged the Agiryama who speedily took up arms and fought gallantry from the forest for more than one year.

The British used scorched-earth, policy, setting homes of the agiriama on fire, as they attempted to catch the warriors and collect a fine imposed on them. Since the British had more powerful weapons, the warriors changed tactics pursuing guerilla attacks instead.



  • Many Agiryama people were killed and their property destroyed.
  • After the resistance, the British withdrew the order requiring the Agiryama to make from their homes.
  • The role of women in spearheading the rights of Africans emerged prominently as Mekatilili organized her people to resist the colonial in justices.


They are a sub-section of the luyia may occupy present day Bungoma county and parts of Trans -Nzoia county in the Rift Valley province.

The reaction of the Bukusu against the British had its foundation in the relationship they had with the Wanga, who were their traditional enemies.


  • The Bukusu did not like the Wanga imperialism imposed in them by the British.
  • They hated cultural interference by the Europeans which was witnessed by the activities of the missionaries.
  • The Bukusu were against taxes imposed in them by the British the ruthless mode of Caleding the hut tax.
  • The Bukusu wanted to maintain their independence and the powers of their own ruler.
  • They ahd a strong military organization and army which made them succeed in keeping the Wanga from taking their land.
  • They had battalions is the Bagoti. The intelligence wing which sought information about the enemy. The Elamala. They army that went a head attacking the Egututi the army which would remain behind as a reserve and joined the war to give reinforcement to the Elamuli.
  • They also used the scarthed – earth method in warfare.


The murder of Mr. Hamisi, a Wanga agent, was the immediate cause of the war. He had consficated Bukusu cattle on his way back; he was ambushed and killed at lumbaka near present day bungoma town.

The British sent a punitive expedition against the bukusu to recover the guns hamisi had.

The bukusu on sensing defeat went to seek refuge from chief chetambe of the tachoni’s fort at webuye. The British pursued them and with the use of the machine guns killed many bukusu. This marked the end of rebellion.

Results of the rebellion.

  • There was loss of life as many bukusu were killed.
  • Mumia’s rule was extended to bukusuland as the bukusu lost independence.
  • There was animosity between bukusu and tachoni as the bukusu felt that they had been betrayed by tachoni.
  • The bukusu came under the British protectorate as part of eastern Uganda.


In 1890 the British and Italians signed the ango-italian treaty which defined the British and Italian spheres of influence in Somaliland, creating British and Italian Somaliland.


  • During the partition of Africa, Somali clans that had lived together for a long time found themselves on different sides of the diving political lines.
  • The main economic activity of the Somali was nomadic pastrolism, they had freely roamed and traversed their surrounding before the Europeans interfered, preventing them reaching pasture that they had regularly utilized.
  • The two nations (Britain and Italy) that had partisioned Somaliland to themselves were Christians. This put them in direct conflict with the muslim-somali who considered it an effront to their religion to be ruled by non-belivers.



The Somali clans-darod and Hawiyes attempted arrest in 1893 but this was unsuccessful. The Ogadan – Somali revolted in 1897 and in 1900, they murdered the British sub-commissioner for jubaland – Jenner.

A punitive expedition was dispatched but it was partially successful as it didn’t defeat the Somali.

There was a tactical retreat by the Somali especially the Government merchant and Aulihan clans who began to stock pile arms which were used to attack British posts for about two decades from 1905.


  • People died.
  • Somali lost their independence.

Reasons why Armed Resistance failed in Kenya

  • The Kenyan societies were organized in small autonomous communities which couldn’t provide a common front to face the enemy.
  • Communities were and cohesive but kept fighting one another as the British got room to play this communities.
  • African lacked sophisticated weapons they used spears stones, brows and arrows.
  • The African warriors were ill – trained
  • Epidermis and natural calamities had reached the population of some of the communities.
  • There was poor leadership on the part of Africans.
  • The soldiers were demoralized when many warriors were captured and killed.
  • Some African communities collaborated with the British against follow Africans.
  • Kenya – Uganda Railways facilitated swift movement of British or military for swift subjugation of unrest.

COLLABORATION                                                                This communities include Maasai and Wanga. They collaborated because.

  • They felt too weak to resist the British.
  • They needed outside help to overcome their local neighbouring enemies.
  • They stood to gain materially from the British allies.
  • They believed the British were only temporary visitors to be used and later discarded.
  • Collaboration took various forms such as offering logistical and tactical assistance to British, provision of food stuffs and arresting and betraying of resistors.


The Maasai dominated the plains of the Rift valley from about 1750 occupying the area stretching from Uasin Gishu to mount them.

They had a central leader, the Laibon, who combined both religions and political rules. Thus he was the symbol of unity from the community.

They also had the best military organization with the age stets ensuring a constant supply of warriors.

Reasons for Maasai Collaboration

Nandi ascendancy: The Nandi had re – organized themselves politically by borrowing some aspects from the Maasai political organization and adapting them to their own situation thus centralizing their community’s authority. This resulted in amore efficient and effective fighting force that challenged the previously invincible Maasai merans. The Nandi raided the communities that were previously exclusively raided by the Maasai. They went ahead and even successfully raided the Uasin Gishu Maasai.

Intenal strife. There was a series of civil wars between the pastoral purko and the agricultural Kwavi Maasai that nearly wiped out the Kwavi. These wars were followed by a succession dispute between the two sons of the Purko Laibon Mbatian – Lenana and Sendeyo.

Natural calamities. The maasai was played by a succession of nutural calamities, which weakened their economic base and killed them like locust invasioin, drought, cholera small pox and renderpest.

The Kedong massacre in 1895, a caravan of Kikuyu clashed with some Maasai resulted in the death of 650 Agikuyu and Swahili porters. A scolt and two Frenchmen who had camped nearby leant to the aid of the Agikuyu and shot about two Maasai.

British efficiency. When the massacre was investigated, the report indicated that the Swahili and Agikuyu traders had started the initial clash. The farmers of the report and the officially of the investigation impressed Lenana who bought British friendship.

The course of the Maasai collaboration

The 1st treaty, the Maasai Agreement signed by Lenana and Stewart in 1901 created two (Laikipia and Ngong). They were fromed that this land would always be there as they existed as a race. However the so in Laikipia complained about the presence of Maasai, leading to the signing of the second Maasai agreement of 1916 which evicted them from Laikipia and confined them to the Ngong Researve.-



  • It led to eviction and displacement
  • The loss of independence and manpower
  • The Maasai lost their territories and were pushed into infertile Ngong reserves
  • Reduced Maasai social prestige based on herds of cattle.
  • The Maasai were divided into pro-lenana and those opposed to his collaboration.


  • All the livestock that was confiscated from obstinate communities was given to the Maasai.
  • Lenana was granted the position of paramount chief by the British.
  • The Maasai found profitable employment in the service of the British as auxiliaries, mercenaries and guides.


They inhibit the area bordering Uganda, as they were actively involved in trade with the Arabs and Swahili. Nabangoo Mumia reigned between 1882 – 1949 as he welcomed the IBEA

Reasons for Wanga collaboration with British

  • He wanted military assistance to subdue his perennial enemies, the luo of Ugenya and Bukusu.
  • He wanted political power to concentrate his position and that of his kingdom among the luhya.
  • He wanted British military support wars of exfarmers of the Wanga kingdom.
  • He elaborated with the British as him social prestige among his subjects.
  • Mumia hoped to gain materially from his collaboration with British.
  • Mumia saw the futility of fighting the strong white military men.

The course of collaboration.

Mumia’s headquarters served as the operational base for British operations in western Kenya. Military expeditions were sent out from here between 1894 and 1906. These included expeditions against the nandi, luo of sakwa, seme and ugenys, as wel as the bukusu and banyala.

Although the British had stationed baganda and Sudanese soldiers in wanga, they were often joined by mumia’s own fighters when they went out on expeditions.

Once the British rule had been established, administrators were required. Mumia provided wanga agents who were sent out as chiefs and headmean in other communities.

Results of the collaboration.

  • The wanga lost their independence.
  • The wanga were used by the British to rule other western communities.
  • Mumia’s kingdom gained more territiory, like samia, bunyala and busoga.
  • Mumia was largely relied on by the British when it came to appointments of African chiefs and headmen.
  • Mumia and his subjects gained material wealth from their association with the British.
  • Mumia’s dominace during the colonial rule over other communities increased hostility between the wanga and those communities.
  • Mumias became the administrative centre of western province.


There were other communites that   are wanted    response to the arrival of the British           attempts establishing their rule over Kenyan live resistance and collaboration is the AKAMBA.

This can be traced to the middle of the 19thc. When the missionary Dr. Kraft, visited their region. Their 1st contact with the British as administrators came in 1890 when the IBEACO bult fort at machakos. This marked the beginning of new phase of relations between those two communites that changed severally from friendly to very hostile one.


Lack of respect for Akamba traditions

During the construction of the IBEAC fort in machakos George Heith out down the sacred liable free for use as a play pole. This greatly incensed the local prophetesis Syonguu, who directed the warriors to attack the government.

Prevention of raids. In 1894 the British prevented the Akamba warriors in Kyevaluki and Kangundo from raiding the Agikuyu. Raiding was important to Akamba as it enabled them acquire commodities which they traded in.

Establishment of Garrison.there was a British stationed troop in garrisons in Ukambani in an effort to prevent Skirmishes between the Akamba and their neighbours.

Misconduct of company officials. The soldier stationed in Ukumbani stole from the Akamba raped their women and bullied the people. They took sanctuary in their fort and the fire – arms that they carried.

Disruption of trade. The British situated the lay distance trade of the Akamba when they      their sources of supply of trading commodities especially after they are stopped from raiding their neighbours from such commodities.

The Course of the Resistance.

In response to the provocation of the British soldies, the Akamba warrior’s insipired by mwana muka carried out raids in British forts and posts such as the post at mwaka. They also attacked the homes of collaborators.

Following the devastating punitive raid that followed, comprising 140 askaris, 300 agikuyus and 900 Maasai’s, mwana muka sued for peace.

The spread of Kathamib of ukambani led to another resistance, it started in Maputi and soon spread to Kitui, through the activities of Siotune WA kathuke and Kiamba wa Mthavio

Towards the end of 1911, the results of the decrase beame evident as no taxes were paid to the British, the passing caravans and the garrisons old to obtain any good,  would not particiopate in meetings presided over ty the colonial administration.

Results for the Resistance

  • These actions led the British to mount extra military patrols in the area and to depart Sotune and Kiamba and several other leaders to the coast.
  • They also lost their land to the British.
  • The Akamba who were disunited and competed amongst themselves were defeated.




Fear of British power. Mwatu wer Bugoma in 1894, mobilized the warriors to attack British posts in Ukambani, but he was defeated by John Ainswark’s forces.

Personal gain. The Akamba value property since many of these who collaborated with the British were estate traders, they saw in opportunity to enrich them and increase their prestige.

Results of the collaboration.

  • It led to entrecnment of a class of wealthly traders, who used their connections with the British to increase their wealth.
  • It led to spread of Christianity because the missionaries were welcomed in the areas as part of the relationships with the British.
  • It brought about enmity among the Akamba.

Since they lived on different ridges, the agikuyu were a loosely confederated community. This enabled the British to play on this apparent division to further split them.

Causes of Resistance among the Agikuyu

British support to royal local leaders within the Agikuyu various forms of authority and position were vested in different individuals. One such position was that of the muthamaki, the chairman of the council of elders. The British were willing to assist any individuals loyal to them to ascend to this position.

Conduct of IBEA CO. soldiers. The Agikuyu had been the target of several raids by soldiers from the IBEA CO. who looted, killed and raped at will. These violations provoked them to action.


Initially the agikuyu resistance took the form of non co-operation with the British. They refused to supply grain to the British posts and passing parties.

They dified directives to supply porters to British caravans. This resulted in series ofpunitive expeditions, culminating in the unrest of Waiyaki WA Hinga, who died on the way to stand trial in Mombasa.


At the same time, there were a number of leaders within the agikuyu community who collaborated with the British Government for various reasons.

Political power. The Agikuu were governed by a council of elders that was chaired by the Muthamaki with the country of the British some individuals saw them as the channel that would assist them to ascend to this position.

Materials gains. the holder of the office is the muthamaki was believed to have great access to wealth as the arriving European would bestore material gifts on him.

The course of the collaboration

The collaboration put themselves at the service of the British in hope of getting rewards.

The individuals who weregiven in collaboration, exhibited unquestionable loyalty to the British in reation for favours.

Results of the collaboration’

Social stratification. Agikuyu existed as an egalitarian society previously new emerged class based in material wealth.

Enemity. A society that had previously been united was now divided along property lines.


The main sections that resulted were the luo of Sakwa Seme, Uyoma, ugenya and Kisumu. These of Gem and Asembu are among the Luo who collaborated.

Reasons for the luo reaction

  • The need to protect their land
  • Fear of losing their freedom
  • The British habit of attacking them for grains and livestock.
  • The penitive expeditions sent against them by Mumia and the British, provoking many of them to revenge.
  • The Luo Gem and assembly Odera Akango, collaborated because
  • It had been influenced by the
  • He heeded British assistance to
  • He realized the futility of resisting of British through the experience of his neighbours.


The Luo conducted raids on British parties such as the canoe party that was fond of steadily their fish.

The British did mount punitive raids against them. The luo, Especially those of Sakwa , seme and Ugenya offered very stiff resistance but were finally subdued in 1899.

Reasons for the collaboration

  • They feared other sections of the luo.
  • They also feared their Nandi neighbours who were warlike and hostile to outsiders.

Consequences of the Luo reaction

  • Both the collaboration and resistance lost their independence to the British.
  • The luo lost their property through burning and losting.
  • There was massive loss of likes, especially among the Ugenya Luo.
  • It bred hatred between the collaborations and the resistors.
  • The leaders were able to gain Western education and religion like schools.
  • The leaders were replaced with British administering undermining traditional political systems.
  • The luo were alienated from there and to pave the way for British occupation and settlements.


The British embarked on administration after establishing their Powers of their colony. They established a central and local government for effective administration.

Central government.

At head was the colonial secretary, based in London. In Kenya we had the governer who had complete responsibility for the colony. They governor’s word was final, but later, and advisory council was established to advice him. From advisory council evolved the executive council which affected colonial policy in Kenya.

The legislative council was also established in 1907, with powers to make laws for the colony.

Colonial administration Hierarchy

Colonial secretary


Provincial commissioners

Distrct                                                 District

Commissiner                                       Commissioners

District                                                            District

Officers                                               Officer



Local Government

It can be traced back from the lack village Headman ordinance. This gave powers to the provincial commissioners to appoint.  A native or natives as official headman of a number of villages. While the central give in concerned with the administration of the whole country the government formed an important part in the action in the political process of Kenya.

Functions of local government

  • Provide a legal forum for the people  concerning their everything life
  • To make use of local resources in development.
  • To provide an important link between the central government and the rural community.

Establishment of local nature councils

It was established in 1922 after the legal passed authority ordinance. The African leadership had required forum through which their grievance could be addition the colonial government.

In 1924, the district during councils work required local native councils (LNCS)

The objectives of LNCs included

  • Encouraging and drip a sense of responsibility assembly among the Africans.
  • Providing a mechanism through which educated Africans would articulate their realists at the districts level.
  • Ensuring proper restriction of the Africans in their reserves.
  • Providing a means through which the government would understand the African better so as to certain him.

The local native councils achieve these objectives through.

  • The collection of taxes to finance their operation.
  • Maintenance of basis infrastructure.
  • The provision of basic social needs e.g water, cattle dips, public health, education and markets.
  • The restriction of Africans activities particularly political agitation.
  • In 1948, the H.N.C were renamed the African district councils (ADCs). Pascal Nakwan became the 1st African Chamwan of the African ADC in 1958. It remained the L.A.O in Africa areas until independence in 1963.

Impact of local government.

  • It expoited local resources and initiatives in development. It also linked between central government and the local people.
  • It helped to maintain law and order by using a small police force set up in 1896.
  • It promoted the development of infrastructure and general welfare of the African sector through levying taxes.
  • It helped in the arbitration of African disputes through the district African courts



The most important and difficult phase was establishing colonial rule and making it acceptable to the African.

Toi establish and maintain their rule, they had to recruit indigenous people as soldiers, chiefs, clerks and messengers.

Different colonial powers used different methods to admister their colonies.

Like British used both direct and indirect rule in Nigeria and Kenya and in Zimbabwe they used direct rule only. The French practiced assimilation and association in their colonies.

They all focused in the effective colonization through the Whiteman dominance. The Africans were useful as long as they encouraged and supported colonial interests.


It refers to a method of colonial administration using local people. It was based on the use of pre-colonial existing socio-Political structures. In places where communities had elaborated administrative structures and in Nigeria, the local chiefs were use.

The application of indirect rule was seen as the maximum utilization of the local traditional systems under the


Kenya was administered by a central government under a governer. The British found most Kenyan societies under no elaborate government, save for the coastal Arab settlement and the wanga of western Kenya.

The establishment of colonial rule was therefore, faced with problem of deciding the most appropriate administrative system.

The British East Africa company which took control of the region, initially appointed administrators in these areas. The entry of the British government introduced and the company’s administration.


The British applied both direct and indreict rule in Kenya indirect rule in Central Kenya among the Agikuyu was supplied through the invention of the chieftaincies in the stateless society. They made use of the African customary land and created chiefs among the Agikuyu who were allowed to judge local dipute and try minor cases involving Africans.

In white highlands the British applied through the invention of the chieftaincies in the stateless society. They made use of the Agikuyu who were allowed to judge local disputes and try minor cases involving Africans.

In white highlands the British applied indirect rule policy in all African reserves.

They created district African tribal units in which they encouraged the use of the different dialects. This redefined the societies into separate languages with distinct customary differences in dress and cultural traits.

In Western Kenya the British from the Wanga under an elaborate give thing recognized chief Muia as the overall rulers of the Abaluhya.

In Gusii land and Luo land they identified collaborating and cooperative African leaders as the chiefs of the area. The indirect rule was considered cheap and effective.

In administering the last territories with

Effects of indirect rule in Kenya

1.It made the African communities to remain divided. The appointed  chiefs and their allies greatly supported colonial administration.

The appointed administrators who assumed the titles of chiefs facilitated the implementation of colonial nations irrespective of their effect in Africans.

It led to the creatioin of district isolated tribal reserves in the interest of the British.

The creation of chiefs in former stateless societies made them mediator between he rulers and the ruled. This colonized into colonial made rule whereby Africans suffered the blunt of unpopular colonial laws.


It was associated with Fredrick Lugard according to him a single government in which the native chiefs have clearly defined duties and an acknowledge status, equal with British officials.

The chief had a lot of power and the British administrator old only interfere when it became necessary.

It was the task of the British officials to conserve what was good in indigenous institutions and assist them to develop on their own lines.

Reasons for using indirect rule.

  • Due to existence of an elaborate local administrative system even before the coming of the British.
  • The rest distances and lack of sufficient administrative officers and funds to cover the the least and densely populated territory.
  • It was also found suitable for avoiding resistance from the colonized people.
  • The British had prior experience in for they had successfully used it

Indirect rule in the Northern Nigeria

When the British occupied northern Nigeria, they left the Emirs and their official to rule the people with the supervision of British resistant who were attached to each of Emir courts.

Slavery was abolished and the people of northern Nigeria continues to be subject to Muslim law administered by the Emirate courts.

In the application of indirect rule some complicated and liable system e.g taxation was replaced by a single tax levied on each village.

A fixed proportion of the Emir’s resistance as was transferred to the central British administration and used to finance specialized services such as health, agriculture and railways, which old best be provided by the British experts.

The British believed that African authorities old succeeded if they acquired responsibility for the collection and use of large sums of money.

The British were more concerned to rule through chiefs whom the people considered to be their own.

The chiefs headed local government organizations responsible for ushc things as markets and administration of justice. The British didn’t limit the crimes which they did try as want as the penalties they could impose. Cases of murder, for example, were tried by chiefs like the Emir of Kano.

The local leaders were also charged with the responsibility of recruiting labour for public works as a system enabled the British to have effective control and administration of the north part of Nigeria.


Nigeria had been divided into three administrative unites, thus lagos, the protectorate of south Nigeria and the protectorate of north Nigeria.

In Nothern Nigeria, the assistance of local authorities and made it possible, however it was not easy in other area like Southern Nigeria, particularly among the Yoruba which had no centralized government.

Indirect rule was appropriate to be the niger delta state where traditional authorities were strong, but impractical among the Ibus and other societies which had no traditional chiefs.

The Ibus had evolved a system of village gave equivalent to the council of elders which was far were suited to British democratic institutions than the conservancy system that Lugard was championing.

The Chiefs were given a warrant to rule on behalf of the colonial government hence known as warrant chiefs. They were to collect tax and labour recruitment.

In 1931, Donald Cameroon was appointed Governor of Nigeria during his tenure; he tried to modify the system of indirect rule by:

  1. Checking the growing independence of the Emirs in the North.
  2. Attempting to elevate the declining power of the Alafin in badland.
  3. Stressing the development of institutions instead of preserving them.

Shortcomings of the indirect Role in Nigeria

The system had been devised to suit regions which already had well established indigenous administrative structures where such system didn’t exist, it needed a great deal of adaptation.

There was language barrier.

The chiefs and their council took mere interest in matters they understood than in those which were new and unfamiliar, such as forced labour and Christianity.

Lugard’s idea of education for chiefs and councilors in modern ideas needed long, patient and skilful efforts.

Some aspects of the system were resented such as taxation.

The educated elite resented the rule by uneducated traditional chiefs.


The colonial power ruled directly thro its appointed personnel. It duregarded the traditional political leadership and appointed directly their own administrators.

The policy was successfully applied in these areas where the traditional leaders were un co-operative to colonial authority.

The British in Zimbabwe Southern Rhodesia. Zimbabwe used to be known as Southern Rhodesia, one of the three colonial that made up the British central African others were Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nyasaland (Malawi).

The colonial rule was introduced by British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes in 1899. Cecil Rhodes used his colossal financial resources to organize the settlement of 200 Europeans in Mashonaland in 1890.

When the company rule gradually became firmly established, this new colony was named Rhodesia after Cecil Rhodes.

They took over gold workings   demanded that chiefs supply them with labour. The metabele   order – in council of July 1894 empowered the Companies impose a hut tax and establish a native department control the whole colony.

By the end of 1895, the companies had estimated an African administration, imposed a hut tax, created reserves and pass for livestock and minerals as well as forced African labour.

There was an establishment of legislative council, it consisted of five elected and for nominated members. The white settlers, elected the five members. By an council of 1898, the British government appointed a resident   and a commandant general for Rhodes which march served to establish the British imperial presence.

The settlers demanded more political power, using their growing influence in the legislative council, especially where land and labour issues were concerned.

In 1898, the company established a labour board for Rhodesia which supplied more than 6000 workers to be settles in Matabeleland.

The continuation of company rule is opposed by the candidates who returned from the mining province of Matabeleland in the legislative council election of 1902. Rhodes death in 1902 cut the link between the settler and the company, thus heightening speculation about Rhodesia’s political future.

The consolation of the BSACS charter, to be undertaken made the settlers raise the slogan ‘Rhodesia belongs to Rhodesians” but by Rhodesians they meant the white settlers only.

Finally in 1922, they were asked to choose in a refereed whether Rhodesia should join the union of South Africa or become a crown colony with internal safe government and central over its own police force and army. They chose the latter.

In 1923, company rule was terminated and Rhodesia declared a crown land or crown     the same year saw the establishment of a new constitution which set up a legislative council and a cabinet for ministers.

The 1923 constitution gave the small white population of Rhodesia the freedom to govern zambabwe as they saw it if the relationship between Britain and any by the self –governing dominons in the British Commonwealth.

After 1923, the settlers strove to create a white- dominated society based on the South African model. Voting for African followed strict qualifications, which allowed only a           small section of them to vote.

Whenever the number of and the African voters increased, the qualifications were raised higher. The land question became a sensitive issue after 1923, before then, the law defined areas of white and black occupations but there was a substantial part of the country not get assigned to either party.

Reserves set aside for Africa proved inadequate became of the high African Population.

The situation prompted the passing of the land appointment act 1930 by which Africans were denied more land and some of the best if what they already had was taken away. The result was a disruption of life and poverty for the Africans.

It was the missionaries who tool the heavy responsibility of educating Africans, while the government concentrated on providing education for white children. Further, pass laws, taxation and labour laws were passed which affected Africans negatively.

In 1953, Rhodesia was brought together with Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia in a judication which the whites felt would be economical advantageous to them.

Garfield Fodd who became the prime minister of Rhodesia in 1953, intended to introduce measures that would considerably consulate the Africans under his leaderships some    the whole community begat to question the that their competing with an in economic life.

A bill was even introduced to give recognition to African trade unions government expenditure in African agriculture was increased more attention was paid to be provision and an education.

Some thought was given to require the declorate system in such a way as to give more Africans the rights   .

The spirit of liberalism was short lived; the whites became more determined to defend their supremacy.

In 1958, Todd’s cabinet colleagues forced him out of office. He was succeeded by Sir Edgar Witched whose government abandoned Todd’s reform programmes and immediately started an era of repression.

The structure of direct rule in Zimbabwe.

The administration was Kerg authoritative and managed by the white minorities. It was characterized by the use of executive oders, decrees and emergency laws to control African activities. Racial segregation was the main guiding principle in administration.

Its structure was as follows.

The governor appointed by British government to represent the Monarch.

The Legislative council which was the most powerful aim of government.

The Prime Minister controlled both the legislative and the executive his cabinet was made up of only.

Elections were held as per scedule. The voters and candidates were largely Europeans only a small part of Africans amplified.

Racial segregation was the main government policy in socially, politically and economically.

There was a native’s affairs department. It was under a white officer who was assisted by African chiefs and sub-chiefs, all appointed by government.

Chiefs had no power but were supplied to empowerment order from the native department office.

Duties of the native department were collection of the allocation of land to Africans recruitment of African labour for European farms and solving cases involving Africans.

In 1965, Ian South, Edger Whitehead’s successors, proclaimed unilateral delectation of independence this made Zimbabwe Independent of Britain.

In 1969, a new constitution was introduced which further narrowed the rights of the Africans and gave dictatorial powers to powers to the white minority government.

In 1970, Ian smiths, government declared Rhodesian a republic, thus breaking links with Britain completely.

It was stated that as more and more African majority qualified, black rule would be achieved in Rhodesia. Britain was to grant Rhodesia loyal independence as soon as the new arrangements came into force.

Effects of Direct rule in Zimbabwe

  • Africans were displaced from their ancestral land to land alienation schemes to create room for white settlers.
  • African were subjected to poverty and suffering.
  • African traditional chiefs lost their authority and power over their subjects.
  • The administration of the colony was in the hands of the British who never referred to Africans, even where African interest were concerned.
  • Africans were subjected to heavy
  • Britain delegated the administration of the colony to the British with Africa Company and later a minority government declared unilaterial independence over Zimbabwe.
  • Arican traditional economy was undermined, as the Africans were required to work on the white man’s farms the mines.
  • The introduction of Christianity and Western education undermined African culture.
  • Africans were subjected to forced labour which increased their mines and settler farms.
  • African freedom of movement was cartailed by being confined in resource and carry Id.
  • There was racial segretation and oppression.

ASSIMILATION                                                                                                                               Its derived from the French verb assimle which means to cause to resemble this was an assumption by French that their civilization and culture had attained the highest possible standard.

The policy was based on the principles of on cultivalisation of the colonized people into the colonial power. The colonies regarded their culture and civilization as superior to the colonized.

It was thus the responsibility of the impartial power to indicate their influence on the colonized people to have them change and live like them.


The French revolution of the year 1789, had in its declaration of the human rights, guaranteed the liberty of all men regardless of race or colour.

The people of West Africa were to be transformed into Frenchmen, speaking, living, behaving and thinking like Frenchmen.

The territories in which they lived were to be identical to the provinces in France, administratively economically and politically. This policy was aimed at influencing every aspect of the likes of the colonized people and also to the colours and its society in the things of African.


  1. It began in earliest days of French administration to the middle of the 19th These city urban areas include St. Louis, Gorce, Darkar and Rufisque. Their inhabitants, long detribalized, had long contacts with the French. They were therefore able to assimilate the French culture.
  2. The second phase corresponds roughly for the governship of Fandherbe (1884 – 1865) whereby the French subdued the interior territories of Senegal and brought them under their control.
  3. The third phase starts from 1880 onwards, whereby the French conquered the vast interior of West Africa and portions of the coast of Guinea and brought them under their control under a federal pattern.

In 1895 the post of a governor general was created to cover the whole of French West Africa.

A separate headquarter was established at Darkar and Dahomey; upper Volta and Niger. With the creation of Mauritania as a separate colony which was added to the federation, French West Africa was then made of eight colonies each with its own Governor.

THE STRUCTURE OF ASSIMILIATION AS APPLIED IN SENEGAL                                                 There was a minister of colonies based in Paris who was responsible to all French colonies under the minister were governor each incharge of a colony.

The governor of Senegal whose headquarters was at Darkar became the governor – general of all West African colonies.

All appointments in the civil service were handed by the governor – general. He was in charge of the army and technical matters such as poster and telegraphic territories governor – in charge of each colony carried out duties transmitted from Paris through the governor general on Darkar.

French set up a local government which lyforced traditional boundaries each day was divided into province required for             which was administered by a commandant

It was this subdivided into sub boundaries the equivalent of a district under the chief subdivision.

It was then divided into canters or locations ruled by a chief de canton. The canton were divided into villages or sub-location.

Commandant de Carde
Licotenant – governor
Chef de sub-division
Chef de canton
Chef de village















Political assimilation, where the nations were considered to be Frenchmen. They were allowed to elect representatives to the French chamber of Deputies.

There was personal cultural assimilation where the French made attempts to transform the people in Senegal into Frenchmen in black skins.

In the “civilizing mission” the former educational facilities were extended to Senegal. The Ian government f instruction was French. Senegalese who had received education and expressed themselves in French qualified for assimilation as they met other relevant conditions.

In economic matters, Senegal integrated into French economic network. The infrastrural established in Senegal resembled that of France.

Benefits enjoyed by Assimilated Africans.

  • Allowed to send representatives to the African chamber of Deputies.
  • Could vote like Frenchmen.
  • Provided with educational opportunities like the from other.
  • Examples from forced labour, taxation and arbitrary arrest.
  • They also enjoyed trading rights.
  • They enjoyed French judicial system.
  • Employed in the civil service
  • Operated local authority structures like Frenchmen.

Why assimilation policy failed.

  • The policy was confined to the four coastal communities as the greater part of Senegalise interior remained unaffected.
  • The policy was expensive if strictly adhered like education.
  • There was cultural difference as Africans opposed the French cultural imperialism.
  • Afican chiefs who had lost their authority over their subjects strongly opposed the policy of assimilation and the French presence.
  • The French feared that if many Africans were being elected to join the French chamber of Deputies, they would soon out number the Frenchman and put laws that governed the blacks.
  • The disregard of African laws based on African culture and Islam caused a lot of African resentment.
  • The French hoped to acquire raw materials for their industries from the colonies. Assimilation policy threateaned this.
  • There was fear by some Frenchman that assimilated could be their economic rivals.
  • The French themselves who had used the policy were unable to agree to destroy the French empire to prevent this and safeguard their economic and political domination in Senegal at the turn of the centuary, they began to agitate for abolition of the policy of assimilation and the civil rights they enjoyed as a consequence.


  • The traditional chief in the new arrangements lost his governor power.
  • The language taught in Sehl was French encouraging the formation of native elite.
  • The elite dsis later spearheaded nationalism in Senegal.
  • It also created divisions among Africans in Senegal. Africans in Senegal participated in political affairs of France as they look part in elections either as voters or candidates bung elected to the French chamber of Deputies.
  • Colonies were also to enjoy the freedom of developing independently following the cutting traditional institutions.

Comparison between the British and French systems of Administration.

  • The French used military officials while the British used professional administration.
  • British rule varied from one colony to another depending on whether direct or indirect rule was used. The French made use of a uniform policy of assimilation in their colonies.
  • British rule didn’t interfere much with the African culture while assimilation was aimed at replacing African culture with French culture.
  • Assimilated Africans in French colonies were granted French citizenship with full rights.
  • The elite in British colonies were subjected to the same harsh rule as the rest of the colonized Africans.
  • The British granted African chiefs a lot of power while the French undermined traditional African rulers.
  • The laws in the French colonies were legislated in French while in the British colonies the laws were made by legislative colonies in each of the colonies.
  • Each British colony was ruled separately by a governor.
  • The French colonies were ruled together as a federation and were regarded as overseas provinces of France.
  • The French colonies elected their representatives to the chambers of Deputies in Paris while the British colonies were not represented in the British parliament.


  • Both the British and French appointed their own European officials into senior position of administration in their colonies.
  • Both British and French adopted excessive economic exploitation in their colonies.
  • Both the British and French appointed Africans chiefs in communities that didn’t have centralized system of administration.
  • Both the British and French abolished slave trade and establishment legitimate trade in the colonies.




The British realized Kenya had key fertile soil which eld to make them profit through exploitation. They encouraged the settlers to come and take over the vast “empty lands.

The biggest problem was the meeting transport and communication which was established there included railway, road, water and air transport and postal and telecommunication services.


This connected the outside world from Mombasa to Kisumu. This was called Uganda Railway it will be built to link Kisumu. This was called Uganda Railway because it was built to link Kisumu (by then part of Uganda.

The need to build the railway stated with views of businessman like William MacKinnon survey works on the railway were done by the imperial British East Company it lacked the funds to lay the track.  The British government provided the funds needed for the construction of the track.

Reasons for Building the Railway

  • To establish effective control over British East Africa.
  • To facilitate maximum economic exploitation of the region.
  • To stop slave trade and promote legitimate trade.
  • To facilitate the movement of troops and government administrators into the interior parts of the British protectorate.
  • To link Uganda with the coast and the outside World.
  • To make it possible for Britain to effectively protect her strategic interest in the region.

Problems Encountered during construction of the railway

  • Africans were not skilled and un willing to provide the much needed manual labour during the construction.
  • The heavy rains delayed the onset of construction work of Mombasa drought and lack of water.
  • There were tropical diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness and diarhoea which rendered many of them ineffective.
  • The Indian workers were attacked by jiggers, which infected their limbs to a level that could not work.
  • The rail workers were attacked by mancating lion at Tsavo, which nearly stopped construction
  • The Nandi people resisted the railway from crossing their lands.
  • The rift valley with its enormous escarpments posed engineering challenges that caused the railway builders problem.

Consequences of the railway construction

  • There was growth of urban centres like Nairobi, Naivasha, Nakuru and Voi.
  • Many Asians embarked on commercial activities along the railway line like shops known as dukas.
  • There was development of large scale plantation agriculture on the white highlands.
  • The railway constructions lead to creation of jobs to many African and Indians.
  • Christian missionaries were able to make into the interior where they established mission stations, churches and schools.
  • Feeder roads were building to link trading and agricultural centres with the railway line.
  • Rapid movement of troops and administrators promoted British administration and opened up the interior to colonizer.
  • The railway speeded up to development of agriculture and industry.
  • There was rapid growth of trade between the interior, the coast and the outside world.
  • The railway became a major revenue source for the colonial authorities.
  • There was massive land alienation, with some communities being sent to reserves.
  • It facilitated cultural and social interaction among different races.
  • The railway made rural – urban migration and the resultant African enterprises such as hawking and charcoal-selling possible.
  • It led to the settlement of the Asian community in Kenya.



Charles Elliot, the British commissioner (1900 -1904) encouraged Europeans to come and settle in thehighlands.

He felt that large scale farming could help the protectorate meet the cost of administration and maintain the railway.

Farming in the highland was however, not an easy task for the settlers. They had to clear bush, find labour and determine which crops to grow.

Reasons why setterer farming was encouraged

  • The colonial government wanted to make Kenya a Whiteman’s country by encouraging white setterles to form the backbone of the economy.
  • The settlers were to finance the administrative costs of the colony without involving the British tax – payers.
  • The economic activities of the settlers would help pay for the construction costs of the railway line.
  • Apart from the vast “empty lands” there were no other natural resources to be exploited in the colony.
  • Africans did not have the funds and technical know how to be involved in large scale farming.
  • The settlers were expected to produce raw materials for the many industries in Britain.
  • The highlands were suitable for European settlement as they land cool, wet climate and fertile volcanic soils.
  • The colonial government wanted to check or counter Indian or Asian influence in Kenya by settling more whiters.

Methods used by the colonial government to promote settler farming.

  1. Acquisition Of Land

They used forced to sign treaties with the natives like the Nandi were evicted by force after their defeat to create room along the railway for European settlement.

  1. b) Provision of labour

Lord Delamere who dominated the land commission of 1925 once remarked that “land is of no use without labour”.

Several measures were initiated to force the Africans to provide labour. These included

Taxation ; The introduction of hat tax and poll tax ensured hat Africans sold their labour to get money to pay tax.

Master Servant ordinance. This made it an offence for any African to evade duty which would lead to imprisonment fine or both.

Low Wages: This was to make them completely dependent on selling their cheap labour or daily needs.

Forced Recruitment: There was forced recruitment of labour for the settlers.

The native registration ordinance: it enforced registration of all adult male Africans to facilitate labour recruitment.

Creation of reserves: African was restricted in reserves which were overcrowded. They had limited resources both socially and economically.

The Kipande system: Africans were to carry Kipande which was a form of identification on which personal details were written individually.

Northey circular.African chiefs were to encorouge local people into the wage labour.

Squater system: Arbirtary land alienation led to African being squatters on the land that was once theirs.

Cash crops. Africans were forbidden to grow cash crops such as tea, copper and sisals.

  1. C) Technical Assistance

The setterles were given agricultural extension officers in the fields. They were also given resource stations to facilitate the development of better breeds to improve yields.

  1. Transport and communication.The colonial governemtn developed extensive transport network apart from the railway.
  2. Security

The colonial government ensured that there was security for the settlers.

  1. f) Credit facilities

The colonial government loans and other credit facilities to settlers to make them have the money to invest in farming.

Problems Encountered by Settlers in Kenya

  • The African communities were hostile to settlers’ becaue of the fact that they had lost land through land orientation programmes to settlers.
  • The settlers lack labour because Africans were not willing to work.
  • Setterles lacked adequate capital. Their farming activities required a lot of money, which the settlers did not have.
  • There was poor transport network as roads were muddy and impassable.
  • The settlers lacked prior knowledge of the regions in which they settled in terms of climate, seasons and soils.
  • There were tropical diseases which the new breeds of crops and livestock could not withstand.
  • There was lack of market for the produce of settlers.

 Main crops grown by European settlers in colonial Kenya

  1. A) Wheat

It was introduced by Lord Delamere in Kenya in 1903 in Njoro.

  1. Coffee

It was introduced by the Roman Catholic missionaries, the French fathers of St. Austin’s mission; it was planted near Nairobi in 1899.

  1. Tea

It was 1st grown at Limuru in 1903 by the Caine brothers and later in Kericho.

  1. Sisal

It was brought into Kenya from Tanzania where it had been introduced in 1893 by Dr. Richard Hindarf, a German, 1n 1904, it was planted for the 1st time near Thika and quickly proved successful.

  1. d) Cotton In 1906, cotton growing Sohome was started in Nyanza
  2. i) Pyrethrum

It was introduced in 1930, and soon became the basis of insecticide manufacture; it was grown in Nakuru and Molo.

Dairy Farming

Lord Delamere imported pigs, cattle’s and sheep from Britain and carried out experiments with different breads of livestock on his farm at Njoro.


In 1896 the Indian acquisition Act was extended to the protectorate. This act empoweed the government to compulsory acquire land for the railway, government buiodlings and other public purpose.

To provide land for the settelrs the government passed the land regulations act in 1897. These regulations enabled the government to offer certificates of occupancy, valid for 99 years for those settlers who were willing to take up and in the colony.

The East African lands order in council of 1901 defined “Crown land as all public land which is not private” private land included land occupied by African villages.

This was followed by the crown lands ordinance of 1903 which stated that all “empty land” could be sold at two refuse per 100 acres or rented at 15mpces per 100 acres per annum to Europeans.

The 1st Maasai agreement was signed between Lenana and the British. This led to the creation of the first African British.

The second Maasai agreement was signed in 1911, soon after the death of Lenana. All the Maasai people were moved out of Laikipia to the enlarged Southern Ngong reserve.

The crown land ordinance of 1915 provided a land registration scheme for settlers.

The 1924 land commission fixed the boundaries of reserves which were legalized in 1926. By the 1930 Native lands trust ordinance, reserves were further confirmed as perpetual African property.

Consequence of colonial land policies

  • Africans lost their land to the European.
  • Africans were restricted in their reserves as it redhered widespread migrations and settlements of African.
  • There was land shortage within the reserves especially in such areas as Nandi, Kiambu and Kakamega.
  • Since the African could not own land, he owns in practice, a tenant in his land.This bfred a lot of insecurity because the African feared more loss of land.
  • The policies also brought poverty and misery to the affected people.
  • Since the resources could only produce insistence crops, there was no incolive for progressive and enterprising development for the Africans.
  • Anco system of individual private land ownership with a land certificate was introduced.
  • Development of classes within the AFrican Society emerged as the few Africans who could afford to buy land became wealthy, creating a gap between them and the majority poor.
  • To ensure instant supply of labour in the European farms, the government introduced the pool task, which had to be paid on cash.
  • There was introduction of Kipande system which restricted African movement.


There was a conflict between the Asin community and white settlers which was as a result of Social segreagation.

To meet the challenge the Indians in Kenya formed the Indian National contress whose leader was Aina Jecvanee. Their complaints were aimed at Europeans settlers whom they outnumbered but had excluded them from social and economic activities.

The previous governor, Sir Edward Northey whose term ended in 1922, had made many conclusions to whites who made them build a great influential position in the colony.

This trend was reversed by Sir Robert Caryadon. In 1922, the British government issued a report in the European settlers Indian conflict where it was decided that apart from the white Highlands, there was no racial segregation in Kenya Indians were allowed to elect four members to the Lego.

The settlers were unhappy with the above report of 1922, in March 1923, they sat a delegation to London to demand for what they considered as their rights. The Indians also sent their delegation too.

They met the Duke of Devonshire who was the colonial secretary. Devonshire after an interview with both parties issued his findings in a document referred to as the Devonshire white paper of 1923.

Governances of the groups.

  • The settlers wanted to retain Kenya highlands exclusively for the whites.
  • They also advocated for separate development of all races in Kenya based on the envisaged policy of segregation.
  • They demanded more independence from Britain.
  • They also wanted restriction on Indian migration to Kenya.
  • The Asians on the other hand demanded greater share in the colonial government affairs.
  • Equal rights with the whites.
  • Inclusion in the Kenyan Highlands.
  • Ban on their restriction on immigration and an end to racial discrimination and political injustice.
  • The Africans in their part wanted their land back.
  • Disposal of their labour as they wished and not through the white settlers’ methods.
  • Abolition of Kipande and squatter system and representation in the government.

Recommendations of the white paper

  • The white highlands were to be reserved for European settlers only.
  • Indians were allowed to elect give members to the legeo.
  • Racial segregation was abolished in residential areas and restrictions on immigrations lifted.
  • A missionary was to be nominated to the legend to represent the interests of Africans.
  • European possibility of having influence over the government was reduced.
  • Kenya was an African country whose interests were to be paramount. The colonial office was to control events in the colony in the interest of the Africans.

Effects of Devonshire white paper.

  • The whites in the colony felt betrayed by this paper as it made them not to achieve their goal of a self – government controlled by whites only.
  • The Indians were disappointed becaue they were not allowed to settle in the white highlands and have political equality with the whites. The Indian congress refused to take up its seats in the ligeo in protest. They exam didn’t hold elections in municipal councils till 1933.
  • The Africans benefited as the paper had recognized their importance as native of the land. It led to the appointment of Dr. Arthur, a European missionary to represent the Africans in the legco in 1924.
  • The African land issue was not solved well.
  • The paper didn’t solve the conflict situation among the different races in the colony.
  • The declaration on Africans began a new phase in the Kenyan politics. The paper stated “Kenya is primarily an African territory. The interests of the Africans are paramount. This saked Kenya gram being a Whiteman’s country.


Factors for urbanization in colonial Kenya

With the construction of Ugands railway towns such as Voi, Makindu, Nairobi, Naivasha and Kisumu sprang of as points for resting and for preplenshing the supplies of the social railway employers and surrounding African community.

Asians established dukas at differene points along the railway; those often grew into impartant commercial centres and even big town.

Administrative posts set up by the colonial, government also grew into town such as Machakos, Muranga, and Mumias & Kapsabet.

The commercialization of agriculture due to large scale settler farming necessitated the development of market centres for the sale of produce as well as purchase of farm inputs.

Agro- based industries such as flourmills, meat processing, plant and sawmill attracted labours from all parts of the country, transforming their surrounding areas into Urban areas.

Mining activities also drew people 2 areas such as Magadi & Kakamega where soda Ash and gold were found.

Why Africans moved to urban centres in colonial Kenya

  • The recreational facilities and other social amenities in urban centred attracted the Africans.
  • There were job projects in town with better wages than in rural areas particularly because of industries.
  • Land alienation had pushed Africans into the reserves which were congested and had poor soils, forcing them to seek livelihood and settlement in towns.
  • Rural- urban migration was away of escaping forced labour and taxation.
  • The Africans entrepreneurs wanted to take advantages of the wider market in towns to escape poverty in the crowed reserves.

Consequences of Urbanization

Positive impacts

  • Urbanization led to interaction between people of diverse ethnic and racial background.
  • The contacts between people of difference ethnic roots helped to promote integration during and after the colonization era.
  • Welfare associations’ wre formed to carter for the needs of African workers.
  • Popular sporting & cultural activities when took place in towns cemented worship between different ethnic groups and races.
  • Many Africans were gainfully employed in industries, European homes and in small scale business.
  • Industries expanded due to large labour force and abudndant raw materials concentrated in urban centres.

Negative impacts.

  • The urban centres could not cope with the large influx of labourers. Unemployment became rampant, due to increased competiton for the few available jobs.
  • Poverty among migrant workers as well as lack of housing led to the mushrooming of slums which were congested and unhygienic as a result of poor sanitation.
  • The desperation and poverty that were in the slums saw many migrants turn to social vices such as alcoholism, during abuse and promiscuity, hoping to escape their trouble.
  • A population of migrant workers became fully urbanized and lost contact of their rural villages.
  • Employers took advantage of the large supply of labour and offered very poor remuneration and infavourable working conditions.
  • Houses in towns were occupied according two various racial groups, with Europeans enjoying the best facilities this promoted racial documentation and led to continued hostilities among people.
  • The mass rural – urban migration brought about intensification of migration regulations to control the number of Africans migrants.
  • Economic activities in the rural areas were disrupted by the absence of men. Most duties had to be done by children and women which changed the traditional division of labour.




  • Formal Western education was introduced by Christian’s missionaries
  • Their curriculum included.
  • Reading, writing and arithmetic.
  • Religions education and training of catechist./
  • Hygiene and sanitation
  • Technical skills e.g capacity, missionary.
  • Later education was provided by the following
  • Christian missionaries
  • Colonial government
  • Africans themselves
  • Asian community organization)


  • Designing a curriculum with emphasis an agriculture, tailoring, masonry and capacity.
  • Establishing of secondary 2nd of Africa e.g alliance in 1926, Kabaa in 1927, Yala in 1939.
  • Training African teachers who managed the bush schools (schools found in remote areas).
  • Offering the necessary financial and material support to make these schools operational.

Characteristic of Colonial Education

  • Colonial education was based and managed along racial line of European, Asians and Africans.
  • Curriculum for Ethiopians was superior and enriched with professional marketable course.
  • The facilities and services for European schools eg classroom, furniture and stationery were of better quality.
  • Each race was on its own public examination.
  • A very small number Africans were to receive secondary education.



A)Primary education

Early aspect of primary educatin emphasized technical and industrial education.

After Jean school (1925) a number of other industrial training centres were opened up at Kabianga, Kapenguria, Kajiado, Tambach and Kabsabet.

By 1930 Africans were suspicious and unhappy with the technical and industrial education offered to them. They advocated for higher education as it would help them participate in meaningful leadership position within the colonial framework.

The desire led to the establishment of new schools.

  1. b) Secondary Education

Was exclusively meant for the whites who were to eliminate for jobs, competition between Africans and Europeans and limit African political awareness.

Africans pressed the government to address the imbalance.

Missionaries took up the challenge and in 1926, the Alliance of protestant missions set up the 1st African secondary school, Alliance at Kikuyu while the Catholics set up Mangu School in Thika 1930.

Secondary school for whites included prince of wales (Nariobi school) and Duke of Yoke (Lenana school) and in girls, Kenya High, Limuru girls Hospital hill became the 1st multi-racial school in 1953 while Indians built schools such as, Asian Railway school.


By 1949, university education was only available overseas and Makerere University was offering Diploma programmes in the field of agriculture, teachers’ education, vetinary services and medicine. It was made an affiliate university of leaders in 1949.

In 1954 the Royal Technical College of East African was chattered in Nairobi and it began offering higher education due to increased pressure by Africans.

In 1961, it was new known as Royal college of Nairobi and was later elevated to University colleges’ status in 1963.

In 1963, Makerere, Dar es Salaam and Royal College Nairobi were amalgamated to form university of East African.


Missionaries and other Europeans development comprehensive medical system e.g medical facilitate in Kikuyu (1902) Kaloleni (KOH) Kaimosi (1903) and Maseno (1905).

White Prime Author opened a mission at Thogoto.

The main objective for establishing health centres were. Eradicate disease e.g small pox, malaria and sleeping sickness.

Train personnel to handle Western medicine.

Improve health and hygiene for Africans and Asians who laced in overcrowded areas.

The medical services were improved after World War I as many Africans recruited in the was as carrier corps contracted discuss such as dysnety. Influence and typhoid at the over front.

In 1924 Public Health ordinance required the medical deparment to assume medical responsibility for the whole Kenyan people as it was entrusted with the tasks of helping in the prevention, limitation or suppressin of infectious communicable or preventive diseases.

After 1945 the development and Research Authority (DARA) gave 47,000 sterling pounds for health care and the improvement of health services.

In 1949, the Bureau of medical research was set up as an agency of the East African high commission and by 1951, the King George (VI) Hospital (Kenyatta National Hospital started training female nurses).



Early political organizations in Kenya up 1939.

The Africans were faced with a number of problems in all aspects of their lives, political, economic and cultural, it was against this background that political and social movements were formed to try and redress the grievances.

The interaction between the races also played a significant role in the development of there political movements and their leaders in Kenya.

African political movements began in the 1920s after the First World War

Characteristics of early political organization

  • They were led by mission educated Africans like Harry Thuku and Jonathan Okwiri.
  • They were a non violent.
  • They had similar grievances e.g forced labour taxation etc
  • They were formed from ethnic/tribal grounds
  • The receives support from Asians e.g material and moral support membership was small as majority of Africans did not see their importance.

Early Political Parties

  • East African Association(EAA)
  • Kikuyu central association(KCA)
  • Kavirondo Tax payers and Welfare Association(K.T.W.A)
  • Ukambani Members association (U.M.A).

The East African Association (E.A.A)

In 1921 the leaders of the young kikuyu association, which had been formed in June 1921 dissolved and formed another association known as the East African association as they wanted unity from other communities.

It covered a wide area namely Buganda, Nyasaland and Taganyika they demanded it the following.

  • Tittle deed for land owners.
  • Removal of the Kipande system.
  • Improve wages.
  • Better working conditions
  • Reduction in pull and hut taxes.

Members included

Harry Thuku – Chairman

  1. Ismael

Johnstone Kamau (Jomo Kenyatta)

Norman Mboya

Abdalla Bin Assumah.

Kibwana Bin Kembo

Jesse Kariuki

Joseph Kangethe.

In 1921 they had a public rally in Ngara road and addressed the following.

  • Kenya should not be a colony
  • The election to the legco is on a common roll.
  • All alienated land is returned to the Africans.
  • More educational support unities are created for Africans.
  • There should not be compulsory distocking to be discouraged.

On 14th March 1922 Harry Thuku was arrested and charged with instilment, sedition which led to demonstration and riots in Nairobi with demands for his unconditional release.


  • The authoritarian governor Sir Edward Northey was recalled.
  • John Athur was nominated to represent the Africans interest in legco.
  • Africans interests took centre state at the Devonshire White paper talk.
  • The colony government began to pay services to African interests.
  • There was international concern about the colonial activities in Kenya.
  • A.A became the 1st worthy national political association.


Kikuyu Central Association (K.C.A)

It was founded in 1924 after the demise of E.A.A its head quarter was Kihuhia in Murang’a


Joseph Kang’oto         –           President

Jesse Kariuki               –           Vice President

Henry Gishuru                        –           Secretary

Job Muchuchu                        –           Treasurer

Henry Mwangi

Henry kiiru

John Mbuthia


  • Revision of the 1915 crownland ordinance.
  • Release of Hary Thuku.
  • An end to arbitrary drawing of resolve boundaries.
  • An elected Kikuyu paramount chief.
  • Proper demarcation of African land and Issue of land title deeds.
  • Increased educational opportunist to Africans.
  • African participation in the political affairs of the country.
  • Pressing for the reduction of taxes.
  • Having the burn in growing cash crops among Africans lifted.

The KCA want establish it’s headquarter in Nairobi in 1927. It intensified its activities and launched its newspaper (Mwigwi thamia) meaning reconcile which emphasized unity and hard work.

Jomo Kenyatta who was the editor was later sent to England to represent the K.C.A grievances.

The party also educated for female education. It also provided leadership and guidance in the establishment of the independent schools and churches.

K.C.A also supported establishment of Ukambani members association and Taita Hills Association.

K.C.A was bummed in May 1940 and leaders arrested and departed to Kapenguria.


It has its roots in the young Kavirondo Association (YKA) which was founded in 1921 by student and teachers of Maseno School with the following members.

Jonathan Okwiri          –          president

Benajmin Owour         –           Secretary

Simon Nyende            –           Treasurer

Ezekiel Apindi

George Samuel Okoth

Joel Omino

Mathayo Otieno

Jeremiah Awari

This meeting was attended by both Luo and Luyhia communities the meeting called itself Piny Owacho the voice of the people.


  • Abolition of Kipande system
  • End of forced labour.
  • Scrapping high taxes for Africans.
  • Better Wages.
  • Revocation of change of status from the protectorate to colony.
  • Establishment of separate Legco for Nyanza and creation of paramount chiefs.
  • Issuing oif title deeds to African land owners.
  • Introduction of high education for Africans.
  • Establishment of more governemtn schools in central and Nyanza.
  • Excemption of women from taxation.

On 8th July 1922 Association officials met Sir Edward Northey who agreed to look into their demand to refuse to promise in the issue of reverting the colony to protectorate.

In July 1923, missionary Archdeacon Owen of the Christian missionary society in Maseno was appointed as the head king Kikuyu Association who transformed it from a political associatin into multi-welfare association hence the name KTWA.

Under Owens Leaderhsip the association concentrated in social and welfare matters such as education, hygiene, demacatio of African reserves and the provision and the provision of title deeds to African land owners.

In 1928, KTWA opposed a native authority ammintment which wanted Africans to be imprisoned of failure to join communal labour camps and the same year it sent representatives to the Hilton young commission which had been set up to consider Africans grievances in land and other issues.

In 1930 the association began loosing its momentum due to internal disagreement and factions’ e.g the Abaluhya formed their wing known as North Kavirondo central association in 1934. The association survived until 1944.

The attempt made to implement KTWA were

  1. In order to encourage better food production the association organized the 1st Agriculture show at Maseno in 1923.
  2. Initiated the 1st ever Harambee contribution to provide bursaries for the needy pupils at Maseno.
  3. It sought to promote close association with colonial administration.


It was formed towards the end of 1922

Members included

Samuel Muinid Mbingu          –           Chairman

Elijah Kavule                          –           Vice P

Isaac Mwalozi                         –           Secretary

Simon Kioko                           –           Treasurer


  • Agitation against Jestocking Policy which had colonized soil erosion due to overstocking Akamba cattle wre taken away forcefully and slaughter at Athi river by Leibig and Europen Company.
  • UMA took the opportunity to mobilize the community against the unpopular decision made by Muindi Mbingu.
  • The policy was dropped in 1st December 1988 because of UMA agitation.
  • UMA barned in 1940.


It was formed in 1943 at members

Members were

Nawanasele – President

Mohammend Bin Mwichande            –           Vice Presidnet

E.W Timothy                                      –           General secretary

  1. C banks – Honaranry Treasuere

Mohamned Bin Omar

Enoch Benjamin

  1. G Harrison


  • Better education and health
  • Improved agriculture.
  • Lower taxation
  • Appropriate soil conservation measure
  • Upgrading of shimo la Tewa school to a secondary school
  • Appointment of African colonial officials.


It was formed in 1939 with the following members.

Mango Waresha Kalondi        –           Chairman

Paul Chumbo                          –           Treasurer

Jimy Mwambichi                    –           Secretary

Members of Association used to write letters to the colonial government as a result the colonial government shifts its plan of moving the Wataita from ancentral land in the hills to the plains.

The govenement revised the Taita receive boundaries and reduced the land initially covered out for European settlers.

Colonial government stoped distocking measure among Wataita.

Achievements of early Polital organizations.

  • Promoted unity by mobilizing Africans to demand for their rights.
  • Represented grieveances of Africans community to colonial government.
  • Promoted African culture e.g female circumsion.
  • Promoted polticial consciousness among the African by raising political awareness.
  • They campaigned for better wages and better working conditions for African labourers.
  • They published the grievances of African community the outside world.
  • They formed the basis for struggle for independence later.

Problems faced by early political organization.

  • Harassment of the member by the colonial authority
  • Arrest and deportation of the leaders.
  • Wrangling between leaders.
  • Lack of experience by the leaders to effectively manager the organizations.
  • Shortage of funds to implement their programmes
  • Disunity among the organization resulting from their being ethnic best.
  • Banning of the organization by colonial government in 1940.


They emerged as a result of protest against mission churches and schools established by different missionary societies.

The missionaries trained Africans to be catechists, government clerks and workers on their farms, in the churches they emphasized the benefits of Western culture as appeared to African culture.

Many Kenyans at first rejected missionary attempts towards conversion and education. Latin, however which they realized that education was leading to material benefits and responsibilities, they began to demand it.

In 1919, the colonial government had agreed to give financial support while the missionaries provided the supervision, management and partial financing of schools.

Africans began to established their own churches and schools. This was in response to the negative attitude and open discrimination against them by the missionaries applied with the general injustice of the colonial administration that frustrated African interest. People of Kenya thus used independent churches to resist against the excessive of colonialism.

Causes of the rise of independent churches and school

  • Kenyans were against the westernizing influence of the missionaries who taught against female circumcision, polygamy and payment of dowry.
  • The education which the mission schools provided prepared Kenyans for law status jobs such as clerks in government offices, workers on Europeans farms and houses and catechists in churches.
  • There was open discremation against Africans in church leadership. They were not given high position.
  • In many parts of the country. Land was alienated by European settlers Kenyans, therefore wanted better education to enable them improve their economic status.
  • The white missionaries were also perceived as colonialists.
  • African initiatives where some Africans claimed to have had revelations from God to establish their own churches.

The Independence movement in Nyanza

John Awalo’s Nomiya Luo Mission

He received wide education and experience from several mission schools. He started a Roman Catholic, and then joined the Scottish mission at Maseno and Nairobi.

In 1907, he claimed to have a vision in which and directed him to start his own religion he broke away from the CMS and founded his own mission. The Nomya Luo mission – 1n 1910. Nomiya Luo mission meansv “the mission that I was given” or “the mission that was given to me”

John Owalo proclaimed himself a prophet and denied the divinity of Jesus but accepted that Jesus was a prophet and Son God.

Within a few years he had over 1,000 followers and built his own primary school, and a secondary school in which missionaries would not interfere.

He preached that the end of the world was just about, and the Whiteman would be killed since they were devils and Africans were to be left inpependent.

John owalo’s movement illustrated the determination of African christains to run their own churches and schools and their right to accept or reject some of the white man’s teachings.

The Christian universal evangelist union.

This union was set up in 1938 by Ishmael, a former teacher and preacher.

The Anglican church reached nyanza from Uganda in 1906, since the CMS missionaries had been in Buganda since 1877, in 1938, a revival movement reached Nyanza, also from Uganda. This resulted in the conversation of many people here and in other parts of Western Kenya.

Ishmael became their leader and from Maseno, he revivalist movment spread to many parts of Nyanza province, mainly through the efforts of his new disciple’s .the people were saved by the blood of Jesus and public confession of their sins.

His follower preached in market plaes, particularly in the evenings, composed and sang moving songs that attracted many people who were women, such as the second and third workers of polygamous marriages as well as the wives of usaved husbands. They left their homes and went to live in Newshore.

Noo’s – followers insisted that both men and women should sleep together irrespective of blood relations or moral codes since they were all saved anyway.

This caused a cutting and opposition from the mission churches and other revivalist gaps.

Therefore, in 1948, at a big convention at Nyabondo in Nyakach New broke away from the Anglican Church and found his onw Christian universal Evangelical union. He led his breakaway church up to his death in 1960.

Independence movement in central Kenya.

The immediate cause of the rise of independent churches and schools in central province was the disagreement in 1929 between the Church of Scotland mission and the Agikuyu, over the issue of female circumcision.

The missionaries had earlier condemned polygamy, drinking of alcohol and paying of dowry however the issue of promote circumcision caused a clash between the missionaries and the Agikuyu.

Those who refused to denounce their traditional customs were suspended from their churches and their children were not allowed into mission schools.

It therefore became necessary for the affected people to set up their own schools and chrucehs.


It was established at Gaithioko in Kamba in 1913. It was built by elders of the community on land donated by Mukunga WA Njehu. Another school was established at Githunguri on land donated by Wilson Gathuru.

The school began to charge fees initially it was free. The circumcision controversy led to the mushrooming of many independent schools and churches among the Agikuyu. These schools faced many problems such as lack of teachers and poor co-ordination

too independent schools sprang up.

The Kikuyu independent school Association (KISA) established in 1929. It was later affiliated to the African independent pentecoastal church.

The Kikuyu Karing’a Education Associatin (KKEA) in 1933 later linked with the African orthodox church.

The CMS mission agreed to train KISA teachers at a cost of sh 80 per teacher per term for a period of two years.


The African Independent Pentecostal church (AIPC).

Africans were required to got permission to hold prayer meetings. One of the biggest problems faced by independent churches was the lack of ordained ministers.

The independent movement began soon after the dispute with the Church of Scotland mission over the issue of female circumcision in 1929. In the movement the new schools, churches and political parties worked hand in hand through secretly.

After breaking from the gospel missionary society, the independent churches were allowed by the DC to build churches and several schools in several places around Kihumbuini.


After the creation of the African independent Pentecostal church, two African orthodox churches were also formed oen was founded by Arthur Gathuna Gatungu and the other by Philip Kiande at the Githamba seminary.

Arthur Gathuna Gatungu was an ex-student of Alliance high school and teacher at the Githamba School. During Alexandar’s stay in kikuyu land, he became Gatungu’s close friend and interpreter.

Alexandar insited that Gatungu be admitted at the seminary though he came from KKE Arch, Kiambu, while the seminary was run by KISA. Later he founded his church at Waithaka in Southern Kiambu.

Characteristic of Independent Churches and schools

  • They retained some traditional customs such as female circumcision and polygamy.
  • They were not against education and Christianity, but against the westernizing influence of the missionaries and type of education and literature that was being offered.
  • The leadership in both schools and churches was Africans.
  • They were somehow connected with political parties wich were founded to oppose colonial rule.
  • Unlike political movements which were mainly based in towns, the independent schools and churches had their following form the rural masses.
  • The independent schools and churches were somehow connected with political parties which were founded to oppose colonial rule.


  • Wrangling between the leaders.
  • Competition from the missionary churches and schools.
  • Closure of the institutions by the colonial authorities during the emergency.
  • Shortage of manpower to manage their activities among teachers.
  • Shortage of funds to implement their programmes.
  • Harassment of the members of the missionaries and the colonial authorities.


The political and social movements which were active in early 1920s and 1930’s were burned and their leaders put in detention for fear of creating internal unrest.

Factors influenced formation

  • Rising of African awareness through acquisition of western education maumau uprising which forced Britain to decolonize.
  • Establishment of nationalist parties’ e.g K.A.U
  • Return of Jomo Kenyatta strengthened the nationalist movement (1946).
  • Formation of U.N.O which favoured decolonization.
  • Nomination and election of Africans in legco provided them with a forum to agitate for employment.
  • Lack of support for colonies by tax payers in Europe.
  • The Pan African movement inspired African nationalist to struggle for independence.


On October 1944, Francis Khamisi organized a meeting of African leaders in Nairobi attended by 33 African leaders. Members include

Harry Thuku – President

Francis Hamisi – Secretary

Albert Divine – Treasurer

An Otata

Eliud Mathu

James Githuru

Aims of KAU

Help Eliud Mathu in his new task of representing African interest in Legco

  • To coordinate African nationalist activities
  • To pressurize for more constituonal regions for Africans.
  • To demand improved washing conditions for African workers.

They did not advocate political independence. Any changes were to be carried out from within and through the existing institutions of the government, the colonial government felt uneasy and suspicious about K.A.U. the name it had military cannotations and on the insistence of the governor, it was changed to the Kenya African study union (KASO) in November 1944. This implied that the union’s purpose was to educate the people on public affairs.

There was friction between the moderates and radicals in the union. The moderate who believed in bringing changes through established constituonal channels were led by Eliud Mathu and Tom Mbotela. They advised their followers to use peaceful means to solve their problems.

They opposed certain methods advocated by the militant radicals, in January 1945, James Gichuru was elected president of the union.

It advocated such longer standing African grievances as the abolition of the Kipande system of registration, the restoration of African land and more African referees in the legco.

In 1946, during the second annual delegates’ conference it revealed to its original name of the Kenya African Union (KAU).



  • Release of Africna political prisoners.
  • Demanded for end of racial discrimination
  • Demanded for return of alienated land
  • Reissnance of little deed to Africans
  • Improved working condition and equal pay
  • Abolition of taxation and Kipande systm
  • Free and compulsory education for Africans.
  • Africans to get there land including white highlands.
  • Return of alienated land.
  • Self government for Africans by Africans.
  • This was after the return of Kenyatta from England in September 1946 and his assumption of presidency of KAU on 1st June, 1947 gave strength to the union.


  • Arrest and detention of the leaders.
  • Lack of effective leadership
  • Had hostile colonial administration
  • Lacked political awareness among the Africans due to illiteracy.
  • Inadequate funds to run the organization.
  • Conflicts between radicals e.g Fred Kubai who advocated for the use of free unlike mathu favoured peaceful means in the attainment of independence.
  • The meetings convinced the former KCA leaders of KNU’s legitimacy as a possible instrument for the achievement of a country wide political unity.
  • With Kenyatta’s return, there was a real opportunity to develop KAU into the dominant means of on enhancing African nationalism.
  • The organization of KAU in Kikuyu land and Rift valley was still largely controlled by the former K.C.A Leaders.

Meanwhile, the struggle between the moderate elements in KA’s leadership and the radical continued. The conflict reached its climax in 1951. The Nairobi branch of KAU had been taken over by the radicals in June of that year with officials.

Fred H. Kubai chairman

  1. M. Kuggia – Secretary – general

Paul Ngei – assistant secretary general

They demanded the removal of the moderate elements form the radical national executive committee.

Kenyatta, however, frustrated the plans of the radicles by insisting that KAU must not be turned into a Gikuyu union.

He suggested that the secretary – general of the party should come from Nyanza and that other parts of the country should be represented in the executive committee.

  1. D Otiende was elected secretary general

Paul Ngei assistant

Mr Ole Nanyurai from Narok treasuere

Kenyatta president

Kenyatta’s greatest achievement was to teach the people to be united as Kenyan people. He extended KAU’s foothold into Nyanza and the coast.

Some nationalist thought it was to moderate while others thought that it was a Kikuyu –dominated party. KAU also faced financial problems and lacked effective leadership.

In 1951 KAU members in Nairobi decided to revitalize the activities of KAU and make it more radical in pursuing its policies. Radical leadersh were elected to lead KAU Fred Kubai was elected chairman, J.M. Mugai vice – chairman and Bildad Koggia secretary.

The government was scared by the renewed KAU activities and its support for mau mau. In response, all KAU rallies outside Nairobi was banned KAU leaders were also forced to denounce maumau.

The governor declared a state of emergency on October 20, 1952, following the murder of chief Waruhiu. The entire national and district KAU leaders were arrested and detained because of the connection with maumau.

Other KAU members acted swifting and elected now office – bearers. Fanuel Walter Odede was elected acting, president, Joseph Murumbi acting secretary and www Awori acting treasurer.


Achievements of KAU

  • KAU United Africans in the struggle for independence
  • KAU promoted Afrians nationalism
  • KAU helped to improve conditions of Africans like they were against taxation and Kipande.
  • KAU publicized the grievances of Kenya internationally by sending delegations to complain about colonial oppression and exploartin.
  • KAU supported the mau mau war for independence.
  • KAU laid the foundation for KANU.



Factors that facilitated Mau Mau

  • Use of guerilla tactics which made it difficult for the British to suppress the rebellion.
  • Oathing helped to unite fighters.
  • Support of civilians who supplied food and equipment.
  • Natural forest e.g abaadare and Mt.Kenya provided gand hidesout.
  • Resourceful and courageous leaders who had participated in World War II inspired the inspired the reste of Dedan Kimathi, Stanley Mathenge and general China.
  • There was military experience due to participation in World War II.

Causes of Mau Mau

  • Land alienation
  • Forced labour
  • Kipande system
  • Poor living and working conditions for Africans.
  • Interference in African culture by colonial government to missionaries.
  • Lack of Africans representation in legco.
  • Distocking policy
  • Law wedge
  • Unemployment
  • Racial discrimination




At the end of the 2nd World War the ex – services on returned homw with a lof of experience. They were joined by other KAU extronist nationalists who were dissatisfied with the slow progress offered by the constitutional reforsm in affecting political reforms.

The movement aimed at realizing its objectives through acts of violence.

Members were recruited through the ways of traditional oathing practices which work also served to maintain the secrecy of the movement. This later became mau mau.

The government declared the movement unlawful in 1951 consequently the leaders of the mau mau movement left the Nairobi area and moved into the Aberdares and Mt. Kenya forests, from where they conducted guerilla warfare.

In October 1952, senior chief Wambiu was murdered by the freedom fighters for his collaboration with the government leading to state of emergency declared by Sir Evelyn Barring. Kenyatta and there KAU leaders were arrested and charged with supporting and organizing violence in Kenya. The aimed forces were mobilized to help suppress the movement.

In April 1953, Kenyatta and other KAU leaders were tried at Kapenguria and sentenced to seven years imprisonment at Lodwar and KAU banned in June 1953.

There was mass arrest in Kikuyu with leaders like Waruhiu Itote and Dedan Kimathi as the state of emergency was not lifted until 1960.

Problems faced by Mau Mau.

  • Arrest and killing of leaders.
  • Poor co-ordination by guerillars.
  • Lacking of transport and communication facilities
  • Lack of proper fighting equipments.
  • Division due to disagreements
  • Lack of food and other basic needs
  • Torture of family members and Mau Mau followers.
  • Lack of dedication by forced members.


  • It led to the loss of many likes.
  • Arrest and dentention of Africans.
  • The war deplected the resources of the colony and Britain.
  • The banana formation of political associations was lifted.
  • The Agikuyu community was divided socially into loyalists. Collaboration and traitors and those who didn’t support the colonial system.
  • It motivated Africans and the rest of the continent to fight for their own freedom from colonialism.


A meeting was held in May 1960 which led to the formation of Kenyan African Natioanl Union (KANU).

Objectives of KANU

  • To fight for political independence.
  • To achieve national constitution under a uniting national constituoin under one central government.
  • To create a society based on African socialism.
  • To eradiate poverty, ignorance and disease.
  • To fight for the return of olienated African land.
  • To fight for the realease of all political detainers.
  • The encourage good neighbourliness in the East African Region.
  • To unite with liberation movement in other African countries to end imperialism and coloniaslim in the continent.

A provisional draft of the KANU constitution was drawn by Mwai Kibaki and others.

During the Kiambu meeting where elected the officials of KANU, Daniel Arap Moi was away in London, while Ronald Ngala was in America.

Kenyatta was realeased and took over leadership of KANU from James Gishuru who acted as president when he was in jail.

Kenyatta led the KANU team to second Lancaster House conference in 1962 which led to the May 1963 second general elections.

KANU again won the elections and formed the government on 12th December 1963 with Kenyatta as the first Prime Minister and Odinga as Minister for Home affairs.


  • Uniting Kenyans in the independence struggle.
  • Educating Africans on their political rights.
  • Partipating in the second Lancaster houase conference of 1962, which lead to independence constitution.
  • Putting pressure on the release of political detainees.
  • Leading Kenya to independence in 1963.


After the return of Ngala and Maji leaders of the Minority gaps like Kalenjin, North Eastern and coastal regions formed KADU in June 1960, leaders were

Ronald Ngala

Daniel Arap Moi

Masinde Muliro

Justis Ole Tipis

1st electins were held in 1961; KANU won 19 seats and KADU ill end three seats went to the smaller parties.

KANU refused to form a government while Kenyatta was still detained. Ronald Ngala, the president of KADU was asked to do so with the support of Michael Bundell’s New Kenya Part (NKP).

In August 1961, Kenyatta was realased together with those detained with him and elected to the legco in 1962.

During the 1963 multiparty elections, KADU was defeated again by KANU. KADU became the official opposition party. In 1964, KADU dissolved itself and its members joined KANU.


  • To safeguard the interests of the minority tribes.
  • To push for a federal constitution.
  • To organize and maintain a political democratic union in legco and the country.
  • To demand for the release of political prisoners.
  • To demand for constituonal reforms.
  • To provide an efficient that represented all areas in Kenya.
  • To formulate domestic and international policies.


  • It represented the minority ethnic groups.
  • It participates in the drafting of the independence constitution.
  • In enlightened the Africans on their political rights.
  • It provided chairs and blances to the KANU government.
  • In August 1961 Kenyatta was released together with those detained with him and elected to the legislative council in 1962.
  • During the 1963 multy party election KADU was defeated by KANU
  • KADU became official opposition party in 1964 KADU dissolved itself and its members joined KANU.


It was formed after the ancestr house conference lead by Paul Ngei.

Its members were drawn from the Akamba peoples union.

It was formed on regional basis to represent the interest of the Akamba who were suspicious of the Luo, Kikuyu dorminated KANU & KADU.

In May 1963, the independence elections were held under the Federal constitution (Majimbo)

APP was among them and won and seats in their federal assembly when Kenya was granted internal self government (MADARAKA).

Soon after elections Paul Ngei and App member joined KANU leaving KADU as the only opposition party. He was given an insterial position by Kenyatta.



Trade unions are association of employed persons

Their main purpose is collecting burgaining for member welfare.

It prayed a key roll in the struggle for independence in Kenya.

The government introduced laws which forced Arficans to work in settler farms for wedges.

At the coat there was no problem in recruiting x-slaeves to work for the Europeans since this new system of wedges earning labour was by far much better than slavery.

Laws were enacted to legalise the initial policy of the government in relation to labour.

There was anti-slavery act in 1900, that the tax ordinance of 1901, servants ordinance of 1904, the labour ordinance of 1907. The registration of domestic workers ordinance of 1910 and others.

It was obligating for every male African abore to age of 16yrs to be registered at the district registration office at the area where he resided.

He had to give this particular: the name, fathers name, tribe, location, sub-location, age group, circumsion age and a full set of finger prints impression.

The conditions of employment at the time were pathetic, labourers were overworked and underpaid.It was an attempt to find a solution to these problems the trade unions awere formed.


It begun in Mombasa as athe union was known as African workers union (AWU)

It was a rolling centre for strikes.

It 1st occurred in July 1936, in the morning of the 13th of July 15,000 workers participated. On 3rd day the workers decided to form their union which they named (AWU) officials Mwangi Mahcaria – sec, Muhamed Kibwana – president, Muhurk Kemo-Treauser.

Inspite of the attempts to suppress the stikes by troops who had arrived in Mombasa on the 15th of the same month and the arrest of 421 strikes, the workers were not coward and the stike continued. The union sent a letter to the paper of East Africa publishers giving reasons of their strike which were to giving wives and children allowances taking no notice of the northern high coast of living. Deliberate devices to keep Africans poor so that they may stay on at their work all the time.

Partiality and disrespect shown to African workers whenever they were employed.

Indifferences towards paying the Africans equally with the other workers from other races to perform similar duties.

Hurry Thuku was called by the DC. He arrived in MOmbasa in Janary 23rd 1947 and made the strikers and their leaders.

He also discussed the problem of the workers with senior government officials.

In January 24th 1947 he attended a meeting of the union’s executive committee where they suggested a change f the unions name to the African workers federation.

The government hurriedly appointed Mr. Juscie Thakker as the president of a tribunial to investigate and decide upon the trade disputes in Mombasa.

The members were: A, hop Jones, F Holden, CV Merit, A.h. Noor Mohamed, J. Silas.

Within a short time the announced reomendation of an intrime award to some employees on Mombasa Island. There award gave a pay increase of sh.6.75 and raised house allowance by sh.3.25.

The award was boycaughted by the AWF because it applied only to a section of the workers and was therefore totally inadequate and unsatisfactory.

The resolution to boycaught the award was riched at a meeting of Mombasa workers had in Majengo area at the end of March 1947.

The meeting also elected new officials of the AWOF where Chege Kibacha became president, Hilton Mwanadal became sec and James Muchenda became an orgnanizing secretary.

An executive committee of 12 members was also elected. In 1947, the Nairobi taxi drivers changed its name to Kenya African Road Transporters and mechanics union in order to extend the scorp of origin transport workers all over the country.

In July 1947, the Nairobi trade unions decided to form a branch of the Africans workers federation with members Livingstone Kuria –chairman Mwangi Masharia – sec and Gatere Kigotho – Treasuerer.


It began on a large scale, recruitment campaign which helped to increase trade union membership. Through the activities of KFL, the Kenya federation of registered trade unions (KFRTU) was formed Tom Mboya became the general secretary 1953 he had in 1952 also formed the local government workers union (LAWU). Tom Mboya knew trade union could be instrumented in winning independence. Through the negotitiaon activity of KFL African workers were given a minimum wage. In 1956, 68% increased wages for African workers in Nairobi was obtained.


  • It led to improvement of living standards for the Africans and also wages.
  • Educating Africans on their rights pertaining employment rights.
  • It introduced concept of collective burgain. Played a role in the struggle for independence as it filled the volume created by political orgnaisation in 1952 after the arrest of African leaders.
  • Promoted regional cooperation as workers from different regions came together.
  • Unions promoted cooperation between employers, employees and the government through consolidation.


  • Their leaders and members were harrased and victimized by the colonial government.
  • Poor leadership due to lack of trained personel with the knowledge of trade unions.
  • Shortage of funds and mismanagement of funds. Ignoarance of the people on the role for trade unions. Choice of the leaders was influenced by ethnic confideration rather than competence.
  • Constant humbles among the leaders of the trade unions.

Role of women in the struggle for independence

  • They were the backborn of the resistant movement against colonial invertion in Kenya.
  • During the Agusi resistance the elderly kituku prophets.
  • The moraa inseted one of the worriors to spear Gerneal secretary in 1980.
  • In Ukamani prophets Syothune Kithuka used advanced called Kilimo to mobiles Akamba toprotest against British colonialism and arged them not to pay takes or provide labour.
  • During agiriama resistance Mekatilili WA Medza led the Giryama against the British.

Involmet of women in political organizations.

When Henry Thuku formed the E.A.A African women supported him

When KCA was forced in 1982 women supported them morally and financially until 1930 when they felt unrecognized and formed a party known as Mumbi central association.

Women circumsicion drew African women to more political parties from 1920.

They contributied to the establishment of independent schools and churches e.g legio Maria was formed to a womn is Westenr Kenya called Auko.

In central Kenya women composed songs and dance that radiated the colonial chiefs and government.

Although men dominated senior positons in KAU movment many members were women.

Women were imprisoned and detained due to political movements. Eg Sarah Sarai who was detained due to participation to KAU in Nairobi.

Roles of Women in the Mau Mau Movement

  • Women were involved brutally in the construction of roads and terrace due to absence of mena and in communical work as they were serving the Mau Mau movement.
  • Women participated in aimed resistant against the British e.g Martial Muthoni.
  • Women from Kikuyu, Aembu and Ameru, joined the forest to organize and co-ordinate their movement. Women supplied basic amedities to freedom fighters.
  • Acted as spies for the Mau Mau by gathering information form home guards about the colonial force. Composed songs to mobilize fighters and redicule home guards.
  • Participated in the authority ceremonies where as others acted as chief administrators.
  • Women refused betraing mau mau fighters even when they were detained at Kamiti due to their active participation to the movement. Women were recognized and given a prominent recognize in Kenya.
  • Jemima was nominated to the legistlative assembly whereby becoming the 1st women in Kenya. In 1960 another woman Pricilah Abwalo was nominated to the regislative council and became the 1st women in the African delegation to take part in the 1st loncaster haouse conference London 1960. After independence Grace Anyango became the 1st May of Kisumu.

Constitiuonal changes leading to independence in Kenya.

Several factors prmoted decolonization in Kenya and other African countries after World War II.

Experience ex-soldiers encouraged them to demand more political rights. The Pan African movement also pressuired the colonial powers to grand poltical independence to their subject people.

Colonial powes began to realize that colonies were becoming too expensive to run especially due tofrequent revolts and violence used by the colnised people against the colonizers.

Many factor persuaded the British governemtn to take some measures towards decolonization in Kenya.Key among this was constituon reforms.

African Representation to the Legco (Eliud Mathu)

Eliud Mathu

The 1st African to be appointed to the legislative in 1944.

He was a former teacher of alliance High and a graduate in Hoat have college in South African.

After KAU was formed in 1946. It demanded an increases in African representatives in the government .

This led to Benire Changa another African to be appointed to the legistlative in 1946.

By 1946 the number of Africans in the legco was for compared to 11 Europeans, 5 Asians and 2 Arabs.

Nevertheless Africans in Kenya still fat that the progress was too slow following the Mau Mau uprising and the declaration of state of emergency as the British secretary for colonies owned by Oliver Lythelton visited Kenya in 1954.

The British government realsied that there was a need to involve the Africans in the adminsitratior at the same time reduce the settlers influence. It was of this reasons that the report of East African royal commission of 1955 was taken serial.

It called for an end to racial discrimination, increased involvement of Africans in the colonial administration. The opening of Kenya highlands which were until then exclusively used by white settlers to all races.

The Lyttelton constition

Oliver Lyttelton the British colonial secretary visited Kenya and made constitution reforms. He supported creation of multivation society wher all races would share political power.

He proposed the place of existing governor executive councils or multi-ratio councils of ministers should be formed to represent the 3 races.

The un-official members of the new council would now include: One African, 2 Asians and 3 Europeans.

The African and official members was B. A Mutanga the 1st Africna to be appointed minister became minister for community development and African affaired in 1954.

Although two Africans were in the council by 1955 they opposed the little time constitution becaue it onlyu strengthened the European position.

The European were not happy either they objected very strongly to the involvement of the Africans and Asians in political management for the colony. The electionary group of the Europeans was led by Captain Briggs.

In 1955, the governemtn lifted the bank on political orgnisation in the line with the recommendation of colonial secretary Oliver littelton.

However African was aloud to form only local political orgnaisatio that ewer district based as opposed to national wide of political parties. The political parties soon formed Nairobi’s people convection party led by Tom Mboya, Taita African Democratic Union (TADU) lead by D. Mwanyumba, Abagusii Association (AA) led by John Kibasu, Kenya National congress (KNC) led by Argwin Kodhek and the Maasai Throan led by John Keen but the Mau Mau was still went on in March 1957 the 1st Africn election to the legislative were held those who won elections include:

Masinde Muliro – North Nyanza constituon

Laurence Oguda – South Nyanza

Ronald Ngala – Coast

Daniel Arap Moi – Rift Valley

Benrard Mate – Central

James Muindi – Ukambani

Oginga Odinga – Cental Nyanza

The Afircna united members of the legislative formed an organization known as the Afican elected members orgnazation (AEMO) with Oginga Oding – chairman.

Tom Mboya – sec and demanded for the following

That more sits be given to theAfricans

That election should be by a common role based on universal afranchise.

The release of Kenyatta and other missionaries.

Role of African elected members of parliament in the struggle for independence

  1. Pressurised for independence
  2. Made known the African grievances in National forumns.
  3. Sort for release of imprisoned and detained missionaries.
  4. Demanded for greater political rights for Africans.
  5. Made Kenyatta popular as anationalist hero.
  6. Participated in the formulation of independent constitutent.
  7. Enlightened African masses on the liberation struggling
  8. Formed nationalist political parties’ e.g KANU and KADU which spearheaded for country into independence.


Lennox – Boyd succeded Oliver littleion as the secreaty of the state for colonies.

His recommendation/proposed

  1. The number of African elected members raised from 8-14 in the legislative council.
  2. Double the number of African ministers trop 1 – 2.
  3.  Introductrion of multo-ration representative in the LEGO by providing for 12 special elected four from each of the three races.

Reforms initiated by the lennox-boyd proposals

Creation of 6 more African constituencies.

Elections were held in March 1958, increasing the no. of African elected members in the legco to 14.

The AEMO opposed the idea of the specially elected members but they were appointed without their participation.

The 2nd African minister, Musa A Malemba was appointed as minister for housing in 1958.

Lancaster house conference.

By 1958, the colonial government had declared it’s commitment to remove racial barriers and grant political independence of Africans.

This however had opened concern, as both the radical Europeans and AEMO were offered to multi-racialism.

The Lancaster house conferences were therefore conviened to ion out these differences.

The 1st Lancaster house conference (1960)

The colonial secretary was Ian Macleod and the governor to Kenya was Sir Patrick Renison.

It was convened at Lancaster house in London the headquarters of the British colonial office in January 1960. Attended by all the members of the legco.

The African team was led by Ronald Ngala the chairman and Tom mboya the secetary.

European delegates were led by Captain Briggs and Sir Michael Blundell.

They came up with a compromise constitutional change as follows.

  • The 12 elective seats of specially elected members in the legco to remain intact.
  • There would be 33 open seats in the legco, which were to vied for on a common roll.
  • Another 20 seats would be reserved, 10 of those to be altered to European, 8 for Asians and 2 for Arabs.
  • Composition of the council of ministers was to be altered to incorporate 4 Africans, 3 Europeans and 1 Asian.
  • Authorized Africans in the formation of nation wide political parties.
  • State of emergency was to be lifted.

Reforms arising from the 1st Lancaster house conference.

  • Preparation for election to be held in 1961.
  • Formation of KANU and KADU.

1961 election-KANU won 19 seats while KADU won 11 seats.

Four of the African elected members of the lego were appointed minister.

James muimui- minister for health welfare.

Ronald  Ngala- minister for labour, social security and Adult Education.

Julius Gikongo Kaino- minister for commerce and industry.

Formation of new ethic alliances for fear of ethnic domination by large ethnic groups.

The kalenjin political alliance led by taitu towett.

Coast African political union by Ronald Ngala.

Kenya Africans peoples party by masinde muliro.

Settlers and other Europeans resented these reforms and began to sell their property, ready to live the country.

In 1961, the 21st of august, Jomo Kenyatta was released; Kariuki Njiri offered his murang’a constituency seat to Kenyatta enabling him to join legco.

The 2nd Lancaster house conference (1962).

Convened in Lancaster house London between febuary and april 1962, presided over by regional maulding, the then colonial secretary.

Its objectives.

  • Work out the final steps to self governance.
  • Draft independence.
  • Set out the difference between KANU and KADU.

The KANU delegation was led by Jomo Kenyatta and advocated for a strong unitary government while KADU was led by Ronald Ngala favoured (majimbo) known as independence Katiba which provided for the following.

  • A federal government with 6 regions each retaining Internal Katiba.
  • A strong central government led by a prime minister.
  • A governor-general as head of state and commandr – in – chief of the armed forces.
  • Party with majority seats would form government.
  • A by cameral legislation with ( two houses) that’s the house of the representave low house having 117 members.The senate, upper house 41 members.
  • Spelt out the rights and obligation of citizen.
  • Spelt out the poweres and responsibilities of the central government.

Reforms innitated by the 2nd LHC

Holding of 1963 election KANU when 73 seats KADU got 31 seats and approximately won 8 seats.

June 1963 Jomo Kenyatta became the 1st prime mInister of Kenya.

1st June 1963 Kenya attained responsible self govenemtn “Madara”.

12th Dec 1963 Kenya Obtained full independence “Jamhuri”

The queen of Inland however remained head of state.

12th Dec 1964 Kenya was decalred as republic with Kenyatta as the 1st President.



Background                                                                                                                                        Nationalism comes from the word nation. A nation is made up of people who share cultural and social background and have in the common ancenstry in historical terms.

Nationalism gives individuals a sence of belonging to a given state or country

It’s defined as a statement based on common cultural charactersitcs that binds people together as one nation.

African nationalism grew out of the derive among along different African community to fight to independence from their colonial masters. Early nationalism in Africa was with the right from the period of European colonizers it had to manifest itself in African rebellion and resistance which were staied across the continent. However inspite of the fact that they were all defeated they formed the foundation for future resistances.

Factors that promoted African nationalism

Racial segregation: where Africans were discriminated against the whites because of their skin/ it affected Africans scial polticially and economically.

Colonial labour laws: Africans were subjected to harsh labour conditions. Africans underpaid, overworked and introduction of K system.

Trade Union Movements: Trade unions wer the 1st large organization used for fighting for better working conditions of Africans. They they were used as foundations of polticial parties. They nurtured the leading who were instruemetnal in the freedom struggle.

Over – taxation: there was introduction of various forms of tax to be paid by the Africans.

Independent churches: these churches had broken away from the manstream mission churches due to discrimination by the whites on issues of African culture, mode of worship and non-promotion of black Africans to high position of leadership in church.

Colonial economic policies: the policy was meant to disadvantages the Africans, reuslitng itno many of being squatters on the land that was once theirs and pushed to reserves which were not productiove.

Western education: Christian missionaries provided education to Africans broughtout the colonial period Africans educated in mission schools joined colonial public services while others want to the nationalistic activities in African.


Africans ex soldiers in the 1st and 2nd world war gained fighting skills and also interacted with people from other countries who enlighted them about struggle for independence.

The pan African movement which supported independence for Africans countires, they made Africans realize that they shared a common problems a situation which led be used as a basis for national unity.

 The UNO stressed one ways of maintaining peace through decolonization.

Lenist – maxist influence were against colonization. They argued that colonization was exploitation of weather people by the rich.

Socialist and labour parties. They were against colonies in Europe.

Indians independence in 1947, inspired leaders to agitate for political independence.

GHANA (Gold coast)

Portugal was the pioneer European nation to colonialism as settlement in gold cost in 1477.

Portuguese mainly interested in   and gold was of the iterm that wer produced in plenty in the gold coast by Aficans community.

Portugues named the country the gold coast in referene to the 1st gold depostis in the area.



Factors for growht of nationalism in Ghana

  • Effects of World War II the African wear veterans were reall to lead their people against colonial to rrule because the colonial government refused to compensate the x- solderis for participating in the war.
  • Africans not represented int the wher they could air their grievances.
  • Africans demanded wider franch (right to rate) majority of African allowed to participation in politics.
  • The trade unions contributed to nationalism since they enlightened workers on their rights.
  • Africans wer not given quality education.
  • High prices of essential commodities in the towns.
  • Africans were colonied import and export licences.
  • They got inspirations from pan-african movement.
  • There there morale was boasted by the UNO, which supported decolonization.

Causes of ghanian nationalism

Nationalism in Ghana began in 1868 in response to British colonization.

Before the 2nd World War Ghanas nationalism was moest but after the 2nd Worl war it became radical and demanded for complet independence.

It was characterized by formation of polticial parties. The 1st party was National of God coast started by Akofu Addo in 1941.

1947 several parties merged together to form united Gold Coast convention (UGCC).

During the ACCRA riotes in 1948, British solders killed two of the christen serivde men who wer marchin to the goivernors castle to present a petition since their pensions wave quite  insufficient due to high inflation. This caused riots which spread to other parts of the country.

29 athor Africans were killed and Nkrumah and his collegues known as the big 6 were arrested they included Nkumah, Danguah, William afori, Akuto Addo, Ajei and Obotsebi lamptcy.

The Watson commission under the leadership of Andrew Alkon Watson was st up and reported that appressive social, political and economic conditions wer the major cause of riots.

A new katiba was recommended to cater for Ghananian interest.

In 1949, the coussey commission was appointed of Nkrumah who was radica.

It recommended a semi-responsible governmt and executive council and a nationally elected assembly with elections to be held in 1951.

In 1949, Kwame Nkrumah formed convention people’s party. He rejected the coussey Katiba, demanded for independence and government support from the masses.

In a speech at a political rally Accra held on 8th Jan 1950 Nkrumah advocated for the action through.

Alegiatimate political action.

News paper and educational campaigns

The Katiba application of boycotts strikes and non-cooperation based on the principlas of absolute non-violence. He had borrowed these protests from the teaching of Mahatma Gandhi on non-violent resistance.

The government declared a state of emergency Kwame Nkrumah and CPP officials were arrested.

During imprisomenment Newspapers campaigned for his independent in 1951 a general electin was held CPP won and Nkrumah allowed to form a governemtn and became leader of government business.

1954, NLM (National liberation movement) amerged to complete  two more elections held in 1954 and 1956 and CPP won on 6th march 1957, the country attained political independence under CPP and Kwame became 1st Pm and changed countries name from Gold Coast to Ghana.

Methods used by Ghananian Natioanalist in their struggle for independence.

  • Made use of public rallies.
  • Channedl eed their grievances through trade unions.
  • Used protests and domenstations against the colonial government.
  • Use of international forums e.g U.N.O
  • Participated in Katiba negotiations e.g Conssey commission. Wrote through publications e.g Accra Evening News through which they articulated their grievances.
  • Participated in the pre-independence election i.e 1954, 1956

Problems faced by Ghanian nationalism.

  • Disunity amng Africans.
  • Rivalrly among political parties e.g CPP and UGCC imprisonment and arrest of African Natinalist
  • Lack of finance to find their activities.
  • Brutal killing of Africans.
  • Poor means of transport and communication
  • Leadership wrangles – Nkrumah went out of UGCC.

ROLE played by Kwame, CPP for struggle for independence.

  • He was a leader of CPP and organized all activities. CPP gain support from former, the elite and the unemployed in Ghana hence untiying Africans in struggle for Africans national liberation.
  • CPP used non – vilent methods to persive the govenrmet for freedom e.g use of newspaper, campaigns, boycotts, strikes and non-coperation with the whites.
  • CPP won electins in 1951 and formed 1st government before independence.
  • Nkrumah’s leadership from 1951 was marked by better cocoa prices, the primary conditinn and construction of new transport means.

Reasons why Ghana achieved independence earlir than other AFricann countries.

  • Rapid economic and social changes which were caused by the extensive cultivation of cocoa.
  • Large group of educated elites spearhead decolonization. Kwame populist leadershio unity required for nationalism in Ghana.
  • Participated in the Pan-African Manchester conference of 1945 that resovled that all countires have a right to self – determination.
  • Ghana was coimparatively a small country in size was also well served with a good transoport and communication system. Therefore made the most of information from one arcre to another faster and effectiveness.
  • Presence of a few European settlers in the country comared to other countries like South Africa. These made the struggle for independence not to be bloody or have any complication.

How the attainment of Ghana independenc contributed to liberation of other African countries.

  • When Kwame was installed president Nkrumah declared that the independence of Ghana was meaningless unless the rest African was freed of colonial yoke.
  • Inspired other African countries to fight for policital liberation. Supported liberatinon movement in Africa both morally and material e.g Guinea and Nigeria.
  • Nkrumah wants to the Aid of African countries even after independence when they were threatened by former colonial e.g Patrick Lumumba of DRC in 1960 – 1961.


Mozambique was a portugues colony.

In 1951 the government of Portugal declared Mozambique its and took over adminstarin from Portuguese companies until 1975.

Factors for the growth of Nationalism in Mozambique.

  • Increased settlement of Portuguese atizons in Mozambique by 1960, they were about 200,000.
  • Land alienaton by European settlers.
  • Forced labour: forced Africans to work on their farms and tree as slaves.
  • The adminstartion forced Africans to pay taxes.
  • The Portuguese imposed many restrictions in Africans limiting their freedom of expression and intellectual advancement e.g General Salazar ensured strict censorship of press.
  • The portagese practices racial discrimination.
  • Portuguese administration replaced traditional leadersh arbitrary. Portuguese settlers didn’t respect African culture since agood number of settelers were unmarried, they often untogunised the AFrican by making African women their mistress without honouring the customs of local people.
  • The security police treatd Africans with great quality inadequate medical facilties for Africans.

Methods used by Nationalist in Mozambique to struggle for independence.

  • Mass media nationalist wrote articles to the newspapers expressing their grievances.
  • Formation of political association’s e.g Frelimo (font for liberation of Mozambique).
  • Use of guerilla moement (devolutinary committee of mozambia strikes by social workers and peasants.
  • Government support fromother countries like Tanganyika, Russia and China (Relimo built school and health centres as away gaining support from Africans.
  • Use of international organization e.g OAU.

Problems experienced by Nationalist in Mozambique.

  • The church in Mozambique viewed FRELIMO as a terrosist organsiation.
  • Ideological differences divided African nationalist i.e where as some adovated for socialism, others supported capitalism e.g Uria Simangu, and Lazaro Kawandame.
  • FRELIMO compited for powers with other quieralla movements eg COREMO.
  • The assisantion of Frelimo leader Edward Mondline in 1969 was a serious setback to the movement before Samora Machel took over leadership.
  • The apartheid regions of S.A and the O.D.I regime of southeren Rhodesia fought African Natinalist.
  • During the nationalist war, Africans suffered inadequate basic necessities such as good and clothes due to the ambargo replaced by the protuguese.
  • The Portuguese were cruel to African nationalist many arrested and killed.
  • Naties were from many tribes and it was hard to unite than.


Formed in June 1962 by a coalitaion of forces opposed to for rule, living in exile in east and central Africa.

Its leader was Eduardo Chirambo Mondane who was born in 1920. He resigned as a lectutere and joined FRELIMO I 1962.


Factors that enabled FRELIMO to win the war

  • The country was heavily forested with narrow paths which was ideal with guerilla warfare.
  • FRELIMO fighters were familiar with the gopography and real constant information supply from fellow Africans.
  • Many Africans joined in nationalist war.
  • FRELIMO had a stategy of attacking different points at this made the Portuguese to station fragmented troops all over could not withstand troops guirellas.
  • FRELIMO got a lot of support of trained troops, found finacnces, weapons nd d vehicle from china and Russia.
  • Got support from OAU and independent African countires Tunisia.
  • FRELIMO system of admin in liberated areas attracted people e.g they abolished forced labour, excess taxation and built schools and health centres.
  • Ethnicity was eliminated by mixing people of different origin in the same fighting units.
  • Use of Portuguese language was spoken by most people unifed fighters.
  • Rhosesia and fought togerhr against Portuguese.
  • African womwn were recognized in the war and they mobilized fellow Africans to fight protuguese.

The course of Nationalism in Mozambique.

In 1960 the Makonde people formed the Mozambique African national union. It was the 1st political organsation with its headquarters in Tanganyika MANU organized peaceful protest in June 1960 agianst forced labour and taxes. When people resisted arrest the governor ordered pulbic to open fire and killed about 600 Africans.

The governemtn banned all Afircan orgnaisations.

In June 1962, FRELIMO was formed with Edward Mondlane being its president.

In 1964 FRELIMO started full scale guerilla warfare with war breaking out at once in for pronices in the North West.

This forced Portuguese to station their troops all over the country and the war lasted for 11 years.

In 1969, Eduardo mondline was assassinated and Samora Machol replaced him in 1970.

In 1972, Portugues defeat FRELIMO after getting support from the Soth African Rhodesia.

FRELIMO government from ZANU fighters in Zimbabwe and by 1972, FRELIMO has liberated almost the whole of Mozambique.

In Sept 1974, the Portuguese quit held peace talk with FRELIMO and agreed the following proviticans.

To establish a government consisting protuguese FRELIMO ministers.

Provincial government to be in office for months in order to oversea smooth transiton of indpenendence.

On 25th June 1975, Mozambique attained independence as Samora Machel as 1st President.


The datah settled in the cape area (S.A) IN THE 17TH

They displaced African communication found there and began settling farming.

After some time they changed their name to Africaners and even along different from the dutech called Africans.

Famers known as Boers.

During the Napolconic wars in 19th the British aimed at establishing a colony at the cape area to safeguard their Indian colony from French.

The boors moved to interior and established boars’ states namely. Transvaal and Orange free state.

The british themselves established their colony in Café Area called cape colony.

Formation of union of South Africa in 1910 because of Boers and British collaboration.

Bours formed National Party

Members include

Loois Betha                 B.J Vester

JBNA hartzey             Peter Botha

Daniel Malan              Handrick Verwoud

J.G. Stiriton                 Fredrick DC Klerk

Most of early N.P leaders were racist who believed in superiority of white.

Daniel Malan introduced the Apartheid policy in 1948 which aimed at separating the blacks from the whites and coach race was to parallel to each other.

Hendrick Verwood was instrumental in establishing policy homelan’s to the blacks. This was known as the Bantuastnad.

Reasons why Verwood started Bantustand.

  • Wanted Africans self development to take place in separate homelands wanted to establish industries next to the Bantustand so to provide cheap labour.
  • Wanted to help control African political activities.
  • Wanted to segregate blacks from whites
  • Wanted Africans to be concios of their separate ethnicity to ehnahce ethnic devision and avoid African untiy.

Black homelands in South Africa included.

Tvanskei Ciskei

Kwazulu          Bophuthatswan


Policy of apartheid collapsed in 1989 during the role of Fredrick de Klerk and won a nable peace prize.

African Nationalism in South African

Arican nationalism in S.A started as early as the 17th century when Boers 1st Settled there.

African comm. E.g Xhosa, Zalu, Cateshwoya put up strong resitance against British Invetnion.

After establishment of the union of South Africa in 1910, African conditions unde the Boer rule continued to deteriorate.

Africans expressed their disatisfication with the system by establishing independent churches and forming new political association.

Reasons for the rise of Nationalism in South Africa.

  • Christian teaching showed that racial segregation was antichristian.
  • Alienation of Africa land
  • The native land act of 1913 denied Africans the right to purchase the land making thelandless problem more serioius.
  • Africans who were recruited to work to the Europeans were paid low wages.
  • Discriminative labour regulations such as pass laws and denial of Africans to form trade unions.
  • Racial segregation in provision of basic social ammentities facilities such as hospitals and schools.
  • South Africans were influenced by the policy of pan in 1912 there was a meeting of African leaders at B1 Fountein it changed its name to the African national contregation in 1923. The founder members included.

Dr. Pixty Ka Izaka Seme

Rev John Dube of Natal

Thomas Mapikela

Walter Rubusana

Solomon Plaatye

Sam Makgatho.

Initaly ANC was a peaceful party whose main objective included

Protect politians.



The situation however changed when young man such as Oliver Tamba.

Nelson Mandela and water Sisulu formed the party. The young members for the ANC young league, in 1943.

The league resolved the use of militant action to achieve national liberation.in 1955 the president of ANC Albert Luthuli organiasation a genral party meeting of colouring people of South Africa called the congres people.

The diligets for the conference came from ANC, South African Indian congress, South African coloured people organized South African congress trade union.

The congress adopted the freedom chatter that South African belongs to those who live in it both black and which “There should be political equality and power sharing the difference races.

The freedom chatter showed clearly that the ANC advocated for multi-ravical society. This forced some Africans 2 movement out e.g Robert M. Subukwe and formed the Pan-African congress (PAC) in 1959.

The PAC Organised mass demonstration in Sharpeville massacre.

Following the massacre a state of emergency was declared PAC and ANC were banned and some of their leaders detained. It was this time that Nelson Mandela formed the military wing of ANC called Umkonnto we Sizwe (the spear of the Nation) while PAC called the difference races.

The freedom chatter showed clearly that the ANC advocated multi-racial society. This forced some Africans to move out eg Robert M. Subukwo and formed the Pan-African congress (PAC) IN 1959.

The PAC orgnised mass demonstration in Sharpeville Transvaal. The police opened give to the crowd killing 69 people and others wounded especially small children Sharpeville massacre.

Following the massacre a state of emergency was declared PAC AND ANC wer banned and some of their leaders detained. It was this time that Nelson Mandela formed the military wing of ANC called Umkhonto we sizwe (the spear of the Nation) while PAC was called POQO.

The most notable movemtn during this period was the black consciousness movment.

Steve Biko organized students from secondary and universities to protest against the apethoid regime. He was later arrested and and tortured by the whites.

The apartheid regime came to an end in the late 1980s out of increased external and international pressure in the end of apartheid those put in place to allow for the 1st multi-racial elections.

The parties participate in elections include.

ANC led by Nelson Mandela

Inkotha freedom party.

AFrican resistan movement under Eugine Terre Blande.

Nelson Mandela and ANC win with 62% of total votes becoming the 1st Black president of South Africa.

Methods used by African Nationalists in the struggle against apartheid regime.

  • Formed political parties to unit Africans against apartheid African workers formed trade unions to fight for their e.g SACOTO.
  • AFRICANS held strikes to protest policies such as pass law used diplomacy by sending delegations to international between such as OAU.
  • Formed military wings e.g Om Khanto we Sizwe which led to independence.
  • The church leader’s e.g Archbishop Desmond Tutu also preached against apartheid rule.
  • Used mass media such as radio and TV to protest against apartheid rule.
  • Some Africans who were in prison want on hunger strikes to fight against apartheid rule.
  • Used art such as music, films in the struggle for independent.

 Methods used by Nationalist in South African in their struggle.

  • Africans in South Africa formed polticial parties which united people Trade unins were organized by workers to champion their right sand also had political overtones.
  • There were demonstrations organized by Africans in South African.
  • The natiolists employed force when it became clear that the colonial governemt was not listening to peaceful negotiations.
  • The freedom fighters in South afria deployed diplomacy in International circles through OAU and the UNO to talking to the white minority rule.
  • The nation lists in detention and u nder arrest employment hunger strikes as a weapon against their unjust confinement.
  • Religions leaders like Bishop Desmond Tutu preached agin the injustice of the apartheid system.
  • The mass media was an essentaial force in the stuggle against apartheid.

Challenges Nationalists forced in the liberation struggle.

  • Many people in S.A lost their lives during the apartheid rule.
  • Political leaders were arrested and detained by the South Africa Police.
  • Many of the natinalsits were forced to leave South Africa to avoid beign arrested.
  • African poltical parties were prescribed or banned by law.
  • Africans newspapers and journalism was banned.
  • Trade unions in South Africa were banned for they were assured to have political overones.
  • The white minority government created Bantustans which were homelands for Africans.
  • The apartheid regime imposed emergency laws.


The road of independence in Kenya was not a smooth one. It involved serious commitment and struggle between Kenyans to liberate their country from colonialism.

After independence, Kenyan leaders continued to play a significant role in social, economic and political development of the country.

They include: Mzee Jomo Kenyatta, Daniel Toroitch Arap moi, Oginga Odinga, Thomas Joseph Mboya, Ronald Gideon Ngala and Prof. Wangari Maathai.


Eearly life

Jomo Kenyatta was born of Agikuyu parent at ng’enda Ridge in Gatundu division of Thika County.

He was born around 1892.

He belonged to the Magana clan.

His Father was called Muigai and his motner was Wambui. His father died when he was a child his uncle Ngengi then took care of him and his mother.

As a young boy, Kenyatta left Ng’enda and went to live with his grandfather Kung’u of Magana at Muthiga near Kikuyu. While at Muthiga where was strongly influenced by the Agikuyu culture and customs on the one land and Christianity and Western education on the other.

His grandfather was a medicine man and Kenyatta learned much about Agikuyu culture and taditions from him. He got the 2nd influence of Christianity and Western educatioin from a mission Christian, reading, writing agriculture and carpentry. At Thogoto he was officially registered as Kamau WA Ngengi for he was now the ‘son’ of Ngengi after the death of his father.

In 1912, Kenyatta completed his elementors schooling.

In 1913, he was circumcised in the Agikuyu tradition and a year later was baptized and took the Christian name Johnstone.

In 1916, he worked at a sisal farm in Thika.

He went to live among his Maasai relatives in Narok, to escape forced recruitment. While in Narok he was employed as aclerk by an Asian trader whose company was supplying meat to the British army.

At the end of First World War he went back to Nairobi and worked as store-keeper in a European farm. He had already bought a bicycle. He used to wear a beaded Maasai onarment belt – Kenyatta. In 1920, he got married to Grace Wahu. Between 1921 and 1926, he worked in the Nairobi municipal council water department.

He was earning a salary of sh.250 per months. He builded a good house on a shamba which he bought at Dagoretti near Nairobi.


Kenyatta’s involvement in politics started in 1920. In that year at Dagoretti, he helped sub-chief Kioi prepare his land case against somo litigators. He became the secretary of the Kikuyu Central Association (K.C.A) he helped in translation of words from English and Kiswahili to Gikuyu. His major role was to interpret. In 1928 KCA launched a newpaper muigithania, Kenyatta was its editor. The paper urged the Agikuyu to improve their Agricultural methods and to take there children to school.

In 1929, KCA leaders sent Jomo Kenyatta to present their land grievances by the British government. While Kenyatta was in Britain, he was transformed into a Kenyan nationalist leader. He wrote articles in the Sunday worker (newsparer in Britain) one such article was entitled “Give us back our land” major theme was indepence for the oprresed Kenyan Africans.

In 1930 Kenyatta returned to Kenya. In 1931 he returned to London to represent the Kenyan Africans by the joint select committee on closer union of the East African countries. He was then sponsored and was accompanied by Primenar Mukiri. While in England, he taught at the labour party summer school. Then attended the Ouoker College of woodbreak Brimigham.

The discovery of God in Kakamega faced the Abaluyia to form what became known as Nork Koviando central Assosiation (NKCS) IN 1934.

Kenyatta taught Gikuyu to missionary and helped with a book entitled the phonetic and tonal structure of Kikuyu in 1937. He also studied anthropology at London school of Economics. The study of anthropology influenced him to write a book entitled. Facing Mount Kenya in 1938. After writing the book he changed his name from Johnstone to Jomo which he felt was more African. He became the secretary of the International Friends of Abussinia Organ (IFAO.

IN 1937, The IFAO changed its name and objectives it became International African Service Bureau (IASB) its major objectives were to fight for civil liberion and self-determnation for all African people.

During the second World war, Kenyatta became a farmer in storrignton in West Sussex and wrote about legendary history of the Kikuyu in his bok entitled my people of Kikuyu and the lfie of chief Wany oike during this period he married his second wife Edna Clarke. In 1946, Kenyatta returned to Kenya soon after, he married his thir and fourth wives Wanjiku and Mama Ngina.

KASU was formed as a countrywide orign to advise Eliud Mathu, the 1st African nominated to the legco.

KASU later changed its name to KAU. Kenyatta was elected as KAU’s president repacing (James Gichuru). Jomo Kenyatta, KAU officials and other leaders were arrested. Later they were fired and imprisoned in Lokitong and Lodwar. Other KAU leaders imprisoned were 0 Kunug Karumba, Paul Ngei, Bildad Kaggie, Achieng Oneko and Fred K. Kubai.

The trial for Jomo Kenyatta and KAU official attended interanation attention and several laywer came to defend him. Th team was lead by D.N. Pritt. Jomo Kenyatta and KAU officials’ wer find guilty of managing Mau Mau and were imprisoned. KAO was soon banned.

In August 1961 Kenyatta was released and he joined KANU he then joined other nationalist in fighting for impendence.

In 1962 Kenyatta and other African nationalists attended the Lancaster house conference. In London which prepared the way for Uhuru. On June 1st 1963 Kenya attained internal self – government (Madaraka) with Kenyatta as the 1st prime Minister. On 12th December 1963, Kenya became fully independent. A year later the country became a Republic (1984) with Kenyatta as the first president.



  1. Rivalry within KANU
  2. Oppostion from KADU
  3. Banditry (shifted) in N. E. Kenya
  4. Lack of capital
  5. Poor comuncation and shortage of man power.
  6. Sociallly, disease, poverty and illetarcy wer serious issues.

KANU was in on the only party when KADU voluntarily disbanded. To the country, he boycott the national motto “Harambee” when Kenyataa died on 22nd 1978, he left Kenya a great country.



Daniel Toroitich arap Moin was born in September 1924 at Kurieng’wo, Sacho Baringo County. He was orphaned at an early age as his father Kimoi Arap Chebii died when Moi was four years. In 1934 he was sent to African Inland School at Kabartojo where he learnt how to read and write in addition to Bible instructions. He also ran areas for the missonaires. In 1938, he was sent to a mission schoonn in Kapsabet. He sat and passed the common entrance exams in 1940. He was appointed a prefect to join Allianceigh School with his firend Gideon Torus. They opted to remain and join Kapsabets TJC.

In 1950, he married Helena Bomet at the AIC mission in Eldama Ravine. He was later promoted to a headmaster or the Kabarnet Intermediate School and worked under a white principal. He joined politics in 1955, when the Rift Valley represented to the legco, John Ole Tameno was forced to resign. The local elders applied pressure on Moi to present himself for election, which he won.


In1957, Moi beat his challenges John Olde Tanome and Justus Ole Tipis, to win the Rift Valley seat. Moi formed the Baringo District Independent party (BDIP) in 1958 and assisted in the formation parties in Kericho, Nandi and Elgeyo Marakwet Henry Cheborwo was the Secretary General of the Baringo independent Party. The AEMO formed a multii-racial group), the Constitutnecy Elected Members Organs (CEMO) it comprised of one European, three Asians ans Masinde Muliro, Dr. Julius kiuna, Oginga Odinga and Moi as the African reprt. Their successful resulted in the first Lancaster House conference in London, Ngala, Moi and Odinga agreed the form a single party, Uhuru party, Moi have forged the four Kalenjin district parties in the Kalenjin political Alliance (KPA), which was allied to then, the weakeness of KNP at this was also due, the absence of their leaders such as Nyale, Muliro  through  Moi routed Bomet at the constituency KADU lost the election to KANU, governing 11 seats a KANU’s 19 KANU refused to participate in government while Kenyatta was in prison.

With Kenyatta release in 1961, the independent movement gathered momentum. When electios came in May 1963, KANU defeated KADU relegating it to the opposition. Moi was the president of Rift Valley regional Assistant. Eleven months afterwards Moi and Toweett denouted Majimbo on behalf of KADU and defeated to KANU. Ngala and Muliro declared the death of KADU on November 1964.

Daniel arap Moi was named Minister of home affaired in the Jamhuri cabine of 1964, repacing Oginga Odinga who became vice president and Minister without portfolio. Moi was elected as one of the 8 vice-president in 1967.

In August 22 1978 President Jomo Kenyatta passed away. Moi resumed office as acting as a president. He was later elected as the 2nd president Kenya hosted the summit of the OAU and Moi was elected chairman (for 2 years). A section of Air force attempted to topple him in a military coup on August 1, 1982. MOi University was created as a 2nd university. Others universities were Kenyatta, Egerton, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculutre and Technology and maseno. In 1984, the education system was changed from 7-4-2-3 to the 8-4-4 system. In 2003 Moi started his own Kabarak University in his farm, Nakuru.

Moi introduced the Nyayo philosophy of peace, love and unity. To improve the lives of Kenyans numerous social projects were started. These include: The Nyayo milk programme in primo, Nyayo wards and the district hospitals, Nyaso bases and Jua kali sheds for artisan. He was also the president of KANU which did not allow divergent opinion.

In the election that allowed in 1922, Moi defeated his challenges and won the presidency. They formed the Inter Parties Parliamentary Group (IPPG) aims at leveling the playing field for the 1997 election. Moi still won the elections but was barred by the constituesncy from seeking another term.

Mwai Kibaki the candidate of the united opposition trounced most preferred successor Uhuru Kenyatta. On Dec 30, 2002, Daniel Arap Moi handed over to reigns of power to Kenya’s 3rd Preseident Mwai Kibaki. He also assigned as president of KANU in 2003.


Early life

He was born in 1911 in the village of Nyamira Kan’o in sakwa location of central Nyanza. He was enrolled at Maranda Primary School after which he went to Maseno School. At Maseno, Odinga formed an assistant for boys from Nyanza in 1932. At the end of his studies in Maseno, he joined Alliance High school at Kikuyu. At alliance Odinga and other boys from Nyanza formed the Nyanza Alliance Boys Fraternal society. In 1936, he won a scholarship to study at Makerere college, where he tained as a ateacher. He intited to teach at Maseon School by Carey Fraincis (principal when he was offered a place at Maseno Verterniary School he accepted and reported at the beginning of 1943. He married Mary on January 23, 1943 at the Maseno School. He was formed the Bondo Thrift Association, followed by the Luo Thrift and Trading Corporation which was registered in 1947.


In 1946, he contested the central Nyanza African District council elections and won. He 1st met Jomo Kenyatta in 1948, when Kenyatta was visiting Nyanza for independence Kenyatta returned to Kisumu for another rally in 1952.

In the elections 1957, Odinga took on the 1st African minister B.A. Ohanga for the central Nyanza seat in the Legco. He won the elections and joined the legco where he became chaimrna of the AEMO. He was part other the African delegation to the concaster Hosue conference in 1960. When KANU was born Odinga was elected. Vice-president while Gichuru acted as president in 1961 he was elected to represent Central Nyanza.

In May 1963, elections were held under the new constitutions. Following KANU’s resounding Victory Odinga was appointed Minister for Home Affaires. His inte was opening the way for more KADU leaders. In the Jamhuri Cabinet Odinga was appointed Vice – President and Minsiter without portfolio. In his Home Affairs docket went to a former KADU official – Moi Ondinga was vocal after the murder of his close associate and KANU MP Gama PINTO I 1965. Odinga was barred from all political and when he was released from detention. He registered in 1977, After Kenyatta;s death, the new president Daniel  Arap Moi attempted to rehabilitate Oding and appointed him chairman of the cotton tint and seed marketing Board.

On August 1, 1982 a section of the Kenya Airforce attempted to tapple the government. Odinga Oginga and his son Raila were implicated, thus father was placed under house arrest and the son detained. On his release Odinga kept a low political profile for several years. FORD split into two partieOdinga was elected chairman of FORD Kenya. Ford Kenya presented Oginga Odinga as its presidential candidate in the 1992 general elections. Odinga became the leader of the official elections. Odinga became the leader of the official opposition. In January 1994, Jaramogi Adonijah Odinga Oginga passed away with popular legacy of “the father of opposition politics in Kenya”


Early life.

Thomas Joseph Mboya was born in 1930 at Kilimanjaro (Machakos County) where his father worked in a sisal state. His parents were Leonards Ndigne and Maisela Awour. Thy came from Rusinga Island in Nyanza Province. Mboya early life was influenced by the multi-cultural environment he was brought up in. Mboya became fluent in both written and spoken at Kilimambogo and preceded to SSanthe Mary’s School, Yala, in Nyanza provide. He did his examination in 1945. Between 1946 and 1947 he studied at Holy Ghost College, Mangu in Thika. Between 1948 and 1950, mboya attended the sanitary inspector school at Kabete. He worked as a sanitary inspector with Nairobi city council. Later he became chairman the Kenya Health Inspector’s Association.


In 1953, Kenya Local government workers Union (LKQW was formed and Mboya was eelecte as its national General. Mboya protested against mass arrests. He altenative local ans overseas a residential cpirse at Jeannes school Kabete. At the seminar on workers education organization by the ICFTU, he was elected leader of the govnerment. He campaigned for the release of detained unionist and other political leaders as a resast, some were released. Between 1965 and 1956, Mboya attended Ruskin College, Oxford, Britain. He took course in industrial realtions. When he visited US and Canada, he made extensive visits and addressed many public meetings. When he returned in 1956, he stood a better chance in the elections to the legco in 1957. In 1957 Mobya formed the Nairobi peoples convention Party (NPCP) and becma eits president.

In 1958, Mboya was electe to the internation Conference of Free Trade Union (ICFTU) executive board. When KAU’s officials wre arrested Mboya was elected to act as treasuere of the party. He protested against the restriction of Africans to grow cash crops when KANU was formed in 1960, Mboya was elected its secretary general, a post he held until his death in 1959. He was among those who demanded the realease of Jomo Kenyatta.

In 1963, General Elections, he was elected to the House represented as a member for Nairobi central he became Minister for Justice and constitutional Affairs and later minster to planning and economic develop, a post which he held until he was gunned down by an assassin in Nairobi on Jly 5, 1969. Mboya in remembered as a great unionist, freedom fither and nationalist.


Early  life

Ronald Gedion Ngala was born in 1923 at Vishakani village, Kaloleni divison of Kilifi District incoast providce. He received his education at Bureto primary school in Mombasa before attending Alliance High school, Kikuyu. He went to Makerere College in Kampala Uganda, where he graduated with a Diploma in Education Ronald Ngala taught at Buston Primary as headmaster he later became supervisor of schools in Mombas. He joined early African politics and became van African issues.


He began organs political rallies in coast province soon after the state of emergence was declared.

He supported the detained leaders and called for their release. In 1957 electios, he was elected treasurer of African Elected Members Orgnaisation (AEMO). He held the past up to 1960 when KADU was formed.

KANU was formed in March 1960. Ngala and other leaders from minority communction formed KADU IN 1960. He was elected the president of the new party. During the 1962 Lancaster House conference, KADU under Ngala, pressed for Majimbo (regional) government while KANU advocated for a strong unitary governemtn. The last general election before independence wre held in May 1963 and Ngala became leader of the opposition party – KADU.

Ronald Ngala died after a road accident caused by a sting from a bee on the Nairobi Mombasa road in December 1972. He had served Kenya as an illustriouns educationalist freedom fighter and nationalist.


Eearly life

Maathai was born at Ihiteh village in Nyeri County on April 1, 1940. In 1943 Wangari’s family relocated to a white – owned farm near Nakuru in the Rift Valley wher her father worked. In 1947 she returned to her mother in Ihithe – in 1948, she enrolled in Ihithe Primary school in 1951, she proceeded to St. Cecilias intermediate primary school at the Mathari Catholic Mission in Neri while at this school, she convected to catholism and was baptized Mary Josephine. She joined Loreto High school Limuru in 1956. She joined Mt. St. Scholastica College in Atchison, Kansas. She graduated in 1964 with a BSC in Biology and procedd to the University with masters’ degree in Biolgogical sciences in 1966. In the same year she returned to Kenyaand was employed as a research assistant at the school of veterinary medicine in Universtiy of Nairobi. In 1969, she married Muta Maathai and they were blessed with 3 childrenl the devolved in 1979 after a two year separation.

In 1971, she graduated with a Phd in Anatomy from Nairobi University. She was appointed to teach at The University becoming a senior lecture in Anatomy in 1974. She was the first woman appointed to these postion in Nairobi University and had ealier became the first woman in Eastern African to receive a Phd.



Pro. Wangari Maathai is recognized for her persistant struggle for democracy, human rights and environment conservation. In 1971, she joined the Kenya Red Cross wher she became the director in 1973. In 1974 she joined the environment Liason centre where she became chairperson of the board. She also joined the National council of women of Kenya (NCWK) in the 1970s where she served as chairperson between 1980 and 1987. In 1977, she founded the Grem Belt Movement to fitht envrionmetal degration.

Between 1989, and 1996, wangari was involved in a bitter campaign against the proposal cosntructin of sixty – storage Kenya times media trust complete in Uhuru park, Nairobi. Between February 1992, and early 1993 she took part in a campaign to release political detainers in Kenya. In 2002, Wangari was elected to Kenya’s 9th parliament as a National Rainbow Coaliation (NARCK) candidate represent Tetu constituency. Between 2003 and 2007, she served as assistant minister for environment Natural Resources and wildlife.


For her literlong dedication to environmental and human rights campaign. Wangari has received international recognition and numerous awards.

The Nobel peace prize which she won on Oct.8, other major awards include:

2010 Earth Hall of Fame, Tokyo (Japan)

2009 Earth Hall of Fame, Totyo (Japan)

2009 Humanity for Water Award for outstanding commitment to action.

2009 The order of the Rising sun(Japan).

2009 Judge 2009 Geogouram challenge, National geographic (USA)

2008: Dignitas Human Awar St Joh’s school of theology (USA)

2007: The Nelson Mandela Award for Health & Human Right (USA)

2007: World citizenship Award.

2007: The Indian Gandhi international award for peace, disermanent and development, India.

2006: Premio defense media ambinta, club international and De prensa (Spain)

2006: Legional honnour

2004: Sophie prize

2004: Petra Kelly prize

2004: J. Stealing Morton award

2003: Global Environemtn Award

2001: The Juliet Hollister Award

1994: The Goldren Ark Award

1993: Jane Addams leadership Award

1993: Edinbung Medal

1991: Godman Envrionmnetal prize

1997: Global 500 roll of honour

1986: Better Worl Society Award.

1984: Right Livelihood Award.












Electrol system and process

Its ways in which elections are conducted interm of the body responsible for elections and the roles and principals guiding the process. General elections are held on the 2nd Tuesday of August every five year.

During the general elections, registered voter cast ballot for the president, Mps, senetors, governors and members of county assemblies.

Electoral process in Kenya is supervised by the independent electoral and boundaries commission.

IEBC. This an autonomous body created by the consititution for the purpose of exercising electrol process.

Composition of IEBC.

Consists of a maximum of 9 members headed by the chairman.

All commissioners appointed by the president with approval by the national assembly for a single term of 6 years.

Functions of IEBC.

  • Registration of voters and maintance of voters roll.
  • Regulation of nomination process.
  • Ensures voters registration.
  • Registration of candidates for elections.
  • Settlement of election disputes from nomination but excluding position after declaration of results.
  • Development of cord of conduct for candidates and parties conducting elections.
  • Regulation of funds that may be spent by a candidate or party in respect to any election.
  • Supervisions of the actual elections day by facilitating observantion, monitery, transporting of items, evaluation and announcing results.
  • Allocation of political parties’ nominatated seats proportion to total number of seats.


Electoral units.

This includes constituencies, counties and words.

The IEBC has the mandate to review at regular intervals the constituency and word boundaries, taking into consideration population geographical features, means of commonunication and interest and cultural ties.

The electoral process.

The stages of the electoral process.

Voter registration.

  • This is an on-going process for one to qualify as a voter hence one must be.
  • An adult citizen aged 18 years on date of registration.
  • Be of sound mind.
  • A Kenyan citizen.
  • Should not have been convicted of an election offence.

Civic education.

This is carried out by the IEBC to farmiliarise the voter on the voting process e.g. balloting, symbol, and registration among others.


The parliament is set to pass legislation on process of nomination.

Qualification for the various candidates are:

  1. Nationa government.


  • Kenyan citizen by birth.
  • Should be qualified to stand as a member of parliament.
  • Should be nominated by a political party or an independent candidate.
  • Should be 35 years of age and above.
  • Must be nominated by atlist 200 voters from each of the majority of the counties.


  • Is a holder os state officer with exception of offices of president, v.p or m.p.
  • If a person owes allegiance in a foreign state.
  • If he dies.
  • Resigns in writing to speaker of national assembly.
  • Found physically or mentally incapable of performing functions of office by the national assembly.
  • Is removed from the office if an impeachment/change is upheld against him or her by members of the senate.

Procedure at presidential Elections.

  • If only one candidate is nominated and cleared by the IEBC, then that candidate is declared elected. However, if two or more candidates are nominated an election is held in each constituency.
  • All registered letters are entitled to vote.
  • The vote is taken by secrete ballot on one day. The voiter are counted in the pooling stations are the result sent to the national terling centre.
  • The IEBC tallies and verifies they count and announces the results.
  • A candidate must do the following to be declared as a president.
  • Receive more than half of all the votes cast in the election.
  • Gain atleast 25% of the votes cast in more than a half of the countires.
  • If no candidate meets these conditions the frehs election is held within 30 days.
  • In new election the only candidates are: – the candidates who received the greater number of votes.
  • Then the candidate with the second greatest number of votes.
  • The candidate who receive the highest number of votes in the run-off election is declared the winner

Disputes in presidental election

  • In case a person is dissatisfied with the outcome of the plresidnetial election, the following procedure is to be followed.
  • Petition is filled in the supereme court within 14 dyays after the date of the declaration of results.
  • Within 14 days of the petition the supreme court years and determine the petition. His decision is always final.
  • The Supreme Court determines the election to be valid the fresh election is done within 60 days.

Swearing in of the president.

It’s done after the 1st Tuesday, after the 14th of the declaration of the results by the C.A and the president hold office of 5 years and cannot serve for more than two terms

Vacancy in the office of the president

  • The president dies
  • The president resigns in writing the speaker fo the national assembly.
  • The president is found by tribunal appointed by the CJ to be incapable in performing the functions in the office of the president than approved by majority in the national assembly. When the national assembly passes the motion of embitchemnt against the president this must be improved by the senate.
  • If the pettion had been successful in the spring court.

Parliamentary Election

Like presidential elections parliamentary elections are held on the 2nd Tuesday in August in every 5 years.

Voters in every constitutency elect representativesto the national assembly,while voters in each county elect representatives to the senate, in addition, voters in each county elect wome ref to the national assembly.

Qualifications for election as a member of parliament

  • A registered voter
  • Certisfied the scribed educational party or is an independence candidate.
  • Of sound mind
  • Not bankrupt
  • Is not having a sentence of imprisonmen texhibiiitng
  • Has been a Kenyan citizen for atleast 10 years of election.
  • Is not a state officer other than a member of parliament.

Procedure at parliamentary election

Days after parliament is dissolved the speaker of respective houses give notice in writing of the vacancies to the independent electrol boundaries comm. (IEBC)

Political parties’ normianate their candidates within a specific period, the nominees are represented to the IEBC for clearance of a given date.

They must have atleast 1000 registered voters in the constituiency interms of support.

In senate atleast 2000 are registered voters in the country.

Candidates are given 21days to compaign and sell their policies to the voters.

The pooling day, voters cast their voters in their pooling statics between 6am – 6pm.

The ballots are counted at the pooling station and the results announced.

The results are then taken to the terling centres where they terlied, verified and winners declared.

Right of recall

The electorates have the right to remove from office their member of parliament before expiry of 5 years term through rules.

Election of county officials.

County government.

Deputy count governors.

Member of the county assemble (MCA).

Election of the county governor


  • A registered voter.
  • Satifies prescribed educational moral and ethical requirements.
  • Either nominated by a political party or an independent candidate supported by atleast voers in the world
  • Should be of sound mind
  • He/she is not declared bankrupt
  • He/she is not found to have misused of abused the public office

The county governor may be removed from office

On any of the following grounds if he violates constitution.

If he/she commits a crime, abuse of office or misconduct by the holder.

The holder is mentally or physically incapacitated to hold the office.

However, a vacancy may occur in the office of the governor if the hodler of office dies.

The holder of the office resignes in writing the speaker of the county assembly.

The holder of the office ceases to be eligible to be elected as a county governor.

The holder of the office is convicted of any offence punishable by imprisonment for atleast 12 months.

A person is not allowed to hold the office of the county govenement for more than 2 terms.

Elections of members of county assembly

This is done by voters in the ward and they serve for terms of sycars.

Qualifications for elections of MCAs

  • Is not a holder of public officer
  • Be a registered voter with a satisfied education moral and ethical requirement.
  • Is of sound mind.
  • Not bankrupt.
  • Nominated by political party
  • He/she an independent candidate supported by atleast
  • Too registerd voters in the world
  • Should not be serving a sentence of imprisonment exceeding 6 montsh.
  • Be a Kenyan citizen by atleast 10 years.
  • Has not within the previous 5 years had office or a member of IEBC


This are elctions which ar held to till an elective office which faults vacant before the expiry of the specified time its held within 90 dyas of the occurenace of a vacancy in the office of amember of a national assembly, senate of county assembly.

Conditions that may necesssitate a by-election

  • Member of Parliament dies
  • A Member of Parliament mises and consecutive seatings fo the relevant houses without permission frm the speaker. Member resigns from the party that sponsored him/her to parliament.
  • When a member is mentally or physically incapacitated to perform his/her functions.
  • A member seaces to be a Kenyan Citizen
  • A member is jailed for aperiod extending 6 months.
  • A member is declared bankrupt.


It has 9 commissioners.

A Chairperson is appointed by the president but approved by the national assembly.

A vice – chairperson elected by the commissioners.

A Secretary appointed by the commission.

A chief exectuvie officer appointed by the common.

Functions of IEBC

  • Conducts and surprise elections and referendum
  • The continous registration of voters.
  • The regular revision of voters’ role
  • Review the names and boundaries of constituencies’ wards.
  • Regulate the process by which parties nominates candidates for elections.
  • Settle electrol disputes arising from nominations.
  • Register candidates for election
  • Conduct voter education.
  • Facilitate the observation, monitoring and evolution of elections.
  • Develop a cord of conduct and parties contesting elections.
  • Appoints election officials such as the returning officers, preciding officers and their deputies and polling clerks.

Returning officers (RO)

They are appointed form each constitutency

There role are

They receive nomination papers from candidates.

They distribute election materials to polling stations

Supervise poll results fromt the polling statins.

Tally and verify results and announce the winner/

Tally presidential results from constuency or county and relay them to the national terling centre.


They are appointed arm each polling station to see that every voter votes are only ones.

A mark of usually not easily removable ink is put on the voters’ small finger.

To help voters who are unable to mark their ballot papers.

To seal the ballot taxes after voting is completed in the presence of part agents.

Count ballot paper in the presence of party agents in voting stations and announce results.


There Are 2; National and County government

  1. National government

It has 3 arms 1. The executive

  1. The legislature
  2. The judiciary.

Formation begins with a general election where citizen elect members of the legislative and the president. Person elected as a president becomes the head of the executie arm of the government and appoints cabinet secretary and other senior civil servants and approvedby the national assembly.

The judiciary is made up of judges, magistrate and judicial officers.

The C.J (Chief Justice) and the (DCJ) is ppointed by the president allowing recommendation over the judicial service community and approved by the national assembly.

Magistrate and judicial officers are appointed by the judicial service commission.

County Government

It operates at county level

Each of the 47 counties has a government which enjoys powers.

Dedicated to it by a national government.

The governor, D. G, county assembly and the executive committee.

The governor appoints members of the county executive committee from persons who are not members of the county assembly and must be approved by the county assembly


  1. The legistlture(The Parliament)

Its referre to as parliament.It’s a bi-cameral, that is national assistant and the senate.

It’s the law making aim of the government

  1. National assembly

It’s the law house of the legislature

There are 290 constitunecy in Kenya

Some members are nominated to represent seical interest groups.

On its 1st seating member elect the speaker.

  1. Senate

This is the upper house of the legislature

Has 47 members and some are also nominated to represent special interest groups.

The senate also elects the speaker who is an ex-official member.



  • It has 350 members.
  • 290 elected members representing the constituencies
  • 7 women elected by registered voters from each county.
  • 2 nominated members by parliamentary political parties.
  • The speaker who is an ex-official member.


It has68 members, 47 elected members representated counties.

Women members nominated by political parties represented in the senate.

Two members 1 woman and 1 man are represented the youth

Two members, 1 woman and 1 man to represent persons with disabiltieis.

The speaker who is an ex-official member.


  • Represent the people of the constituency and special interest groups.
  • They liberate on and resovle issues of concern to the people.
  • It makes and amends laws.
  • It determines the allocation of national revenue between the national and county government.
  • Approves government expenditure.
  • Supervises national revenue and expenditure
  • Review in conduct the office of the president/deputy president and other state officers.
  • Approves declarations of war and extensives of state of emergency
  • Superrises theoperation of state organs.


  • Participatin in law making function of the parliament by debating and approving bills conserning a countires. Representing and protecting the interest of the county and the government.
  • Determines the allocation of national revenue among counties.
  • Oversees expenditure of national revenue allocated to the county government.
  • Participated in considering and determing and resolutions to remove the president or deputy president in office.
  • Any initiated may innitate bills concerning the communities.

Process of law making

The legistlature makes law through bills ascended to by the president.

It may originate from national assembly or running mate.

Process of grafting a bill

A bill is a proposed legislation.

They are of two type’s i.e – Private member bills

Public bills

Private member bill

Grafted by a member of parliament of the member may draft the bill him/herself seeks assistance from a qualifed bill drafters the member publishes the draft billof the Kenyan gazette for the members of public acqouint themselves with its content and against ammendements.

The member then presents the graft bill in the flow of the house.

The public bill is also referred to as government bill.

The process of grafting public bill begins from the ministry which develops a genral policy concerning the proposed bill.

The general policy is submitted to the Kenya Law Review Commision (KLRC).

This body is judged with the responsibility of reviewing the policies from the new bill and formulating draft bills.

The draft bill from (KLRC) is presented by the Antony general who makes suggestions for improvements.

The AG also insures the graft bill is invalid with the General government policy.

The AG forwards the graft bill to the commission of impleming of the constitution the (CIC).

The CIC insured that the letter and the spirit at the new constituoin is respected and improves the bill.

Ile CIC returns the bills of the AG who enables it before the cabinet for debate and removal. The cabinet empowers the cabinet secretary to establish the bill on the Kenyan gazette for members at the public to acquint themselves to the content and make the suggestions.

The bill is then tabled for aparliament. For a bill becomes law it has to go through the following stages.

1st reading

The bill is introduced in the house.

It allows members to appoint themselves in the content to debate is permiteed at this stage.

The Mps are only required to approve or improve such intended legislation on the countries law.

It’s approved it moves to the 2nd reading

2nd reading

Where discussion begins.Debated in detail.

Amendments are proposed/suggested.

At this stage, the bill can either be rejected or be discussed or its discussion postponed for 6 months to give the concerned ministry time to and draft the bill

It the bill services this stage; it goes to the 2nd stage.


Parliament turns itself into a committee at the whole house or a smaller committee with a view to make improvements on the bill recommendation made during the 2nd reading.

Report stage

This involves taking the bill back to parliament in its improved form.

The mps are also given opportunity to confirm that the suggestions and recommendationas at the committee stage have been incoperated into the bill. That sets the stage for 3rd reading.further debates takes palce and even additional amendments may be made on the bill voting takes place if the MPs approve its passed to the next stage.


After the presidents ascend the bill becomes an act of parliament and one of the laws of the country.

It’s then published in the Kenyan gazette for public knowledge and awarness


Drafting of the bill, Anthorny Generals chamber

Fist reading


2nd Reading



Committee stage



Report stage


3rd reading


Presidential ascend


Act of parliament law


This means that the parliament is more powerful than other two institutions of government like executive and judicialry

Is exercised through legislation, financial.

Non – confidence mortion and general catesism.

It can make of repeal any law or constitute.

It can altar the constitution declare war of a state of emergency

There is no law that can override any made by parliament.

The members of parliament are immude to prosectution for whatever they say in parliament while contributiong to the debates. This is what is known as parliamentatry immunity.


  • He’s the spokes person and the head of the house.
  • He precides over the proceeding of the house.
  • Dicpilines errants members and interpretes standing orders to the members.
  • Effects the dignity and authority of the house presents parliament of official fucnciton outside the house.
  • The speaker of the national assembly is the chairperson or the parliamentary sevice commission.
  • Seeks in new elected MPs.

Functions of the clerk in the parliament

  • The chief administrato and acoounting officer of the house.
  • Advices the speaker in the order of the use business and lists a notice of morion.
  • Tea prepares and maintains parliamentary records of the hosue proceedings in the Heansard affairs copies of bills and submit them for presidneatila escort.
  • Adives and re-ordinate the work of the staff of the house.
  • Maintains a liberty for the use by members of the house.


It consist of the following

The speaker of the national assembly as chairperson vice chairperson elected by members, 7 members appointed by parliament from among its members 1 man and 1 woman appointed by the parliament from among persons who are experienced in public affaires but are not members of the parliament.

The clerk at the senate as a secretary.


  • Provide services and facilities for efficient and effective functioning of the parliament.
  • Constituting of offices and parliamentary service.
  • Appointing and supervising office holders in parliament service.
  • Prepare annual estimates of expenditure of parliamnentary service and submit them for approval by national assembly.
  • Promoting the ideal of parliamentary democracy in colaboratin with the relevant orgnanisation.


To implements the law and policies of government is headed by the president.


  • Commander in chief of the armed forces.
  • Power to exercise the exectuve authority of the republic.
  • Power to uphold and safeguard the constitution and suprimity of the republic.
  • Powers of merely e.g paddons persons convicted of offence.
  • Powers for nominate, appoint or dismiss cabinet secretary and other officials.
  • The power to constitutions honurs in the name of the people and the republic.
  • Chairperson of the national security.


  • Addresses the openings and special seating in parliament.
  • Reports once evey year in a chiefs to the nations on measures taken and progress achieved in realizing national values.
  • Chair cabine meeting
  • Nominated and with approval of nationa assembly.
  • Appoints or dismise cabine secretary, attoney general and other senior state officers.
  • Receive foreign diplomatic and consider represents.
  • Directs and co-ordinates the functions of minister and government departments.
  • Confers governors in the name of the people and the republic
  • Declare state of emergency
  • Declare war with approval of parliament.
  • Insures the international obligations of the republic are fullfiled through the actions of the relevant cabinet secretaries.


  • Performs any other functions assigned by the president.
  • Is amember of the cabinet.
  • The principle assistant of the president and deputies the president decides.



President, the deputy president, the Attorney General, Cabint secretaries who are not less that 14 and not more then 22.

The cabinet se are not members of parliament.

They are nominated and appointed by the president with approval of the national assembly.

The secretary of the cabinet perfoms the following duties.

  • Takes change of the cabinet office.
  • Arranges the business of the cabinet.
  • Keeps the minutes of the cabinet to the appropriate person or authority.


  • Appears before a committee of the national assembly or the senate when required by the committee and answer questions pertaining various miniroties.
  • Provide parliament with full and regular reporters concerning matters under their control.
  • Assists and advices the president on day to day running of the government.
  • Chart out and lay down guidlien on Kenya domestic and foreign policy.
  • Discuss matters of national and international importance.
  • Expand government policy.
  • Ensure governemtn policy is implemented by the civil servants/


Each state department is headed by a principal secretary.

The office of the principal secretary is an office in the public service.

They are nominated by the president from among persons recommends by public service comm. (PSC) their appointement must be approved by the parliament.

Functions of the PS (Principal Secretaries).

  • They administer state departments.
  • They are the accounting officers in the state departments
  • Formulate and implement governemtn policy.
  • Assist in drawing up the budgets and development programmes of their deparments.
  • As a link betweenthe cabinet secretary and staff of the deparmtne.

Functions of the Attorney –General.

He is nominated by the president and appointed, by ehe following approval of the National Assembly.

Functions include:

  • He is the principal legal advisor to the government.
  • Represents the national government incourt or in nany other legal proceeding.
  • Promotes and uphold the rule of law.
  • Defends public interest.
  • Appears as a friend of the court in any civit proceeding to which the government is not a party.
  • Takes part in the drafting of government bills before they are tabled in parliament.


The DPP is nominated and with the approval of the National Assembly, appointed by the president.

The DPP hold office for a term of eight years and is not eligible for re-apointment.


  • To institute andundertake criminal proceedings against any person before any court other than a court martial.
  • Takes over and continue any criminal proceedings commenced in any court other than a court marital.
  • Discountinouse at any stage before judgment is delivered.
  • Superises and co-oridnates the work of state.
  • Directs the inspector – General of the National policy service to investigate allegations of criminal conduct.
  • Safeguards public interest and the interent of administration of justice to prvent abuse of the legal process. Delegates powers to prosecute subordinate officers.


This is the non-plitical section of the executive arm of the government.

It’s headed by the principal secretary in the office of the president.

Members of public servies are appointed by the public service commission.


  • Provides servie to the people especially servie ministeres like health and education.
  • Implements government policies andprgramme.
  • Interpretes government policies to the people so that they can willingly participate in their implementation.
  • Maintains governemtn record.
  • Advises cabinet secretary on matters of policy.
  • Ensurs continuity in governemtn operations since the public service is permanent while poltiszing come and go.
  • Collects government revenue through licenses.


It consist of the chairperson, vice chairperson and seven other member appointed by the president

Functions include

  • Establishining and abolishing offices in the public service.
  • Appointing persons to hold officing in the public services
  • Disciplinary and removing from office public services officers.
  • Promoting and providing renumeration to public service officers.
  • Develops human resources in the public service.
  • Ensuring efficient and effective prosivion of service by public service officers.
  • Hearing and determining appeals in respect of country govenmeent public service.

Composition and functions of National securities organs.

They are government bodies which provide internal security or protect the county from external attack, they help in maintenance of law and order and help to promote the rule of law

They include: a) the defence forces

  1. National intelligence service
  2. National police service

It consists –     The Kenya Army’s

The Kenya Air force.

The Kenya Navy

Functions of the K.D.F

  • To defend Kenya from external aggression
  • The Kenya Navy has the responsibility of patrolling kenya’s territorial waters and defending Kenya against seaborne invasions.
  • The navy also is responsible for dealing with illegal docking and departures and unautrhorised fishing in Kenyan waters by foreign vessels’. The Kenya Air Force secures Kenya’s airspace against potential forces.
  • They also assist the police in maitaning have and order.
  • Within Kenya, the armed forces are sometimes involved in no-military activities such as road and bridge construction.
  • Kenya’s armed forces have also been involved in several occasions as part of the United Nations sponsor is peace keeping forces in war – torn areas e.g Namibia.
  1. National Intelligence services.

This is the body which collects and gathers intelligence reports which are important to the state security. It’s headed by the Director General who is a member of the National security. It’s headed by the Director General who is a member of the National Security Council.

Functions of the National intelligence Service.

  • Collects intelligence information on threats to state security.
  • Keeps the state informed on the feeling of people towards the government and the government policy.
  • Gathers information on external threats to the nation.


It consists of the Kenya police service and the administration police service.

It’s headed by the inspector general of the National Police Service.

The Kenya police service and administration police service are each headed by a Deputy inspector General.

It has several units which include. The criminal investigation Department (CID), Traffic police, police airway, Anti- Narcotics unit, among others.

Functions of the National Police Service.

  • Maintaining law and order by preventing and detecting crime.
  • Arresting suspected criminals and taking them by a court of law.
  • Collecting and evaluating intelligence information and documents for fighting crime.
  • Carries direction and inspection of moto vehicles.
  • Monitoring the in-coming and outgoing traffic at border posts and entry points.
  • Collaborate with Interpol in fighting international crime.
  • Provide security to senior government officers and buildings.
  • Prevent corruption and promote practice of transparency and accountability.
  • Train staff to highest possible standards of competend and integrity.
  • The constitution established a National police service commission which plays the following function.
  • Recruits and appoints person to hold or act in offices in the service.
  • Confirms appointment and determines promotion
  • Determines transfers within the servie.
  • Exercises disciplinary control over officers.
  • Removing persona holding or acting in offices with the service.


  • Porous boundaries especially the borders of Kenya and Ethiopia.
  • Rising crime rates due to swelling population and unemployment has overwhelmed the security organs. Increased cases of sophisticated crimes such as cyber crime, terrosism, money laundering and drug trafficking
  • Poor infrastructure e.g poor and communication network makes it difficulut for security organs to access certain parts of the country.
  • High incidents of corruption and related vices like nepotism and favourism has hampered service delivery to the public.
  • High influx of refugees from war torn countries has led to smuggling of arms in the contry, posing a security risk.
  • The emergences of organized criminal gangs in the name of vigilance groups have caused insecurity in many areas.


  • Employing more police officers toimprove on the overall police to population ratio.
  • Reviewing of the security organs training curriculum to incorporate skills for combating emerging crimes increase the duration of training of security officers to make them more official in fighting crime.
  • Providing modern equipment such as communication gadgets, forensic laboratory and arms.
  • Increasing funding to security organs for purchase of motor vehicles for their daily operations.
  • Improving the conditions and terms of service of police officers.
  • Increase surveillance along international boundaries by opeining patrol bases and deploying more personnel to curb illegal entry into the country.
  • Screamlining the recruitment of personnel into the security organs to reflect the diversity of the Kenyan people.


It falls under National Police Service.

They are measures taken to punish and rehabilitate offenders so as interrogate them into the society. The prisons services have various categories of instituons which help to prevent contamination the minor offenders by worse ones.

These institutions include

Principal institution.

These confine offenders convicted of serious crime e.g those sentenced to life imprisonment.

District I and II prisons

These hold offenders convicted of serious crime but which are not capital offences (medium security prisons)

Youth institutions.

These are used to confine young offender of between ages 15 and 21.

They offer vocational training and give them opportunities to continue education.

Other correctional service include

Extra – mural panel employment scheme. This involves convicts residing in their homes but working on government projects or public works for the entire period of their sentence.

Probation Department

This is where convicts are placed under the observation of a probation officer. The officer provides counseling service and monitors change in behaviour andconduct of the convict.

Functions of correctional services

  • Punishing convicted offenders as directed by a court of law.
  • Rehabilitating convicted offenders.
  • Confining convicted prisoners.
  • Deferring those who might be thinking of committing crimes.
  • Offering welfare services to convicts.
  • Continuing remandees a sthey wait to appear in court.

Challenges facing correctional services

  • There is congestion in prisons which is caused by high incidents of crime. Tis has led to poor living conditions as the prisons facilites are overstretched.
  • High incidents of disease outbreaks such as a cholera and typoing fever. This has led to death of many inmates.
  • Shortage of funds to maintain the prisoners. The correctional services have inadequate part to rehabilitate convicts through counseling.other living conditions of prison warders like low renumeration and poor housing. Rising cases or corruption, leading to smuggling of legal goods into prisons and prison breaks.


  • There has been introduction of community service of petty offenders to deconest prisons.
  • Approving the living conditions for prisoners by medical services, clothing and bedding and also better
  • Realease of petty offenders to ease congestion employing and training more personel.
  • Approving the living conditions for prison warders
  • Contruction of better houses.


This is the branch of government which co-ordinates e. administration of justice through a system courts in accordance with the law.

The independence of the judiciary in Kenya is guaranteed in the following ways:-the office of a judge of a superior court can’t be abolished while the holder is still in office.

The remuneration and benefit of judges is drawn directly from the consolidated fund.

A member of the judiciary cannot be sued in respect of the lawful performance of a judicial function.

The judiciary has a separate system or command, headed by the Christ justice and delinked from other organsof governments.

Judges and magistrate are bound by one Oath of allegiance to perform their duties without fear or favour.

Structure and functions of the court system in Kenya.

The court system in Kenya is heirachical, that’s it is arragned from highest to the lower court system of courts in Kenya is made up of

  1. supreme courts.
  2. subordinate court.


The superior courts are;         i) the supreme court

  1. ii) The court of appeal

iii) The high court

The supreme court

Chief justice

Deputy Chief justice

Other judges

Fucntions of the Supreme Court

  • As exclusive original jurisdication to hear and determine disputes relating to the election to the office of the president.
  • And determines appeals from the court of appeal and any other court or tribunal.
  • Advirosry opinion at the request of the National government.
  • Make decisions which are binding to all other courts.
  • Makes rules for the exercise of its jurisdication.
  1. ii) The court of appeal

This is the 2nd highest court in the country.

It has only appellate jurisdication.

It is composed of

The president who is elected from among its judge’s less than twelve judges.


  • Hears appeals from the high court.
  • Hears appeals form other court s or tribunals.
  • May order a retial of a case by a lower court

iii) The High Court

This is the third highest court

It consist of

Principal Judge elected by judges or the high court from among themselves.

A number of judges prescribed by an act of parliamnent


  • Has unlimited original jurisdiction in criminal and civil matters.
  • Protects the rights of fundamental freedoms in the Bill of rights.
  • Hears appeals from tribunals appointed by the court to consider removal of a person from office other than the president.
  • Supervises the subordinate courts.
  • Hears appeals from the subordinate courts.

Subordinate courts

They are lower courts. They have limited jurisdication over criminal and civil cases.

They include the magistrate courts

The kadhi courts

The court martial


a)The magistrate courts

These are leaded by a magistrate who is appointed by the judicial service commission

They operate under certain levels. These are:-

Chief magistrate courts.

Senior principal magistrates’ court

Principal magistrates court

Senior resident magistrates court.

Resident magistrates court.

The chief magistrate courts have administrative powers over all the lower cours within the region. They hear a case that carries a death penalty.

Their hierarchies determine the nature of case handed and the joint sentence given or fine impose.

  1. b) Kadhi courts

These are Islamic court. They handle disputes where both parties are Muslim. Their jurisdiction to Muslim matters are such as: Divorce, marriage, inheritance and personal status.

They are headed by cliet Kadhi who supervise the other Kadhi courts.

  1. Tribunals

It’s a special court established by an Act of parliament to handle matters relating to specific fields. Examples of tribunal in Kenya are

The rent restriction tribunal

The business premises rent tribunal

Commissions of inquirey

The judicial service commission

This is a body established by the constitution promote and facilitate the independence and accountability of the judicialry.

It composed of: – The child justice – chairperson

One supreme court judge

One court of appeal judge.

One high court judge

One magistrate

The attorny – general

Two advocates 1 woman and 1 man, each whom have atleast 15 years expericne, eleted by the law society of Kenya.

One person nominated by the public sercice commission.

One woman and 1 man to represent the public appointed by the president with the approval of the National assembly.

The chief registrar of the judiciary – secretary

Functions of the judicial service commission

  • Commands to the president for appointment as judges.
  • Reviews and maeks recommendations on the conditions of service of judges, judicial officers and the staff of the judiciary.
  • Prepares and implements programmes for th continuing education and training of judges and judicial officers
  • Advices the national government on improving the efficiency of the administration of justice.


Is head of the judiciary arm of government

He is appointed by the president.

He holds office for one term of 1 years.

For the appointment to the offie the person must have the following qualificastions.

At least 15 years of experience as a Supreme Court judge.

At least 15 years experience as a distinguished academic judicial officer, or legal practitioner.

Hold a law degree from a recognized university or be an advocate of the High court.

Have a high moral character integrity and impartiality.



  • Head of the judiciary.
  • President of the supreme court
  • Chairperson of the judicial service commission.
  • Swears into office of the president, deputy president and cabinet secretaries.
  • Assigns duties to the judges of the Supreme Court.
  • Ways the rule of law is upheld in Kenya.
  • By ensuring the independence of the judiciary
  • By apprehending and taking suspects to court of law for trial.
  • By guaranteeing legal representative to the accused person.
  • By subjecting all persons to the law


Challenges facing the judiciary.

  • Inadequate personnel, leading to delays in the administration of justice and a backlog of cases.
  • Interference in the judicial process by the executive and other influential personalities.
  • Corruption in the court of law which results intoi unfair rulings.
  • Low level of public awareness on their rights and legal procedures.
  • High court fees which limit public access to the courts.
  • The use of outdate laws.
  • Shortage of equipment and facilitate.
  • Poor terms of service and working conditions make it different to administer justice.


  • Employment of more personnel
  • Improving on the terms of service and remuneration of judges and magistrates.
  • Increase funding to the judiciary to enable it acquire modern equipment.
  • Providing legal education to the public.
  • Making courts more indepent to free zones by creating awareness on the ills of corruption.
  • Lowering court fees to make them affordable to ordinary citizens.


  • Developing and implementing foreign affairs and foreign policy.
  • Handles matters concernng trade between Kenya and other countries.
  • Controls the use of international waters and resources.
  • Handles matters pertaining to immigration and citizenship attending the country from external aggression by sitting in place and maintaining a national defence force.
  • Providing and maintaining higher education policies.
  • Developing health care through formulation of policy and construction and maitanance of national referral hospitals.
  • Affecting the environment and national resources affecting the rights of workers by maintaining laobur, standard and managing industrial relatives’ admistering justice by establishing and cointaing an idependent judiciary maintaingin internal security through the Kenya servie. This ensures there is no breakdown law and order.
  • Formulates language policy and promotes the use of official and local languages.




















WORLD WAR I (1914 – 1918)


The World War I was the 1st total war involving almost all world countries directly or indirectly. This was also the 1st mechanized war in the world where as previously man has been wedging war using swords and guns in to hourses or foot.

It saw introduction of new weapons i.e machine, large battleships, submarines, fighter jets, poisonous gas long ranger field guns etc.

The war was caused by worsening foreign/international relationship among European countries in and outside Europe especially the Balkan region, the far East and Africa.

Causes of World War I

  • Formation of alliances amongst rival nations made them aggressive leading to breakout of the war e.g Germany formed with Australia, Hungary and Italy (triple alliance) others Britain, France and Russia formed another group called triple Atlanta. Such alliances were formed with the understanding that each country will have their allies in the event of war.
  • Imparialism and the competition for colonies among European nations created rivalry led in to war I.
  • During the 2nd half of the late European countries competed over the acquisition of colonies for raw materials and market for industrial produce.
  • Germany went a head and acquired colonies in Africa and in Eastern European.
  • Such acquisition angered Russian that was also interested in the area.
  • Creation of powerful weapons and armies by European Nations meant that the nations were getting ready for war. Between 1900 – 1914 Europeans countries competed with each other in expanding their needs and arms. Traditionally Britain had the best navy in the world called old navy. Germany also began building a strong navy to challenge British navy. The British want ahead and made a new navy for the purpose of staying ahead of Germany.
  • Apart from improving battle ships European nations also built new weapons and were eager to use them.
  • Sarajao Assassination. The immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of Arachduke janz Ferdinand by a Sorbian student.
  • Need for revenge France prepared for World War I to get a chance revenge on Germany following their defeat during Franco Persian war.
  • France also wanted to regeam her lost provinces of Alsare and Lorrain.
  • Nationalism in the Balkans spotted off the World War I due to many complicit between European powers and Balkan states who were fighting for independence.
  • The Automan empire (Turkey and Australia Hungary were with two great empire in Europe in the early 20th.
  • The people who occupied this area (Greeks, stakes, Albanians & the Serbs) amongst others wanted to achieve their independence. This led to a number of wars between Turkey and the Balkan legue.
  • The 1st and 2nd Morroccan crisis.

Intensified tension between France, Britain and Germany leading to the triple entante two members ie. Britain and France agreed to and colonial disputes.

They agreed that France would recognize British occupation of Egypt and Britain in turn recognize French occupation of Morocco while disregarding Germans intest that.

Kaiser of Germany was dissatisfied with the situation and promised Sultan to fight for his independence.

A conference was called in Spain to try and Soike which ended with Germany loss as she failed to guard Italian support.


The 1st World War bake cut in July 1914 with Austria Hungary declaring war on Serbia.

Serbia had an understanding alliance with Russia and so the Russian army began to mobilize. Germany then declared war on Russia and France as all major European countries soon joined the war.

NB The triple alliance consisting of Germany, Italy and Austria Hungary changed their name to Central powers. Bulgaria and Turkey also joined them while Italy left.

The triple entente was joined by Italy, Britain, France, Russiaa, Japan and later USA and came to be known as allies.

The war was fought in 3 countries Europe, Africa and Asia both on land and sea. In Europe war was fought in front western front and Eastern front.On Western front war was between Germany on one hand and Britain, France and Belgium in the other. On the Eastern front Germany, Austria Hungary and Turkey mainly fought against Russian forces.


On the Western front Germans fighting British and French forces and later towards the end of the war American forces join the war. The war on the Western front was part of the Von Schlieffen plan. Alfred Ven Schlieffen the chief of German general staff had in 1905 planned for the war against France. His plan was to attack France through neutral Belgium. It was estimated that within the night German soldiers would capture Paris. Thereby end French resistance and force Britain to sign a separate peace treaty. This plan also succeeded and by September 1914 German forces were on the outcast of France but were forced back by British and French force.


  • Russia mobilized her forces faster than expected that meant that German forces had to be diploid in the Eastern front earlier than expected.
  • German invasion of Belgium is not as first as anticipated both sides were more evenly matched as the German had thought. These factors led to a military stalemate on the Western front which lasted for most of the rest of the war.
  • The military stalemate on Western front took the form of French warfare.
  • The opposing sides resulted to digging up of network of trenches (dip ditches for protection against artillary and machine gun fire) stretching for 1080kms across France and Belgium.

Factors that contributed to military stalemate.

  • Both sides were using matched.
  • Trained warfare tended to shied defenders
  • Defenders used modern weapons and techniques of warfare e.g machine guns.
  • Russian forces mobilized easier than anticipated.


The war in Eastern front was between Russian on one hand and Germany and Austria Hungary on the other. Though the Russian army was large it was poorly led,, poorly trained  and ill-equipped and so Russian causalities remained high from beginning of the war upto 1917.

Turkey entered the way on the side of the central powers in November 1914 and Bulgaria in September 1915.

In May 19 Italy joined the allies.the war on eastern front was influenced by events in Russia in 1917.

In March 1917, the revolution broke out in Russia (the Bolshevik revolution) which led to abduction os tsar Nicholas ii.

The new leaders did not wish to continue the war against Germany.

A peace treaty (the treaty of brest-litovisk). This treaty was signed with Germany on 3rd march 1918.

Germany therefor released more of here soldiers to the western front.

During the course of the war new weapons came into use e.g the machine gun, the Armoured the submarine, Aircrafts and poison gas.


In 1914, Britain was still the undisputed naval power. She used her navy to blockade German ports, to ensure they didn’t get supply of food and raw materials.

Germany retalieted by using German boats (submarines) to sink all ships which were bound for British ports. By February 1915 Germany had declared the seas around the British ailes a war zone in which all enemy ships will be sunk with or without warning.

May 7th 1915, German submarines sunk a USA Liner (the Lusitania) off the coast of Treland leading to deaths of 1200 people. Who included many Americans.

This incident horrified the western world and brought USA to the brink of war with Germany. After this Germany agreed not to sink passenger.

In March 1916 however, Germany violated this agreement when she sunk the Sussex a Britain ship carring USA passengers. The Germans wanted to Britain out of the war by cutting off her suppliers of food and raw materials before the USA could act.

In 1917, the german high command declared un restricted submarine warfare on all ships trading with Britain.

Ships from neutral countries were no longer issued with a warning but were sunk on sight just like enemy ships.

Among neutral states whose ships sunk by german was the USA.

USA had remained neutral up to

Reasons why the USA had remained neutral upto 1917.

  • The war was regarded partly as European affair and so USA did not want to involve her self in quaralles of European powers.
  • There were people of German descent in the USA and there was fear that as USA declared war on German than the war might be fought on her soil between Americans of German discent and American of Britain, French,Russian or other discents .
  • USA was gaining economically upon trade with both sides. The USA  entered the war inside of allies for following reasons
  1. Sinking of USA merchant ships (Sussese and lusitania) provoked USA into the war.
  2. Discovering of the Zimmermann latter written by German foreign minister. Arthur Zimmermann to German embasy in mexico promising mexico support if they attack USA.
  3. The USA had given of loans to the allies during the war and she feared that an alliey defeat will lead to loss of money.
  • Though USA tours didn’t play major part in actual fighting their presences boosted many of allies and weakened that of Germany to an extend that Germans will resist was reduced.
  • With entry of USA in the war soon came to end in November 1918.


  • Allies had adequate manpower as compared to the central powers i.e the allied camp had a total of 27 countries while central powers had only 4.
  • Allies had better industrial and financial resources from both Europe and the colonies e.g food, raw materials and war equipment.

The superior allied sea power

  • The allies enforced the deadly naval blockade which caused disparate food shortages and stopped exports while ensuring allied armies were fully supplied.
  • Entry of the USA on allied powers side gave them vast new resources for effective execution of the war.
  • Allied political leaders were (Lloyd George P.M Britain, Woodrow Wilson Presdent U.S.A, Singer Orlande andd Clemeceau P.M France) were more competent in strategies and conduct of the war than that of central powers.
  • The epidemic of deadly Spanish flue worsened the situation leading to low morale among the contral powers as they retreated.
  • Central powers surrounded by allied countries as they all lay in centre of Europe. They also lacked an extensive coastline and thus were easily blockaded.
  • Germany was seriously left down by her allies who kept down dropping out of the war one by one.


The war was fought in those regions where Germany had colonies neighbouring

those of allied power. Cameroon, Namibia, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanganyika as hostility in East Africa began when Britain attacked Dar el – salaam and Tanga. The German East Africa Commander general Paul von better-verbek moved to attack uganda railway from Kilimanjaro.

Britain received more troops from India, sourth Africa, Malawi and Zimbabe hence defeating Germans.

Belgium forces occupied Rwanda and Burundi while sourth Africa occupied Namibia bringing an end of the war in Africa.

Results of World War 1

  • Many people died either killed in war front by epedermies emanating from the war.
  • Many people contracted disease due to the war i.e many soldiers contracted signal disease.
  • War interfied with agriculture activity leading to mass spiritual and death.
  • Destruction of properties e.g Railway lines, roads, building etc.
  • Huge amounts spend to purchase weapons and this serially affected European economy.
  • S.A industries were not destroyed by the wars this lead to it being world power.
  • Empires such as Austria Hungary and Russia declined.
  • Peace settlement after war improved international relationships with creation of light of Nations which improved world peace.
  • Air transport advanced during the war facilitating major improvements later.
  • Europe determination of overseas colonies was greatly undermined because most countries began demanding for independence.
  • Art of surgery dispite significantly during war due to many war causalities who required operation.


In January 1919 states men at the 27 allied countries converged at Paris to determine fate of the defeated powers.  The central powers were not party to the decision and were simply presented with draft resolutions for signature.

The negotiations were terminated by Britain, France, USA and Italy. Russia didn’t participate as she had already withdrawn from the war and signed a peace treaty with Germany.

The key personalities at the conference were

Lloyd George (P. M. Britain)

George clemencau (P.M. France)

Woodrow Wilson (P. M. USA)

Villorio Orlando (P. M Italy)

Five treaties were signed with each of the Central powers. They were

The treaty of German with Austria (1919)

Treaty of nevilly with Bulgaria (Nov 1919)

Treaty of Trianan with Hungary (June 1920)

Treaty of laussane with Turkey (july 1920)

Versesailles treaty with Germany (June 1919)

All the peace treaties were collectively known as the treaty of Versailles.

Terms and results of treaty of Versailles

  • Germany found guilty of starting world war I
  • Germany’s land size reduced by 1/8 populatio by 6.5 million
  • Germany’s was deprived of her colonies and overseas investments.
  • Germany lost the provinces of Alsase and Lorraine to France.
  • City danzing was declared free city under jurisdiction of the league of nations.
  • Germany was totally disarmed and only allowed to retain or defence force for 100.000mn.
  • Germany forced to pay war compensation of 6.5b per year to allies.
  • The saar valley which its disposals of coal and iron was placed under jurisdiction of the of nation.
  • The treaty outlawed future union between Germany and Asia.
  • They allowed if an international peace organization called the League of Nations.

NB The treaty of versaillies sometimes called the points Woodrow Wilson because te time forced upon German were not properly represented at the conference.

Four points of Woodrow Wilson

Earlier in 1918 president Wooden when hand outlined the 14 principles on which piece with Germany would be best.

  • Abolition of scared democracy
  • Free navigation at sea for all nation in war and peace
  • Removal of economic burriers between states.
  • Reduction of armament
  • Adjustment of colonial claims in the interest people governed
  • Varcating of Russian tariry by German forces.
  • Restoration of freedom to france and the return of the alsase and Lorraine province to them.
  • Restoration of independence in Belgium.
  • Adjustment of Italian boundaries on basis of nationality.
  • Self goverment for non-Turnish people in Turkish Empire.
  • Independence of Poland and provision of access to the sea
  • Creation of an association to preserve peace in world
  • Evacuation of Serbia, Montenegro to the access of the sea for sarbia.


It was formed in April 1991 as general association of nation to keep world peace.

Headquarter was in Geneva, Switzerland

Aims of League of Nations.

  • Settle International disputes before they got out go hand and thus prevent another war.
  • Maintain peace through collective security
  • Nature international co-operation hence solve global economic and Social Problems
  • Promote peace of the sovereignity of member states
  • Gradually work towards disarmament and discourage production of weapons of mass destruction.

Organization of the league

Main bodies of

  1. the Assembly
  2. Council
  3. Secretariat
  4. International court of justice
  5. International labour organization

The assembly

Meeting of delegates from all members states where each country had one vote. The assembly meet annually at their headquarter Geneva.

The council.

Composed of five permanent and five non-permanent members permanent include






N/B USA moved out since it didn’t join the league. The five non – permanent members were to be nominated by assembly.

The secretariat

It’s the administrative body of the league

It’s Headed by secretary general

1st secretary general was Sir Erick drumrmend of Britain who served between 1919 – 1923.

International court of justice

Its headquarter was in Hague, Holland (Netherlands)

It was established to deal with settlement of disputes between countries.

International labour organization

Maintaining good working condition of workers around the world


  • It presented world peace for about 20 years 1919 to 1939.
  • It helped solve border disputes e.g between Turkey and iraque in 1924 to 1926 and between Finland and Sweden (1920 to 1921).
  • Through the mandate system the league helped improve the standards of living of people in the trust colonies (Saar valley) which were Germany colonies.
  • Helped solve the refugee problem resulting from the World War I.
  • Through international labour organization working conditions for workers improved.
  • Established a finance scheme to help countries to reconstruct economic after the war.
  • Through its technical and social organization the league helped to promote International co-operation.
  • The league laid down the foundation of the formation of the UNO.


  • Failed to prevent dispute between Japan and China in 1933 when Japanese invaded Chinese troops e.g
  • In 1934 Italy invaded Ethiopia and the league failed to act comprehensively.
  • Failed to stop various countries from making secret trieties contrary to the league covenant.
  • Failed to stop Germany from rearming itself again in 1930’s
  • Russia invaded Finland in 1939 without leagues intervention.

Reasons why the league failure

  • Major Powers’s e.g USA didn’t join making it weak.
  • Most league members were not committed to its constitutions.
  • It didn’t have an army of its own to enforce its decisions
  • It perpetually lacked funds to finance its operation.
  • Most members’ countries adopted policy of a peacement towards the aggressor nations of Germany and Italy hence not following the constitution.

WORLD WAR II (1939 – 145)

The League of Nations was weak and cold not maintain World peace.

After twenty years the world war immersed in another World War II.


  • The rise of Adolf Hitler and his determination to regain German’s lost glory let to war as he invaded other countries.
  • The unfavourable terms imposed Germany by the Versailles treaty led to war as Germany fought for revenge.
  • The growth of nationalism made countries to concentrate on internal affairs at the expenses of international issues.
  • Economic problems faced by most world countries after World War I made countries as Japan. Germany and Italy for blame others for monopolizing the World trade and wealth.
  • The inter war period (1919 – 1939) led to several dictators raising power in Europe they include Joseph Sterlin – USSR

Banito Mussulini – Italy

Adolf Hitler – Germany

This leaders favoured military campaign as a means of territorial expansion.

  • League of Nations failed in most of the mission e.g failed to stop Germany from rearing and this failure was a direct mission to World War II.
  • The policy of appeasement practiced by Britain and France encouraged Germany and Italy to attack other countries at will.
  • Germany invention of Poland at 12am in Sept 1st 1939 was the immediate cause of World War II.
  • The major powers had also established alliance between themselves like Hitler and Mussulini signed an agreement known as the Barlin – Rome Axis and latter Japan joined in 1939 to be known as Berlin – Rome – Tokyo.


War broke out in 1st Sept 1939 with Germany invention of Poland.

In March 1940 Russia invaded and occupied Finland to gain military and air bases for attack in Germany.

In May 1940, Germany started expansion west ward with invention of France.

The Germans occupied Paris within two months.

By October 1940 all other major Western European nations’ e.g Belgium, Netherlands had be overturn by the Germans. From October 1940, Hitler directed his millitary against Britain and the attack was called operation sea lion.

In June 1941, Hitler inciated the attack on the suvict union ealier known as the aggressionpart.

Attack in Russia was called Operation Barabarossa. In December 1941 USA entered the war on the side of the allies following the Japanese attack at his military base at pearl harbour in Hawai.

The attack in Russia failed

The Germans failed to capture muscow and wore defeats by Russians on the battle of sterling Grad in June 1943 and this marked the thorning point of World War II. By May 1944, Russian Red army had pushed Germany from territory to Berlin.

A combinied American, British and French force embarked on invention of Europe (operation overlead) to push back German to her territory.

In 1944, the allies were closing in for Germany from the West and soviet army from the East. Faced with impending defeat, Hitler committed suicide in April 30th 1946.

The new German leader Docnitz surrendered and signed documents on 7th May 1945. War continued in the East and the pacific between USA and Japanese forces.

War against Japan was concluded by USA boming the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Heroshima in August 1945 hence marking and of World War II.


  • Led to death of many people above 35 to 60m people.
  • Bombing Heroshima and Nagasakai released radio active substances which affected the lives of many people long after the war.
  • large sums of many spent on war by individual nations involved in fighting.
  • Destruction of properly leading to collapsed of economy in European countries and Japan.
  • Led to construction of military industries and military technology which continued to endanger human security. Countries e.g Germany, Italy & Japan lost colonies they had colonies.
  • End of World war saw rise of USA and USSR as world super powers.
  • War led to division of Germany into West and East.
  • Led to intensification of nationalism and struggle for independence in countries e.g India, Pakistan, Egypt and Ghana.
  • Peace settlement after war led to formation of UNO.
  • Led to cold war.
  • There was Communist government in many parts of Europe e.g Hungary East Germany Poland, Romania the communist established under support of USSR.



This is where sovereign nations from different parts of the world interact politically, economically and socially.

This interaction may be in the following field’s trade, humanitarian assistance and diplomacy.

Nations relating may come together to form organizations so as to enhance their interaction such organization included

  • The united Nations organization (U.N.O)
  • The common wealth.
  • The non – aligned movement


Association of independent nations formed after 2nd World War in 1945.

Its membership is open to al nations irrespective of their political and ideological believers or differences in economic system or levels of development.

Formation of the U.N.O

It was created after the collapse of the lague of nations.

It created a UN Charter that was drawn up by representatives of 50 countries at the UN conference in international organization (UNCIO) held in San Francisco in U.S.A.

In the charter there were aims set forth as follows ‘we the people of the UN are determine”…………………… to save succeeding generations from discourage of war that had brought untold sorrow to mankind.

To reffrain faith in the fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person in the equal rights of man and women and of national large and small.

To establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from trieties and other sources of international law can be maintained.

To promote social progress and better standards of life in large and for this ends to practice tolerance and live together in peace as one another  as a good neighbours.

To unite war strength to maintain international peace and security.

To ensure the acceptance of principals and institutions of method that armed forces shall not be used; some in the common interest.

To employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advances of all peoples.


  • Maintain peace and security
  • Developing friendly relations among member state.
  • Replacing the legue of Nation that had collapsed.
  • Promotion of international understanding and cooperation
  • Precaution of another war.
  • Promotion of cultural interactions
  • Promotion of fundamental human rights and freedoms
  • Promotion of social progress and better living standards.
  • Promotion of economic dispute among others.
  • Protections of interest of minorities’ e.g children & women.




To achieve its objectives and purposes the U.N establishment principal organs as follows.

  • General Assembly
  • The security council
  • Internal court of justice
  • The economic and social council
  • The secretariats
  • The trusteeship


All members represented

Member state may sent five representatives but has only one note.

Decisions require a 2/3 majority depending on impatience of the matter.

This where there are key positions of the functions.

it has the following functions.

  • Discuss and make recommendations on any questions or matter within the score of the chatter.
  • Receives annual reports from secretary general the security council, economic and trust annual.
  • Guide activities of the five organs of the UN.
  • Controls finances of the organization and approves its budget.
  • It deals with various matters two of which consider political problems.

NOTE the agenda of the assembly usually consist of more than 100 items.


Its responsibility is to maintain international peace and security. The member state stayed in New York so that they can meet in a meant’s notice if an emergency arises. There are eleven nations which sit on the council; five permanent members like

  • united states of America.
  • Russia
  • The United Kingdom
  • France
  • Chania

They serve for two years after which others are elected in their place.

For a decisions to be undertaken here must be 2/3rds agreement and must include all the permanent members who have a vote power.

This means that if one permanent member votes “No” no decisions can be reached.

The council is also authorized to investigate any dispute which might threaten international peace and security and make recommendations for a powerful settlement.

The council may also call members of the UN to  apply economic and diplomatic sanctions against any state of the council found guilty of breach of peace or act of  aggression or even military action be taken.


This is base at Hague, Netherlands

It settles disputes over international borders

It also deals with other disputes like treatment of diplomatic and consular staff, fishing rights, nuclear tasts, territorial waters delimitation and human right violation.


It has 54 members who serve for three years, 18 elected by general assembly each year to replace another 18 whose term has expired.

Its function

  • To promote social and economics development.
  • It also censors any attempts to abuse or inhibit human likes and freedom.
  • It has two commission that is human rights and status of women, drug problems and children rights.
  • The commission on the status of women seeks to obtain voting and other legal rights and educational opportunities for women in those countries where they are denied equal treatment with man.


It has 16,000 staff headed by the secretary – General.

It administers programmes and policies laid down by other UN. Organs.

It registers treatiets, carries on correspondence, and publishes reports and research work.

The secretary – general of the U.N.O is elected by the General Assembly for a five year term of office.


It’s in charge of territories which are governed by member states of the United Nations on behalf of the UN itself.

Activities of this specialized and agitated Agencies of the UN

The international labour organization (ILO).

Its work is to promote workers welfare.

There is an annual conference with over 120 member countries are represented with equal voting powers.

Its headquarters of ILO is in Geneva, Switzerland.

The food and Agriculture organization (FAO).

It increase production of food by using improved seeds and fertilisers and new types of plants.

To improve marketing and distribulation of all food and agricultural products.

Promote rural development and improve living conditions of rural population.

It helps to control pests such as locust and combat epidermis of animal diseases such as rinderpest

At the request of member governments, FAO sends agronomists and technologists to give instructions on such matters as the control of soil erosion, afforestation and irrigation.

The headquarters of FAO is in Rome, Italy.

United Nations educational scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO).

Its function is to fight illiteracy.

It was formed in 1946

It also publishes books and other research journals.

It’s also concerned with the presevation of historic monuments, Artificial and valuable cultures.

It promotes dissemination of information as social sciences, instruments of peace and justice.

Its headquarters is Paris in France.


It was set up in 1`948 with its headquarters at Geneva.

Its main purpose is to combat diseases on a worldwide scale


Its also known as international bank for reconstruction and development.

It was created in 1945 with Washington DC as the headquarters.

Its function is to give loans to nations for development or job balance of payments support.

The bank is headed by a Board of Governors who comes from member states who meet once in year to assess and guide the bank’s activities.

Those with the greatest influence are the U.S.A, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and India.


It works closely with the World Bank

Its aim is to help stabilize the different currencies of the world.

It also promotes international trade.

It also raises funds from subscriptions from member states.


It provides the basic needs for the children of the world e.g medicine, vaccination and milk for under nourished.


Headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya

Oversias the implementation of progrmaes aimed at managing and conserving the environment


It’s concerned with maintaining weather equipment for the North Atlantic region to guide pilots through fog and darkness.

Other agencies are universal postal union (UPU) World meteorological organization (WMO), international telecommunication union (ITU) United Nation High commissioner for refugees (UNHCPR).

Financing of the UNO

This is provided by member states

The member states are assessed according to their ability and they pay a percentage of the total budget according to that assessment.


It has helped reduce tension and conflicts between member states.

It has solved disputes between Iran and secret union (1946), India and Pakistan (1949) and Eritria and Ethiopia (2002) and Nigeria and Cameroon (2004).

  1. It assisted South Korea when it was invaded by North Korea in 1953.
  2. The UN sent troops to Democaratic republic of Congo Leopaldville(DRC) to help restore peace and order and the civil war.
  3. It also argued upon Britain and France to grant independence to their countries in Africa and the rest of the world.

It helped initiate development programmes in developing countires e.g the UNDP has given assistance amounting to 95 million to 93 developing countries.

  1. The world food programmes has been involved in distribution of relief food supplies to flood, drought and earthquake victivmes e.g Equator, Hungary, Middle East, Sudan and Somalia.
  2. The UN has obtained equal rights for women in voting, educational opportunities and other legal rights.
  3. FAO launched the freedom from hunger campaign 1960. Since then these movement has been successful all over the world.
  4. The United Nation High Commission for Refugees(UNHR0 has over the years helped to provide food, shelter and other basic facilties to refugees who have escaped their countires due to political and other persecution.
  5. WHO has helped in control of Malaria in most areas of the World
  6. The World Bank has played a crucial role in reconstruction of the economies of many nation affected by World War II. It has helped some countries to develop economically by providing development assistance and other budgetary support for the economies.


  1. Member states of UNO have different forms of government and ideiologies. Therefore there is hadly any quotation of international importance that is not affected by ideological disputes.

Example: – Communist China and Russia have always been susipicious of other capitalist members and vice versa.

  1. Nationalism has affected the performance of U.N.O members of UNO are sovereign.
  2. UNO lacks sufficient funds which to carry out it work efficiently.
  3. UNO depends on contributions from member states and sometimes member states do not remit their contributions on time.
  4. UNO lacks the machinery to enforce its decisions. For example it does not have an army on its own, it relies on troops availed by willing members states.
  5. UNO is dominated by five permanent member of the Security Council. These countries have the veto powers and for an important decision to be taken they must all vote ‘YES’
  6. Another challenge is that of deep rooted regional conflicts

Exaples i) Arab – Israel conflicts

  1. The Gulf crisis
  2. Problems in Angola and Sudan.
  • Ethnic strife in Rwanda and Burundi

All this end up stretching the UN beyond its capability and resources.

  1. UNO members are also members of other regional or international organization Example i) Arab league
  2. ii) The North Atlantic treaty organization (NATO)

iii) Non – Aligned movement(NAM).

  1. vi) African Union.

The interests of this organization are sometimes not in accord with those of UNO.

  1. The decisions of UNO have often been ignored and member states have frequently taken action without any reference the UNO.

Example: – American and British invasion of Iraq in 2003 without UNO approval.




It is a voluntary association of independent states which were formerly part of the British Empire e.g colonies or domains. Some of these countries are Canada, Australia and New Zealand and republic like Kenya, India, Lesotho and Malawi.


Its origin is traced to what used to be the British Empire.

It was launched formerly but it doesn’t have a constitution.

It began with the publication of the Durham report in 1839.

However it reached another stage I 1931 with the statute of West Minister.

This can be considered as a referral constitution landmark whose contribution helped to shape the association.

Details of this association were worked out in 1926.

In this year imperial conference, a committee chaired by Lord Balfour, the Prime Minister of Canada, prepared a report and incorporated it the statute of West Minister of 1931.

The Statute stated that no act of the British parliament could be law of any dominion unless the dominion parliament itself agreed to pass it.

It also stated that any law relating to succession to the throne could require the consent not only of the British government but also each Dominion parliament.

The statute defined the UK and the dominion of Canada, New Zealand and Australia as automats communities with the British Empire.

All were to be equal in status and not subordinate to one another.

They were all united by a common factor, their allegiance to the crown.

This was the first time in History that equality was established among independence states.

This was the beginning of what was to be called common wealth.


Modern commonwealth started in 1947 after India gained its independence.

Each commonwealth state chooses on its free will to become a member of commonwealth.

So when India and Pakistan achieved Independence they opted to become members of the commonwealth.

Membership then increased as Africa states became independence beginning with Ghana in 1957.

Most African states joined the association in 1960’s and 1970’s.

Modern commonwealth has also allowed membership from independent non – British colonies e.g Mozambique, Cameroon and Togo.


  1. All commonwealth members accept the British queen as their head.
  2. They have the same education system with similar structure.
  3. They share a common heritage of public institution acquired from Britain.
  4. They put the principles of democracy into practice. Such institution is a parliamentary government, an independent judiciary and a civil service free from politics.
  5. The commonwealth people enjoy universal adult suffrage.
  6. Government within the commonwealth practice consultation and exchange of information.
  7. The members also hold regular conferences of Head of States where they discuss matters of common interests.
  8. They have cultural ties. For example the commonwealth games and many of them use English as their official language.
  9. They also form a power block and set up certain standards and ideals. Such ideals have led to the withdrawal of some countries from the commonwealth.


  1. i) South Africa in 1961 because of Apartheid policy.
  2. ii) Pakistan in 1972 after common wealth members recognized Bangladesh, formerly East Pakistan as a new state.


Head of commonwealth government held a conference in Singapore in 1971.

Members agreed that the organization should have laid down ideals and principles.

They include:-

  • The commonwealth members believed that international peace and order were important for the purpose of security and development of humankind.
  • They emphasized the importance of liberty of the individual and equal for all regardless of home and race.
  • They set to remove all those factors contributing to differences in wealth between various section of humankind which had previously prevailed and continued to cause world tension.
  • They opposed all forms of colonial domination and racial discrimination and were committed to the principles of human dignity and equality.
  • They aimed at achieving free flow of international trade.
  • They believed that international co-operation was an important factor in promoting world peace and could only be achieved through international associations such as the commonwealth.

N/B in 1979 the commonwealth head met in Lusaka Zambia.

They adopted a declaration on racism and racial prejudice.

This was a fellow up step of the declaration of 1971.

At Lusaka conference the Head of States proclaimed their desire to work jointly to put an end to all forms of discrimination.




  1. The queen of England who is the head of the organization directs the activities of the organization and is officially invited to open all commonwealth meetings.
  2. The commonwealth secretariat is based in London and is headed by the secretary General. It is charged with the day to day running of the organization. It organizes meetings for the head of states and prime ministers of the member states.
  3. The summits of foreign minister of various countries converge to deliberate on issues affecting their countries.


The secretariat was established in 1965 all Ghana’s request. Its functions are

  1. a) Circulating information and anything of general interests to member countries.
  2. b) Co-coordinating business that is it makes careful study of commonwealth’s organization that deals with matters of economic and financial.
  3. c) Encouraging those projects that will be of some benefit to the commonwealth members.
  4. d) Organization the prime ministers conferences which take place after every two years as well as other conferences.
  5. c) It is also responsible for several programmes of co-operation.
  6. f) Difference officials at the secretariat perform different duties. The overall is the secretary general.

NB: Expenses of the secretariat are paid for by contribution made by independent government, contributions are based on population and income of the individual member states.


There are various Agencies that help in focusing particular work of the commonwealth.

These include

  1. a) Commonwealth fund for technical co-operation whose major function is to assist in funding of projects, training programmes and supply of experts to member countries.
  2. b) The commonwealth Agricultural Bureau is mainly concerned with assisting countries in agricultural production by providing technical assistance and researching in the field of agriculture.
  3. c) Commonwealth parliamentary association is a forum for the Member of Parliament from commonwealth countries where parliamentarians meet to exchange ideas aimed at improving debates in their respective countries.
  4. d) Commonwealth regional health works in collaboration with WHO to improve the health and general hygiene of the people of commonwealth member countries.


Commonwealth states hold various conferences which are seen as important forums for consultations.

The president or prime ministers had meetings every two years.

In this meeting they discuss international economy and politics and whatever decisions they make are made by consensus, not voting.

Meetings between ministers cover foreign affairs, defence, supply and finance ministers responsible for this ministry meet yearly.

Minister for Health, Education and will meet every after three years.

Commonwealth states are represented by High commissioners in the capitals of other member states.

The main duty of this commissioner is to maintain close co-operation between member states.

They are of equal status to ambassadors and are important elements in the interstate consultation.




  1. Providing financial assistance to member countries example the special commonwealth African assistance plan which was established in 1960.
  2. Providing a forum for promoting peace among the member states.
  3. It provides education and research among member states as Research findings are exchanged among member countries.
  4. Providing technical assistance to member countries in the fields of Agriculture, medical, industry, transport, communication and engineering.
  5. Granting member states favourable trading opportunities.
  6. It provides democratizations amongst member states oby sending election observes and monitors.
  7. Promoting friendship and understanding among member states e.g through commonwealth games.
  8. Enhances the development of legal system among member states.
  9. It provides a forum for heads of states to consult on international issues.
  10. It is a watchdog against the violation of human rights among members.


  1. i) Condemned apartheid in South Africa
  2. ii) Suspended Zimbabwe for violating property right of her while citizens.


  1. Shortage of funds: Member’s states are supposed to contribute funds for the running of the organisation programmes. Due to their weak economies many states have defaulted payment of the funds.
  2. Ideological differences – This have resulted into misunderstanding between members states. The socialist ideas propagated by the former solution and the capitalist ideals of the Western Worlds have caused division among member states.
  3. Membership of other organization: – Commonwealth members are also members of other regional organization such as African Union, European Union, common market of Eastern and South African countries (COMESA), European Union, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) etc.
  4. Civil Wars: – After attainment of independence, many African countries have been torn by civil wars. Thus the countries have to attend to the more crucial internal problems before engaging in any external affairs.
  5. Boarder disputes:- For long decade long conflicts between Pakistan and India have threatened one of the major function to ensure that peace prevails in all the countries.
  6. Absence of enforcement machinery – Absence of enforcement machinery is another challenge facing the commonwealth. It lacks a standing army to enforce its decisions. It relies on member states good will. The only weapons used by the organization are economic sanctions.

However it sometimes ignored by some of the member states.



This term cold war refers the rivalry which emerged between the West (USA and his allies) and the former East block (USSR) and her allies) after the end of World War II.

It was a war of propaganda and was characterized by economic hostilities towards each other and military and financial to their allies.


  1. a) Ideological differences
  2. b) The disagreement over disarmament between USSR and U.S.A
  3. c) The iron curtain policy adopted by U.S.S.R.
  4. d) European conflicts in the late 1940s.
  5. e) The UN domination by the Western Powers.
  6. f) The formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  7. g) The Marshall Plan of 1949 and Truman doctrine.

Ideological Differences

The USA and her capitalist allies did not trust the secret union even when both were fighting against Germany.

The USSR was also cautious when dealing with her Western allies.

The main reasons for this mistrust was ideological difference between the capitalist advocated for free enterprise in economic development and freedom of the individual, the communist east wanted means of production to be commonly owned under strictly command of the state.

The Disagreements over Disermament between USSR and the USA

It was the wish of the USA that manufacture of deadly weapons is checked.

The horrors of the Atomic bomb in Japan were still fresh in the minds of the UN delegates.

So this plan was accepted by the UN’s atomic Energy commission.

The plan suggested international ownerships and unlimited international inspection of Atomic energy materials and production.

The USA agreed to destroy the stockpiles of atomic bombs after the plan was affected.

The Soviet Union viewed this issue as propanganda of the worst kind especially because she had not yet manufactured any atomic bombs.

She thus wanted the Atomic weapons destroyed before the plan on inspection was affected.

The two powers could not agree on the arms issues and as a result the United States and the Soviet Union to increase their stock pile of Atomic bombs.



The Iron Curtain Policy Adopted By the USSR

The USSR already occupied part of Eastern Europe before the end of the Second World War like Romanice, Balgeria, Czechoslouakia, Hangary, East Germany and Poland.

Soviet power over these nations was so thorough that it prompted Winston Churchill, the then prime minister of Britain, to say that an iron curtain has been dropped by Soviet Union to seal Eastern Europe from the West. This new tight and artificial division of Europe made International relation very poor.

European Conflicts In the Late 1940’s

These conflicts increased the lension between the two sides, the civil war in Greece where USA and Britain supported one side and USSR the other.

The UN Domination by Western Power

The UN was one of the battlegrounds of the cold war.

Proposals at the UN would never get anywhere because of the Russian Veto.

When USA suggested that Veto powers be limited, USSR maintained that the power limited USSR maintained that the veto was only way of assorting herself in the UN which was mostly pro-USA.


NATO was a military alliance of USA and most states of Western Europe formed in 1949.

The organization committed the USA to the defense of Western Europe in return those countries would support the U.S.A.

This threatened USSR and her satellites states.

They viewed it as a capitalist scheme set to destroy the communist Russia.

So the USSR and her allies also set to check the capitalist activities thus the cold war was on.

The Marshall Plan of 1949 And Truman Doctrine.

The Marshall plan of 1949 and Truman Doctrine was a declaration by the USA was also factors which led to the intensification of the cold war.



War was caused mainly by ideological differences and ambitions of the USA and the Soviet Union in Europe.

In 1946 the Soviet Union contributed to the overthrow of the Greek post war government.

This spreading soviet influence prompted the US president Truman to introduce the famous Harry Truman doctrine in March 1947.

This doctrine state that USA would support free people resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure.

This declaration is widely considered as the official eruption the cold war.

It led to American intervention in Greece, Turkey and other countries where the Soviet Union was trying to spread communism.

To counter further spread of communism, the USA felt there improved economic contions were necessary.

Europe needed financial and material aid for reconstruction.

To achieve this aim the USA in 1947 put forward the European recovery programme (ERP) which later known as the Marshall plan.

It was named after it initiates, the American secretary of state General marshall.

The Soviet Union hated the Marshall plan and discouraged its satellites states from benefiting from it.

It closed all the land to Berlin, a city in East – Germany which had participated between the allied countries and the Soviet Union.

The allies then airlifted material AID to West Berlin from 1948 to 1949.

In addition they blocked the passage of good meant to Eastern Berlin, in the soviet Zone.

After the war German was divided into two states.

The allied power took control of the West which they named West Germany and formed an Anti-service. Military organization called the North Atlantic Treaty organization (NATO) in 1949.

The Soviet Union controlled East Germany.

In response to the Marshall Aid plan, the formation of the council for mutual economic assistance (COMECON was formed by the soviet – union.

Russia then poured it money in its satellites to assist them in attaining the production targets set by the soviet government.

The Soviet Union answer to NATO was the formation of the war saw pact in 1955.

The pact brought all the soviet satellites into a military union.

From 1950s, Europe remained a divided house and a major battle field of the cold war.

The dominance of the two major superpowers continued to be a towering reality.

They almost went to actual war when the Soviet Union built a wall which physically divided Berlin into soviet controlled east and allied controlled West.


In Indo-China USA and USSR clashed over Vietnam which had been colonized by the French but was taken over by the Japenese after World War II.

After the war the French tried to recolonize Vietnam but failed.

USA and USSR got involved in vietnma each supporting different Natioanalist leaders.

USSR supported HOCHI MINH.

USA supported BAO DAI.

Led Vietnam to be divided into two parts.

Soviet Union supported the North and the United States supported south.

Division led to the Vietnamese war in which the two powers were used.

During the war the viet cong, the communist guerillas continued to operate in South with the hope of establishing a communist government there USA wished to block the spread of communism to the sketch and as such gave direct military aid in the form of troops, military aircrafts and warships to the South.

Even with these effects the Americans were defeated by the communist and forced to withdraw.

This defeat hastened the American cold war propaganda more than ever.

Cold War in Cumba Central America

In 1959, Fidel Castro took over power in Cuba with the support of the soviet union

The US Tried unsuccessfully to remove him.

The Soviet Union gave Cuba weapons and hoped to use the Island nation as a military launching base against USA in the event of war.

The US was concerned  and field threaten because some of the weapons the USSR gave Cuba included dangerous missiles which were within US range in October, 1962, President John Kennedy declared that US would stop the USSR military build up in Cuba by imposing a strict blockade on all communist military ships approaching Cuba.

It asserted that the only condition for peace was the removal of the missile from Cuba.

Khrushcher, the soviet leader was compelled to accept Kennedy’s demands with the removal of the soviet missiles from Cuba, a dangerous crisis war ended

Cold War in Angola

The Soviet Union and Cuba supported the movement for popular de libertaca de Angola (MPLA) of Agostine Neto in the war of independence against the portueguese.

A civil was begun and the USA who were against the spread of the soviet influence joined the crisis.

United National de independencies total de Angola (UNITA) of Jonas Savimbi.

The USA also encouraged South Africans direct military intervention.

This came to be known as Anglo crisis which saw Angola torn by civil war right through into the 1990s.


The cold war increased hostility between the two super powers over political and economic dominance in the world.

However, the superpowers made attempts to co-exist without taking advantages of one another.

They adopted the de’tente policy e.g they made several attempts to improve relation between them.

This attempts led to several agreement on disarmaments.

Fore example(i) The partial test Ban treaty of 1963

  1. ii) The non proliferation treaty of 1968.

iii) Strategic arm limitation talks (SALT )1972

  • Salt II on 1979

Recently Western domiciles have been established in formerly communist countries such as Poland, East Germany and Russia.

The soviett Union played a major role in weakening communism especially after Gorbachev adopted a more liberal policy.

He also sought Aids from the West to improve the soviet ailing economy.

The two factors and other internal problems made several states of the union use interest in the communism ideology.

They thus sought to leave the union and form their own independent

Last stage of the cold war came when Iraq invaded the tiny rich country Kuwait. Saddam Hussein claimed that Kuwait was iraq 19th century since.

Invasion led to the gulf was which the Americans under the mandate of the United Nations called allied force to liberate Kuwait.

USA was successful this time.

The allied forces were able to face the Iraqs out of Kuwait and install Thed esposed rulers.

This success was a clear indication of weakening soviet power in 1991 the Warsaw past was cancelled.

This was a step further towards the end of the cold war.

The period that followed the gulf war saw the disintergration of the osoviet union into many independence republics.

By the end of 1991 several states left the union and formed their own republic. Others led by colonialist Russia under President Boris Yelsin joined to form the confederation of independence states (CIS). Others like Georgia plunged into civil war while groups of people in other states called for secession.

This was the final straw that broke the camels basic and ended the cold war.


  • The war led to space race: After the World War I and II, the two super powers completed in development of space craft (Rockets) which could be used to explore outer space.
  • The war caused insecurity: – The war caused insecurity as each power tried to spread its own ideology either by force like in the case of Hungary or through peace like the case of Cuba.
  • Although the two super powers co-operated during the second world war the soviet union always refused to co-operate with USA on matters economically the type of Government to be formed in some countries e.g Vietnam and Korea.
  • Each power advocated for a government based it ideologies resulting to splitting up territories like in the case of it and s. Kuria.
  • The mistrust, accusations and counter accusations if the two powers resulted in international insecurity and disruption of World peace leading to the arms race.
  • In certain situations the cold war led to real war like in Korea and Vietnam each power advocated for a government based of its ideologies resulting to splitting up of territories like in the case of North and South Korea.
  • The mistrust, accusations and counter accusations of the two powers resulted in international insecurity and disruption of world peace leading to the arms race.
  • Various crises took place in 1950s and 1960s

Examples i) The Hungarian revolution 1956

  • ii) The Suez canal crisis which were in most cases caused by the cold war as the two powers compelled forward dominance.
  • There were coups and counter coups in the third world countries lead to rise of dictators.
  • Europe was divided into two with an iron curtain that is Berlin wall restricting movement of people from East to West Germany and vice versa.

The Non-Aligned Movement (Nam)

It is the kind of neutralism,It is the policy of not aligning with any power block

Non alignment expresses freedom of decision and choice in deciding each international issue on it merit.

It is therefore a free and independence policy

The movement was concerned with concept such as neutralism and neutrality

Neutralism refers to foreign policy of states in time of peace.

Neutrality refers to a term in International law referring to the rule that states are supposed to follow during a legal state of war in which they are out participants.

Formation of NAM

After World War II former Europeans colonies in Africa and Asia began to attain independence.

Many Nations feared that the super powers were threatening their sovereignty.

They found it necessary to form an association which would unite them against nomination of either US or the Soviet Union.

This resulted in the formation of NAM in 1947.

The movement grew steadily from 1947 when it had a few founding members among them India and Yugoslavia.

The leaders of these two countries Jawa Harlar Nehm and Marshal Tito played a key role in shaping NAM.

The bandung conference was held in Indonesia in 1955. It was the first NAM meeting and had 29 participants from Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

These included heads of five states from China, India, Egypt, Indonesia and Yugoslavia.

The main issue during this conference was how they were going to tackle international issues such as cold war which were threating the new independence states.

The conference thus defined NAM as spelt its objectives.

The Objective of Nam

  • Member states must pursue independence policy base on peaceful co-existence without taking advantage of one another.
  • Need to participate in multilateral military alliance e.g NATO or WARSAW of which were prompted by the superpowers.
  • The safeguard the sovereignty of member states and support liberation and independence movement.
  • To participate in bilateral military alliances with great powers or have foreign military bases on their territories up with their agreement.
  • To discourage Neo-colonialism by promoting economic independence of it members countries.
  • To try and get better terms of trade particularly for the countries whose economies depend on exploitation of raw materials.
  • To fight all forms of discrimination, for example racism.
  • To encourage the member to actively participate in UNO programmes
  • To strive to improve agriculture and increase food production by making fund available towards this goal.


The NAM movement held several conferences, including one which took place in Belgrade Yugoslavia in 1964. NAM  meetings are held four years and are attended by Heads of States of member countries.

The NAM countries have strengthened their influence in World affairs by increasing their voting power in the Untied Nations General assembly, after independence NAM has been regarded as an important diplomatic weapon for influencing the superpowers and securing maximum assistance from the developed World.

It has enable members countries to formulate policies freely and according to their needs and situations.


  • Disagreements, conflicts times of war between states have affected the performance of NAM.
  • The movement has been affected by political instability due to civil wars and military coup de tats in some members.
  • States member countries are poor; they therefore are not able to remain economically independence because they acquire aids from both the East and West. This makes it impossible for them to pursue independence policies.
  • The movement lacks funds date to the poverty of some of its member stated who are not able to remit their dues on time o r at all.
  • Lack of a secretariat makes the co-ordination of its activities difficult personality difference between some of it leaders have undermined the holding fruitful discussion.
  • Member states are also loyal to other organization such as OAU, European Union and the commonwealth. This has affected their commitment and active anticipation.
  • The break up of the USSR and the subsequent end of the cold war has established the movement.





It refers to the way African countries relate to each other

This relation is manifested in the existence of organizations such as OAU and other regional organizations.

The earliest organization which was aimed at African Unity was referred to as PAN AFRICANISM.



The term pan Africanism is derived from two words Pan-which mean act Africanism referring to African Origin.

Pan – Africanism is defined as a belief in the uniqueness and spiritual unity of black people.

It also acknowledged their right to self alternation in Africa.

Pan-Africanism calls for treatment of all Africans with dignity as equals in all parts of the world movement is thus seen as the manifestation of African  process just universal discrimination of the Black people.

Origin of Pan-Africanism is not traced in Africa. It has its origin in New World in the 19th Century.

Atlantic slave trade led to dispersal of black people over  f American  in the carribean.

Slave suffered untold suffering and misery. This made them to be conscious their occur and origin in Africa.

Mistreatment, discrimination and humiliation the black people underwent convined them that they could find true friendship, understanding and motherhood at home in Africa.

However Africa had been colonized by European powers at the start of the century.

Before black people in America and West Indies joined with the Africans pan Africanist movement as a vehicle to fight for their social, African and economic right.


Realisation by Africans that they have close cultural factor as they have suffered similar experiences such as slavery and colonialism and the world they constitute the down trodden lot.

Desire by Africans to pull together for mutual support.


  • Strive towards the improvement of the living conditions of black people all over world.
  • fight against colonialism which further enhanced the declaration of black people
  • Fight European racism and thus counter the myth of European superiority which later used to subjugate the blacks.
  • Take Measure to restore the dignity of the black people and liberate them the bondage of slavery.
  • Fight the serious political economical and cultural disadvantages facing the black in the diaspora.


Many Negroes passively accepted their position as the bottom dogs and as a race created to serve others in a world dominated by the whites. They were homeless by slave trade and slavery. They were viewed as inferior people because of their colour.

There were many developments mainly economic development which led to introduction of machines.

These machines changed the mode of production whereby human labour from slaves was replaced by machines rendered slaves to be redundant and thus a burden to their owners who freed them.

British began anti-slave trade and anti-slavery campaigns in 1807 and 1833.

There was also American civil war which was caused by the issue of slave trade and slavery.

Negroes received western education as a new spirit among the blackmen in the new world grew.

They travelled widely and wrote about their plight in their own newspapers like BOOKER T. WASHINGTON, DR. W.E.B DUBOIS, MARCUS GARVERY, and GEORGE PADMORE.

The earliest pan- Africanists from Africa included J.E.K. Aggrey from gold coast (Ghana) and wilmost blyden from Liberia.

D.R W.E.B DU BOIS was born in USA in 1868. He was one of the founders of the national association for the advancement of coloured peoples (NAACP), he was a scholar who authored several works in politics and novels and edited the association’s journal.

This association championed the struggle for Negroes civil rights in America.


First pan Africanist congress, in London, 1900.

Was held in London in 1900

It was sponsored by a Trinidad lawyer called Henry Sylvester Williams. Was at the conference that Dr. E. B Dubois was first introduced to Africanism.

Made his famous statement “The problem of the 20th Century is the problem colourline”

Obejctives of the First Pan African Congress`

Bring people of African origin in all parts of the world together and thereby as a forum through which they could protest against European congression against blacsk.

Appeal to an end to European colonization and exploriation of Africa. For ways of establishing better relations between the causican and African races.

Initiate a movement for securing to all Africans in and outside Africa fall rights and to promote their economic rights.

Appeal to missionaries and philontrhopist in Britain to protect African against aggression by the colonizers.

To address the living standards and conditions of Africans (blacks) in different parts of the world and more so black in South Africa and Condem in human treatment.

This congress, the quotation of South Africa and Rhodesia was discussed and congress condemned mistreatment of blacks in this countries. Set up upon Africanist association and journal.

However, this conference laid the foundation for future saidarity meetings and sowed the seed of togetherness of the black people.

Second Pan-Africanst Congress (Paris, 1919)

It was convened under the leadership of Dr. W.E.B de Bois.

It was held when the peace conference ending the World War I was taking race in Parts in 1919.

It Amied at presenting the grievances of people of African origin before the delegates to the peace conference.

This congress made some recommendations

  • The need for international laws to protect the black people.
  • African land to be held in trust.
  • The prevention of exploitation by foreign campanies.
  • The right of Africans to be educated.
  • Africans to participate in their government as fast as their development permitted.

Third Pan Africanist Congress (Longon, Paris And Bruses, 1921)

This congress was held in three sessions, London, Brassser and Paris.

London session was attended by 41 Africans, 35 Americans coloureds, West Indians and 24 Africans who were living in Europe at that time.

It was also under the pationage of Dubois.

Main demand was establishment of political organizations among suprressed black peoples.

The congress emphasized international and interracial harmony and democracy.

The Fourth Pan- Africna Congress (London And Lisbon, 1923)

It was head in London and Lisbon.

Reiterated the earlier resolutions and also demanded that black people treated like human beings.

Fifthe Pan – African Congress (New York 1927)

Boi was once again the main figure in the congress in issue discussed was the attitude of the communist towards pan-African’s communist tried to discredit Da Bois and Marcus Garvey after they led to central both men.

After the fifth Pan African congress, Pan – Africanism ceased for almost twenty years when a new star on Pan Africanism came into the scene name was John Padniore.

However, up to 1945, the movement was not active on the African continent.


The Sixth Pan-African Congress, Manchester, 1945

In 1944, 13 organisations representing students welfare and political grouping formed the pan-african federation among them, George padmore, C.L.R. Wallace Johnson and jomo Kenyatta.

The participants included du bois(west indies), jomo Kenyatta(Kenya), kwame Nkrumah(Ghana), George padmore(Trinidad), peter Abrahams(south Africa), otto mackonnel from west africa and magnus Williams(Nigeria) represented DR. nnamdi azikiwe.

  • It addressed itself to the problems facing Africa.
  • It was dominated by Africans.
  • The trade unions from Sierra Leone, Nigeria, gold coast, Gambia, West Indies were represented making it a mass movement.
  • It was more vocal and radical.it expressed the hope that before long the peoples of asia and Africa would have broken their chains of colonialism

Reasons Why the Movemetnt Had Not Established Itself in the African Continet Before 1945

  • There were very few African representatives and the few who existed were their students aborad or in exile.
  • Divide and rule policy of European powers-this policy hindered the unity of Africans.
  • The colonial authrorities did not allow Africans to organize movements that were opposed to colonia rule.
  • Lack of contact and communication between Africans in French, Britain, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese colonies. Africans in each colony were concerened with issues that were of particular interest to them.
  • There was little attention given to the movement by two independent African countries namely Ethiopia and Liberia. The two were pre-occupied with their own internal problems.

Example i) Ethiopia was trying to consolidate the Nation after the death of Menelic II.

  1. ii) Liberia was still under considerable influence from U.S.A.
  • The French policy of assimilation blind folded the Africans who were given partical rights and thus strove to acuire French citizenship.
  • in the African continent, there were more pressing problem such as land alienation.
  • Lack of suitable venue to be held conferences on African soft until when Ghana gained independence and provided one.


Pan Africanism activities increased in Africa after 1945. The activities increased because of:

  1. I) Change of international opinion about colonialism of the World War II.
  2. ii) The inspiration of colonized African counties by India independence in1947, Burma 1948 and Ghana 1957.

iii) The support from trade unions and Nationalistic movements formed in Africa

  1. Encouragement from UNO which supported the ideas of equality of all human races regardless of race.
  2. Attainment of Ghana’s independence which provided abuse for holding conferences on AFRICAN SOIL.

NOTE. IN 1958, a conference was held in Accra Ghana.

In 1960, a second conference was held in Addis Ababa Ethiopia here differences emerged among African leaders.

Some former French colonies formed the Brazzaville group and were less critical of their colonial masters. They wanted continued political links with them.

Anglo-phone countries formed the Casablanca group which adopted a militant attitude towards all the Western powers.

By 1963, these differences had reduced

Another conference was held in Addis Ababa in 1963. it was attended by 32 African states.

At this conference OAU was born. It was to reflect the ideals and aspiration of Pan – Africanismm.


  • The movement enlightedned black people all over the World and created awareness in them about their suffering. Turned into active nationalism and struggle for independence clonised Africa.
  • It was first initiatives that provided a forum for black people to voice their grievances and discuss internal and external problems.
  • Natured the spirit of solidarity among black people.
  • Encourage co-operation among African leaders and states towards organization.
  • Movement laid the foundation for the interet in research on African culture, story, music, religion, medicine etc.
  • Africanism was seen in action during the Ethiopian crisis in 1935. Solini invaded Ethiopia and this sparked protest among blacks all over world against Italy. However, Italy lost the war.
  • Aspiration of Pan-Africanism reached its political goal in 1963, when it established the organization of African unity in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


  • Movement lacked adequate funds to run its operations.
  • Movement failed to fully resolve the differences that arose among the independence African countries that emerged between the French speaking countries and the Anglophones.
  • Did not have a base in Africa since most African countries were still under colonial rule.
  • The were sharp differences between extremist and moderate e.g Bubois Booker T. Washington.
  • Economic empowerment of African states was not achieved as most of them remained dependent on their colonial masters for economic support.


Organization owes its origin to Pan- Africansim movement and was born in May 1963, 30 out of 32 independent African states met in Adis Ababa Ethiopia.

Among the 32 indpendant African states which were at present were Morroco and Togo,

It was during this meeting that the leaders agreed to form a continous body among the leading stesmann present were

Julius Nyerere (Tanzania)

Kwameh Nkrumah (Ghana)

Haile selassie (Ethiopia)

Ghana and Uganda supported a union government African.

However, the other African staes were prepared to accept association of states.

African leaders drew up a charter on 25th May 1963 and signed the OAU charter.

African states that had not yet gained independence sense observers they included Kenya which becomes a member in 1964.

Formation of OAU saw the dissolution of all the previous groupings Brazzaville and casoblanca groups.


  • Promote the unity and solidarity of the African states.
  • Co-ordinate and intensify the members collaboration and efforts to achieve a better life for the people of Africa.
  • Defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states
  • Dedicate all forms of colonialism from the continent of Africa especially in Portuguese Africa, Namibia and South Africa.
  • Avoid interfering in the internal affairs of member stats and to recognize the sovereignty and equality of all African and Malagasy states.
  • Promote international co-operation having due regard to the charter of the UN and universal declaration of human rights.
  • Hold – non- Alignment in African relation with the rest of the world.


This charter was drawn in 1963 and signed by 30 heads of states.

It contained 33 Articles which outlined the right and duties of the organization

Article One:   Established the heads of states assembly

Article two:    Outlined the aims and purpose of the organization.

Article three:  Points out the purposes stated in Article two, that is to adhere to

Sovereignty equality Non – interference and condemnation of political


Article Four:  Outlined OAU membership i.e each sovereign African states was entitled

to membership.

Article five:    Gave all members states equal right and opportunities.

Article Six:     Committed all members’ states to pledge and observe the principles of the organization.

Article Seven:            Established four principles organization which are:-

  1. The assembly of head of states and government
  2. Council of Ministers.
  3. General secretariat
  4. Commission of mediation, conciliation and arbitration

Article 8 – 11: Spelt the function of the assembly of heads of states and governments as supreme organs.

Article 12 – 15: Created the council of ministers and spelt out its functions

Article 16 0 18:          Created the general secretariat headed by the secretariat general.

Article 19:                  Established the commission of meditation, conciliation and arbitration of the organization.

Article 20 – 22:          Set out specialized commission in the areas of co-operation as outlined in Article number 2(two).

Article 23:      Made the OAU budget as drawn by the secretary general. It was approved by the council of minister. Member states paid contribution according to assessment scale. No member state was allowed to pay 20% of the total budget.

Article 24 – 25: Dealt with the preparation of the charter text in English, French and other African languages. These are rectified with a two third majority.

Article 26: Provided for rectification and registration with the UNO

Article 27: Stipulated that the interpretation of the charter be by the third majority of the assembly.

Article 28: Spelt out the procedure of the admission with the OAU by independent African states which is decided by a simple majority of the assembly.

Article 29: Specified the working language of the organization as French, English and if possible any other Africa language.

Article 30: Authorized the secretary General to receive gifts and donations on behalf of the organization provided that this was approval by the council of ministers.

Article 31: Provided for the privileges and immunities of the secretariat staff waiting for member states as decided by the council of ministers.

Article 32: Stipulated the conditions for leaving the organization. If a member state wished to leave the organization was to give a one year notice formerly and it then withdrew the following year.

Article 33: Established the amendment of the charter on a written request by a member state after a year notice.


The effects it objectives and purposes the OAU’s charter provided for the establishment of various organs. These organs were:-

  1. The assembly of Heads of states and governments
  2. The council of Ministers.
  3. The General secretariat.
  4. The commission of mediation, conciliation and arbitration.

The assembly of Heads of states and Government

It was the supreme organ of O.A.U

Met once a year although it could hold extra ordinary sessions to discuss the matters and issues affecting the continent

Members of the assembly had equal voting rights, thus each state had vote.

Elected a chairman yearly from among the head of states and government and the head of states and government conference used to hold on relational basis various countries.

Head of state of the hosting state automatically became chairman of it.

However this was changed in 1982 over the issue of whether Colonel Muamar Gadafi of Libya was eleigible to head OAU.

Result was many African leaders boycotted the meeting which aborted due to lack of quorum.

Impact was president Moi of Kenya was chairman for two terms 1983.

1983 it was agreed that all OAU summit meeting would be held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


It Consisted of all foreign ministers of OAU member states.

Performed the following functions:

  • Prepared the Agenda for the meetings of the heads of states and governments.
  • It implementes the decision passed by heads of states and government.
  • Prepared the OAU budgets for approval by head of states and governments.

The council met twice yearly but again extra ordinary sessions could be led to discuss urgent and important matters.

The council meetings preceded those of the Assembly of the Heads of States governments and each.Minister has one vote.


It was headed by the secretary General who Was elected for a four year term of office and Could offer himself or herself for re-election if he/she wished.

It did the day to day work of OAU

Its headquarters was at Addis Ababa.


It was responsible for peaceful settlement of disputes including member of the 21 states.

OAU has also specialized commission and agencies which dealt with the more technical aspect of the organization.


In history OAU witnessed a number of achievement and failures.


  • It greatest achievement was in area of liberation of Africa from colonialism. It made tremendous efforts to liberate some countries from colonial oppression.
  • It stood firmly behind the African nationalist in south Africa, in their fight against apartheid.
  • It appealed to the security council of united nations to stop member countries from selling arms and military hardware to south Africa.
  • OAU mediated in border disputes e.g between Kenya and Somalia and between Chad and Nigera.
  • Through its specialized Agencies OAU has promoted areas of transport and communication, postal and Telecommunications link e.g through URTNA (Union of Radio and Television Network of Africa)
  • It managed to maintain peace and stability on the continent like in 1963 it broke a ceasefire between Algeria and morocco.
  • It has contributed to economic development like African development bank.
  • It has aweken and sensitized Africans on their common problems like desertification, external interference, dependency and over-reliance on one trade commodity.
  • It has united the diverse countries of Africa with their defferences in ideology.
    • Has promoted social and cultural heritage e.g All African games enabled African countries to meet and co-operate in sports.
    • Through scientific and technical Research Agencies OAU has encouraged research into medical use of African herbs and has contributed to eradication of some livestock diseases like East Coast Fever.
    • The OAU has encouraged regional economic co-operation as a start of achieving continental economic integration.

Example i) EAC (East African community)

  • ii) COMESA(Common market for Eastern, South Africa)

ECOWAS (Economic community of West Africa)


  • It failed to effectively deal with the Congo crisis of 1964 which almost dealt it affected blow.
  • The charter of OAU was silent of issues of democratic reforms, peace justice and freedom of expression.The result was that a large number of OAU leaders turned out to be military rulers and dicatetors. This led to instability and abuse of human rights in most member states.
  • OAU failed to achieve total unity and peace in Africa. This disunity manifested itself in the form of conflicts between member states and divison on which liberation movement to support.
  • The organization watched helplessly as handreds of thousands Tutsi and Hutu moderates were lailled in Rwanda Genocide.
  • It failed to intervene in the cival war in Zaire when Rwanda and Uganda invaded and occupied vast pasts of that country.


  • African countries have different forms of Government and ideologies, most states guard their independence jealously. They also lend to co-operate with their former colonial masters.
  • OAU member’s states were also members of other regional or international organizations e.g common wealth, ECOWAS, EAC and COMESA.Sometimes the interest of these organization were in conflicts with those of OAU
  • The large number of OAU states posed difficulties in co-coordinating and assembling all member states for the annual extra ordinary sessions.
  • The super powers interfered massively in the affair of African States e.g Angola and Zaire.
  • Boarder disputes between member countries e.g i) Between Somalia and Kenya, Libya and Sudan,Somalia and Ethiopia.
  • Portioning of Africa through scramble divided the continent into colonial territories which led to different groupings. For example the France – Phone African states felt more united among them that the Anglo-phone states.This left a negative legacy which had to be fought in attempt to forge close ties among member states.
  • Some heads of states were never in agreement and proved difficult to reconcile it manifested itself through policital assassination. OAU had to try and not let the situation get out of control.
  • Membership was voluntary making it easy for members to join or withdrew at work.
  • Military coups. It is estimated that over seventy African leader were overthrown in the first 25 years of independence beside many other aboritive coups. This coups interrupted OAU plans and prorgrammes.
  • Lack of military force is another challenge OAU faced. OAU lacked a permanent army that could enforce maintaince of peace.


The union was launched in Durban, South Africa on 9th July 2002 to replaced the OAU

It was also attended by Louis Farrakham and the Nation of Islam delegation representing black in the diaspora.

Thabo Mbeki was elected the chairman of the union.

Former Ivorian minister (foreign) Amara Essy was elected the secretary general.

He replaced Tanzania Salim Ahmed Salim who served OAU for 12 years.


  • To uphold the sovereign equality and independence of its 53 members states.
  • To promote peace, security and solidarity on the African continent.
  • To promote and protect human and peoples right, consolidate democratic institutions and culture and ensure good governance and the rule of raw in the continent of Africa.
  • To accelerate the process of implementing the treaty establishing the African economic community in order to promote the social economic development of Africa and to face more effectively the challenges pose by globalization.
  • To Achieve greater unity and solidarity between African countries and peoples in African.
  • To establish the necessary condition which enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and international negotiations.
  • To promote and defend issues of interest, the continent and its people.
  • To encourage international co-operation taking due account of the charter of the United Nations and the universal declaration of Human rights.
  • To promote co-operation in all fields of human activity in order to raise the saving standards of African peoples.
  • To co-ordinate and harmonies the policies between the existing and future regional economic communities for gradual attainment of the objectives of the union.
  • To advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields, particularly in science and technology.Its work with recount international partners in the eradication of preentable diseases and the promotion of health on the continent.


The African union consists of the following organs

The Assembly

The execute council

The permanent representative committee

The commission

Specialized technical committee

The pan-African parliament

The economic, social and cultural council

Financial institutions.

The peace and Security Council


It consists of the heads of states of all member states.

It is the most important decisions making body of the union.

It meets annually and elects a chair person.

In this assembly decisions are made by consensus or two third majority.


  1. i) It decides on common policies for the union
  2. ii) Considers application for membership

iii) Adopts the budget.

  1. iv) Direct the process of conflict resolution
  2. v) Appoints judges for the court of justice.


The council is made up of foreign affairs ministers of the member states.

The council is accountable to the Assembly.

Functiions of The Council

  1. i) Prepares materials for the assembly to discuss and approve.
  2. ii) Decides on matters such as foreign trade, social security, food, agriculture and communications.


It is composed of ambassadors to the African Union and  has the responsibility of preparing the work for the executive council.


The commission is the secretariat of the union the chairman, a deputy and eight commissioners.

Functions of the Commission

  1. i) Handles the day to day administrative issues of the union.
  2. ii) Implements the decisions of the union.

iii) Co-ordinates AU activities and meetings.

  1. iv) Receives application for membership.
  2. v) Initiates proposals for consideration by other organs.


It deals with monetary and financial issues, the rural economy, trade, immigration, industry and science and technology.

They are responsible for implementation of projects and programmes of the union they are:

  • The committee of rural and agricultural matters
  • The committee on the monetary and financial affairs.
  • The committee of trade, customs and immigration matters.
  • The committee on industry, science and technology, energy natural resources and environment.
  • The committee on health, labour and social affair.
  • The committee on transport, communication and tourism.
  • The committee on education, culture and human resources.


Consist of elected representative nominated from five regions of African union.


The court rules on human rights abuses in Africa in terms of a legal statute framework.


Performs an advisory functionsand Is composed of professional and cruel representatives.


Three financial institutions were set up under the African Union.

These institutions were to provide funding for projects and programmes.

  1. The African central bank
  2. The African monetary fund
  3. The African investment bank


This has 15 members responsible for monitoring and intervening in conflicts.

The council is a lerted by an early warning system as to any threat to security in the continent.

It is financed by a peace fund.

The council is advised by a council of elders and has an African force at its disposal.

This function of the council is outlined in Article 6 of AU charter.

Functions of Peace and Security Council

  • Promotion of peace, security and stability in Africa.
  • Early warning and preventive diplomacy.
  • Peace making including the use of good officer, medication, conciliation and inquiry.
  • Peace support operations and intervention, pursuant to article 4(h) and (J) of the constitutive act.
  • Peace building and post conflict reconstruction
  • Humanitarian action and disaster management.
  • Any other function as may be decided by the assembly


The AU charter was signed by 55 heads of states and of states and governments of the member states of the former organization of African unity (OAU) on 9th July, 2002 in Durban South Africa.

Like the OAU charter, it is a lengthy document with 33 articles.

Article 1:        Deals with definitions of key term in the charter.

Article 2:        States the establishment of AU in accordance with the provisions of the constitute act.

Article 3:        Outlines the objectives of the union

Article 4:        Defines the organs of the union

Article 5:        Defines the organs of the union

Article 6:        Outlines the composition and functioning of the assembly.

Article 7:        Stipulates the process of decision making by the Assembly.

Article 8:        Outlines the rules of procedure of the Assembly.

Article 9:        States the powers and functions of the Assembly.

Article 10:      Gives the composition of the Executive council and outlines it procedures

and functions.

Article 11 – 13:          Stipulates the decision making process of the executive council

rules of procedures and functions.

Article 14 – 16:          Outlines the establishment and composition of the specialized and

technical committee, giving their functions and organization.

Article 17:      Establishes the Pan – African parliament and defines its composition,

powers, functions and organization.

Article 18:      Establishes the court of justice, its statutes, composition and functions.

Article 19:      Spells out the financial institution of the union.

Article 20:      Deals with the establishment of a commission of the union to function as

the secretariat.

It defines its composition, structure, functions and regulation as

determined by the assembly.

Article 21:      Establishes the permanent representative committee and spells out its


Article 22:      Establishes the economic, social and cultural council as an advisory organs and states that its composition, power and organization are to be determined by the assembly.

Article 23:      Deals with the imposition of sanctions against member states.

Article 24:      Identifies the headquarters of the union as, Adis Ababa in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Article 25:      Defines the working languages of the union as, if possible African language, English, French and Portuguese.

Article 26:      Empowers the court to deal with matter of interpretation arising from application on implementation of the charter.

Article 27:      Deals with the signature, ratification and accession to the charter.

Article 28:      Stipulates that the act shall enter into force 30 days after the deposit of the instrument of ratification by the member states of the AU.

Article 29 – 31: Outlines the procedure for membership, suspension and cessation of membership.

Article 32: Outlines the process of amendment and revision of the charter.

Article 33: Outlines the transitional arrangement and final provision in the transformation of OAU in the AU.


  1. a) Resolving the recurrent common conflicts among several African Nations.

UN secretary General Kofi Annan warned that if Africans wanted to follow the example of Europe after WWII and build a union, they would a union, they would have to resolve their conflicts.(African Union Sumit 2002).

  1. b) Tackling the issue of regional powers.

This is where the powerful African countries like Nigeria and South Africa are afraid of using their own regional influence and concerned at any initiative that would weaken their sovereignty or ability to act independently.

  1. c) Member Nations need to seriously and genuinely address issue of ethnic, religious and regional division which has been increasing rapidly in many of the member Nations of the AU.
  2. d) Given that underlying reasons for insecurity include poverty and thus conflict over scarce resources, member states used to address the problem of insufficient institutional and constitutional structures to manage dispute peacefully.
  3. e) There is an urgent need for remaining military leaders to allow for democratic representatives.


Formation of E.A.C

The community was formed to strengthen common market among Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

It was a culmination of efforts made since 1902 to promote economic co-operation for East African states.

This effort had seen the establishment of the East African High Commission in 1948.

The commission consisted of governors of Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika.

It was followed by East African community services organization EACSO.

The East African community was therefore to take over the control of some services and research activities from EACSO.

The East African community was therefore to take over the control of some services and research activities from EACSO.

After the three East African sates become independent in the early 1960s.

It was clear that the leaders of the state did not care about a federation.

It was however, still very necessary that a form of co-operation among this states be formed.

In 1965, the Philip commission was set up to look into possibilities of such a co-operation.

The commission recommended the setting up of the East African co-operation which could replace EASCO.

This recommendation formed the basis of the treaty of Economic co-operation of the three East African States.

In 1967, Presidents Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya) Milton Obote (Uganda) and Julius Nyerere Tanzania signed a treaty which established the East African Community.

This treaty came into effects on 1st December 1967.


  1. To promote trade among the three East African countries, that was now independent.
  2. To provide common services in areas such as railways, habours, post and Telecommunication.
  3. To provide for free trade of goods provided within East Africa. A common currency was introduced by East African currency board.
  4. Provide a wider and more secure market for good produced in the region
  5. To facilitate free movement of people.
  6. To enable and strengthen closer ties and understanding between the member states.
  7. To help bring economic balance between the states and equally share the former EACSO assets.
  8. To establish similar custom tariffs and duties 10 non member states.
  9. To enhance self – sufficiency, self reliance and full independence from the rest of the world to avoid being trodden upon.


To facilitate its organization the following structures and institutions were set up.

The East African Main Institutions

The East African community had special institutions which were established by the 1967 treaty.These institutions were charged with co-ordination of various activities in the community.

The institutions were:-

  1. i) The East African authority
  2. ii) The East African legislative assembly

iii) The common market tribunal

  • The councils
  1. The central secretariat
  2. The court of appeal


This was the supreme authority

It consisted of the three Heads of states

There main duty was to decide of major issues affecting the countries.


This assembly was charged with making of laws concerning the services provided by the community.

It had 36 member, three of whom were ministers, one secretary general and members chosen from the three states.


This was a tribunal to settle trade disputes between the partner states.


The councils were five

Namely i) Finance

  1. ii) Communication

iii) Common market

  1. iv) Economic consultative
  2. Planning and research and social council

Each council had its own responsibility


To- co-ordinate the work of these councils, a central secretariat was set up in Arusha, Tanzania.

The secretariat was responsible for seeing that the common market council succession was carried out.

It was headed by a secretary General.


The court of appeal for East Africa was established in 1951.

It was to hear appeal from the courts in three member states.

The East African industrial court was a staff tribunal.


Another important organ of the East African community was the East Africna development Bank (E.A.D.B) which had its headquarters in Kampala.

The bank was established to promote balanced industrial development.

Objectives of the East African Development Bank

  1. Provide financial and technical assistance to partner states.
  2. Give priorities to industrial development in relatively less developed partner states.
  3. Fiannce the projects designed to make the economies of partner states complementary in the industrial field.
  4. Supplement the activities of National development by joint financing, specifically using the agencies as channel for financing specific projects.
  5. Co-operate with other National or international organs private or public.
  6. Underake ‘such other activities and provide such other services as may advance the objectives of the Bank.
  7. Establish similar custom tariff and duties to non member states.


Four East African community corporations set up in addition to the council.

These were

  1. i) East African Railway corporations were set up with its headquarters in Nairobi
  2. ii) The East African habours corporation with its headquarter in Dar – es salaam.

iii) The East African post and Telecommunication corporation with the East African airways corporation with it headquarters in Nairobi.

Facilities Which Came Under Direct Control On the Community

  1. a) The East African National resources research council. the council supervised research work from centres such as the;Fresh water fisheries (Jinja), Marine fisheries (Zanzibar), Agriculture and forestry research (Nairobi) and Vetinary research Nairobi.
  2. b) The East African Board. The Board worked the East African customs and exercise Department to ensure that the tax systems in the three states were in line with one another and gave help and advice in tax matters.
  3. c) The East African Research council which co-ordianted works on a variety of medical problems – leprosy, sleeping sickness, tuberculosis and viral diseases.
  4. d) The East African literature Bureau in Nairobi which promoted the production and sale of books. It encouraged more Africans to write books.


Service                                                                       Headquarters

  1. A Railway corporation Nairobi
  2. A Habours corporation Dar-es-Salaam

E.A Post and Telecommunication corporation    Kampala

E.A Customs and exercise                                       Mombasa

E.A Development Bank                                           Kampala

E.A income tax                                                         Nairobi

E.A Agriculture, veterinary and forest Research   Muguga (Kenya)

E.A Amani institute (scientific Research)              Amani (Tanzania)

E.A Fisheries Research                                            Jinja

E.A Literature Bureau                                                          Nairobi

E.A Metrological Department                                            Nairobi

E.A Civil Aviation Directorate                               Nairobi

E.A Marine Fisheries                                                           Zanzibar

Court of Appeal for East Africa                              Nairobi

E.A industrial Research                                           Nairobi

E.A Tropical Pesticides Research Centre               Arusha

E.A Airways                                                              Nairobi


  1. Uneven economic development, Uganda and Tanzania believed that Kenya benefit more from the EAC than them.
  2. National pride and interest:-National interests of the respective countries were given priority to regional interest (each member was proud of her own independence IT favoured railway Kamplala k trade transport.
  3. Ideological difference,Tanzania was committed to socialists ideologists while Kenya and Uganda pursued capitalist ideologies.
  4. Political Instability in Uganda:In January 1971 Idi Amin staged a military coup against Milton Obote there followed a period of political instability in Uganda.
  5. Personality differences, President Nyere and Idi Amin became bitter enemies because Obote was given refugee in Tanzania after he was overthrown by Amin.
  6. In adequate compensatory and corrective measures: There was financial constraint resulting from failure of member states to remit their contribution to East African Community.
  7. Use of different currencies made transactions difficult
  8. Personal ambitions: Each leader of the member states wanted to appear as the most powerful
  9. Boundary closures:This was between Tanzania and Uganda during the 1978 – 1979 war. Tanzania also closed it boarder with Kenya.

10.Kenya complained that its Nationals working in Tanzania were being harassed.

Tanzania didn’t act on the complain as a result Kenya pulled her Nationals and established her own state organization.

  1. From 1975 Kenya and Tanzania began to nationalize the asset of EAC that were within their boarder.


In 1993, however the three East African leaders (president Moi of Kenya, Museveni of Uganda, and Mwingi of Tanzania) met to discuss the possible revival of the community.

On 30th November 1993, the three leaders signed an agreement in Arusha, Tanzania, reviving the East African community.

They emphasized the need for free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the three member states.

This was coupled with common services and joint policies for transport, communication, security, education, science and research would enhance regional co-operation.

During the second summit of 3 heads of states in Arusha on 29th April 197 it was divided that a process of treaty making begin that would involve further negotiation among the member states including the public.

The result was the establishment of East African community which was signed in Arusha on the 30th November 1999.

It became operational on the 7th July 2000 and the new regional organization came into being.


On 15th January 2001, the summit of the new East African community was held in Arusha.

It signed various protocols relating to the rules for the admission of other countries to the E.A.C

Thereafter the community was formerly launched.


  1. Harmonization of fiscal and monetary policies.
  2. Encourage free movement of capital.
  3. Trade liberalization and development e.g by removal of internal tarrifs to member states.
  4. Co-operation in agriculture and food security.
  5. Development of areas of common economic interest e.g Lake Victoria and it basin.
  6. Development of infrastructure and supportive services e.g roads, railway, telecommunications etc.
  7. Develop adequate and reliable energy supply in the region.
  8. Development of human resources, science and technology.
  9. Development in social sector issue e.g health, culture and sport.
  10. Encourage free movement of persons be easing of boarder crossings.
  11. Promote co-operation in legal and judicial affairs.
  12. Strengthen political co-operation so as to attain peace and relation with other regional and international organizations.


The East African community has several organizations and institutions.

These a) Summit

  1. b) Council of ministers
  2. c) The co-coordinating committees
  3. d) Sect oral committees.
  4. e) The East African court of Justice
  5. f) The East African legislative Assembly.
  6. g) The secretariat.


It comprises heads of governments of member states which  meets at least once every year but may hold extra-ordinary meetings on the request of any member of the summit.

There is office of the chairperson and it’s rotational among the member states.

The main function of the summit is to give general direction toward the realization of community goals.

Decisions are made by consensus.


It is made up of ministers from the member states that are responsible for regional co-operation.

The council meets twice a year but a member state can request for an extraordinary council meeting.

The council is the main decision making institution.

It also implements the decision and directives of the summit and submits annual report.

It also prepares agenda for the summit.


It comprises permanent secretaries responsible for regional co-operation.

It is subject to the direction of the council.

It meets at least twice a ear.

It co-ordinates the activities of the secretarial committees.


Established by the council on the recommendations of the respective coordinating committees.

They meet as often as is necessary.

They are responsible for the preparation of a comprehensive implementation of the programme of the community in respect to it sector.


The court comprises of 6 judges two from each member states who are appointed by the summit.

The court is based in Arusha Tanzania.

It main function is to ensure the adherence to the law in the interpretation, application of and compliance with the East African community treaty


It has 27 elected members and 5 ex official members consisting of the minister responsible for regional co-operation from the partner state and the secretary – General and the counsel to the community.

There is the speaker of the Assembly, committee of the Assembly and cleric to the Assembly.

The Assembly provides a democratic forum for debate.

It also has a watch dog function and plays a role in the legislative process.


It is headed by the secretary – General who is appointed by the summit on rotation basis serves for a 5year period.

The secretary General is the chief executive officer of the community the accounting officer and the secretary of the summit.

He carries out any duties given to him by the council from time to time.

The secretariat in the executive arm of the community.

It ensures that regulations and directives adopted by the council are properly implemented.


The autonomous institutions of the EAC which assist it in effective operation are

  1. Lake Victoria Development programme
  2. The East African Development Bank(EADB)
  3. Lake Victoria fisheries organization
  4. The inter university council for East Africa (IUCA).


The treaty for establishment of the East African community provides that a custom union shall be the first stage in the process of economic integration.

Therefore real economic integration was only to commence with thee coming into the being of the customs union.

The treaty provides that the customs union shall be followed by a common market, then a monetary union and finally a political federation.

The objective of establishing a customs union is formation of a single custom territory to enable partner states to enjoy economies of scale with a view to supporting the process of faster economic union, EAC will create a single market of over 90 million people (2002) and a combined GDP of a round USA dollars 30 brailing, besides assisting to level the playing for the regions producers by imposing uniform competition policy and law.

The customs union became operational in February 2005.

There is now a common regime of taxes being followed on all goods among member states.


A Common set of import duty rates applied on goods from third world countries.

Duty free and quota free movement of tradable goods among its constituent custom territories.

A common set of customs, rules and procedures.

A structure for collective administration of the custom union

A common trade policy with non memer states.


  1. a) Member states give more preference to their internal matters at the expense of community affair. This has slaved down the process of integration.
  2. b) Uneven levels of economic development have given Kenya on undue advantage in the competition. Fr example Kenyan manufactured goods are more competitive.
  3. c) Member countries also belong to other regional organization such as COMESA, SADC leading to divided loyalty.
  4. d) Insecurity along the common boraders caused by banditary, cattle rustlers etc has in some cases several relations between member states e.g the insecurity along Kenya Uganda border.
  5. e) Member states produce similar goods making it difficult for them to trade with each other.
  6. f) The East African community members do no have a common currency. Besides the currencieces e.g the Dollar, sterling pound, Euro etc This has hindered trade among the countries.
  7. g) Poor transport and communication Network among the member countires which hinders the movement of people and goods.
  8. h) Conflicts over the exploitation of common natural resources e.g the use of Lake Victoria resources (Migingo Island).



It  began in 1958 when Ghana and Guinea formed a political union.

The two countries were joined by Mali.

In 1960, other Nations of West Africa began making moves along way of limited economic co-operation from 1963.

For example there was an agreement between Gambia and Senegal on currency matters, air service and trade.

There was also Niger River commission between Mali, Upper Bolta (Burkina Faso) and Niger on the use of the Niger River.

Other similar organization were the Lake Chad Basin commission between Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon and the Senegal commission between Senegal, Guinea, Mali and Mauritania.

In 1972, Togo and Nigeria signed a bilateral agreement after some quite diplomacy and consultations; the way was cleared for a meeting of the different West African Nation in 1974.

All the arrangement was preparatory steps towards the formation of ECOWAS which was formerly established with the signing of the treaty of Longos on 28th May, 1975.

Its operations began in November 1976.

Originally there were fifteen (15) signatories. Te community now has seventeen (17) (members, Cape Verde having joined in 1977.


  1. a) Benin j) Senegal
  2. b) Liberia k) Guinea
  3. c) Mali i) Sierra – Leone
  4. d) Burkina Faso m) Mauritania
  5. e) Cape Verde n) Gambia
  6. f) Togo o) Ghana
  7. g) Guinea Bissau p) Niger
  8. h) Nigeria q) Ivory Coast.
  9. i) Togo


  1. To foster economic co-operation among member states in various fields.
  2. To ensure free movement of goods, within the area by removing trade barrier among member states.
  3. To achieve economic independence for its members.
  4. To develop Agriculture, commence and industry as well as other sectors of the economy.
  5. To set up technical and specialized commission of mutual interest.
  6. To enhance co-operation in communication and cultural matters
  7. To improve the living standards of the people in member states.
  8. To promote and improve good relation between member states.


The ECOWAS in order to streamline its operations put up the following structures in it organization.

  1. Authority of Heads of States and Government
  2. Council of Ministers.
  3. The Tribunal
  4. Executive secretarial.


These is the supreme organ of ECOWAS and It meets once year, although extra ordinary session may be held in need arises.


It is composed of one minister from each member states and responsible for the general management of the organization.


It is charged with the responsibility of interpreting the treaty.

It settles disputes between the member states.


It is based in Lagos, Nigeria

It is headed by an executive secretary who serves for a four year term.

It is charged with the day to day administration of the organization and implementation of policies.

There are four specialized commission dealing with the following matters:

  1. i) Trade, customs, tariffs, immigration and monetary affairs.
  2. ii) Industry, Agriculture and Natural resources

iii) Transport, communication and Energy

  1. iv) Social and cultural affair.


  • Politically, it has enabled the head of states to meet regularly for consultation of issues concerning the region.
  • Members have benefited economically from the co-operation, for example, Availing Nigerian petroleum and petroleum and petroleum products to The members at cheaper rate than in the open market.
  • It has enhanced the movement of goods and labour within the region achieving success in the field of customs.
  • As achieved success in the field of mutual defense and has actively participated in resolving conflicts in the region, for example, and intervened in the civil wars in sierra – Leone and Liberia.
  • The organization has enhanced cultural exchanges among the member states.
  • Progress has been made in the field of transport, communications, Agriculture and industry in the region.
  • ECOWAS has set up a development fund.


  • Influx of workers from less developed areas to move developed states within the organization.For example, many Ghanaians went to Nigeria expecting to find better opportunities. But following complaints from its citizens, the Nigerians government expelled thousands of Ghanaians and other foreign workers in 1983.
  • The closure of boarders between some member states has also been a problem e.g Ghana and Togo as well as Burkina Faso and Mali
  • Foreign interference especially through the presence of Israel and French Soldiers in cote de-ivore is another problem
  • Ideological differences between various leaders have prompted suspicion and mistrust among the member states.For example: – there was tension between the president of Ivory Coast, the late Felix Houphonet – Biogony and the late Burkina Faso president Thomas Sankara.
  • Member states of ECOWAS are also members of other organization. For example Mano-River Union, the cape Verde/Guinea Bissau Free Trade Area, the commonwealth and the Annual Franco African Conference This create divided loyalty and commitment
  • There has also been friction between Anglo-phone and Franco Phone countries.
  • Member states have not been making their annual payment regularly to ECOWAS in foreign currency. If this continues for long, it will waken the organization.
  • Nationalism – Member states gives domestic interest priority and not the common issues affecting the community.
  • The region is poorly linked with transport and communication Networks which hampers the smooth running of the organization.
  • A number of member stats have experienced military coups e.g Ghana and Nigeria. Countries like Liberia have had civil wars leading to the intervention of ECOWAS by sending a peace keeping force between 1990 and 1990. others are like Sierra Leone and Burkina Faso.
  • Member’s states have different currencies which fluctuate widely against major international currencies like American dollar and British pound. This creates the problems of rates of exchange hindering trade among states.



COMESA replaced the former preferential Trade Area (PTA) which had been in existence from the early days of 1981.

It was established as an organization of free independent sovereign states which had agreed to co-operate in developing their natural and human resources for the good of all their people.


The treaty establishing COMESA was signed on 5th November 1993 in Kampala Uganda.

It was ratified a year later in Lilongw Malawi, on December 8th 1994 when the first COMESA Summit was convened.

The second COMESA was held on April 20th 1996 in Lusaka Zambia.

It focused on promotion of regional trade, economic integration, security and peace.

The third summit was held in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo on June 29th 1998 under the theme “information – a tool for increased Trade and investment in COMESA”

The Headquarters of COMESA is located in Lusaka Zambia

The Member Countries of Comesa

  1. a) Angola \ k) Malawi
  2. b) Burundi l) Swaziland
  3. c) Comoros m) Uganda
  4. d) Dr. Congo n) Zambia
  5. e) Eritrea o) Zimbabwe
  6. f) Egypt p) Sudan
  7. g) Ethiopia q) Seychelles
  8. h) Kenya r) Rwanda
  9. j) Madagascar s) Namibia
  10. t) Mauritius

Comesa Treaty

According to the Agenda set by COMESA treaty the way forward to the organization was lead out as:

  1. By the year 2000, zero tariffs were to be achieved among member states.
  2. By 2004, a common external tariffs or customs union(common market status)
  3. By 2005 a monetary union, free movement of people including right of establishment (economic community status) will be established.


  1. COMESA sustains growth and development of the member states by promoting a more balanced and harmonious development of its production and marketing structures.
  2. It promotes doing development in all fields of economic activity.
  3. It creates an enabling environment for foreign cross boarder and domestic investment including the joint promotion of research and adaptation of science and technology for development.
  4. COMESA strengthens the relations between the common market and the rest of the world and the adaptation of common position in international For a.
  5. It contributes towards the establishment, progress and the realization of the objectives of the African Economic community.
  6. COMESA works for promotion of peace, security and stability among member states in order to enhance economic development in the region.


There are four organs of COMESA which are empowered to take decisions on behalf of the organization.

These are

  1. The Authority of head of states and government.
  2. The council of ministers
  3. The court of justice
  4. The committee of governors of Central bank

The Inter Government committee, the technical committees, the secretariat and the consultative committees mark recommendation to the council of ministers which in turn make recommendation to the authority.


Consist of heads of states and governments

It is the supreme policy organ of the COMESA

Its decisions and directives are by consensus and are binding on all subordinate institutions, other than the court of justice on matters within the jurisdiction.

It is responsible for general policy and directs and controls the performance of the executive function of the common market.

It controls the achievement of the aims and objectives of the organization.


It is composed of ministers designated by member states.

Decisions are made by consensus.

It makes policy decisions on the programmes and activities of COMESA.

The council monitors and reviews the financial and administrative management of the organization.

It ensures proper functioning of COMESA in accordance with the provision of the treaty.


It is the judicial organ of COMESA with jurisdiction over all matters referred to it as pursuant to COMESA treaty.

It ensures proper interpretation and application of the provision of the treaty.

The court of justice adjucates disputes among member states.

The decisions of the court are binding and final and the court act independently of the authority and council.

It is headed by a president and consists of six other judges appointed by the authority.


It is empowered by the treaty to determine the maximum debt and credit limit the COMESA clearing house.

It determines the daily interest rates for outstanding debt.

It also monitors and ensures the proper implantation of the monetary and financial co-operation programmes.


A multi- disciplinary body composed of permanent secretaries from member states in the areas of trade and customs, Agriculture, industry transport and communicatons, administrative and budgetary matters and legal affairs.

Decisions and made by a simple majority.

Main functions are:-

  1. Development of programme and action plan in all sector of co-operation except the finance and monetary sectors.
  2. ii) The intern-governmental committee monitors and keeps under constant reviews and ensures proper functioning and development of the common market.

iii) It oversees the implementation of the provisions of the treaty and for that  purpose request a technical committee to investigate any particular matter.


It is headed by the secretary – General appointed by the authority for a five year term.

The secretariat provides technical support and advisory services the number states in the implementation of the treaty.

It undertakes research and studies as a basis of implementing the decision adopted by the policy organs.


It mainly provides a link and facilitates dialogue between the business community and other interest groups and organs of COMESA.


They are twelve

They are responsible for preparation of comprehensive implementation of programmes and monitoring their implementation before recommending to the council

They are one

  1. i) Adminstrative and budgetary matters



Tourism and wildlife

Trade and customs

Transport and communication

Finance and monetary affairs

Legal affairs

Natural resources and social affairs

Comprehensive information systems.


  • It has achieved more co-operations in the area of trade, customs, transport development finance and technical cooperation.
  • Trade facilitation and liberalization measures have borne fruit as intra – COMESA trade has grown tremendously.
  • Transport costs have reduced by about 25% following COMESA traffic facilitation measures.
  • The P.T.A. bank has over the years been instrumental in promoting investments and providing trade finance facilities.
  • It has established several important institutions including the P.T.A trade and development Bank, the COMESA clearing house, the COMESA re-insurance company and COMESA leather and leather products institute.
  • It has promoted relationship between monitor states fostering peace and understanding.
  • COMESA has improved infrastructure through interstate, transport and communication links which have benefited member states.
  • Member have benefited from joit services rendered by multi-National institution e.g Multi-National fertilizer plant in Uganda, leather products plant based in Ethiopia etc.
  • Regular tractk fairs (shows) have been organized and taken place in member states which has enhanced trade and cultural interaction.


  1. Most member states experience a hostile external trade environment characterized by unfavourable terms of trade.
  2. COMESA member are suffocating under a large debt burden occasioned by continued borrowing from international markets.
  3. New economic policies by the World Bank and I.M.F coupled with reducing levels of official’s development aid have led to economic decline within the region.
  4. Unprecedented natural calamities e.g droughts and floods leading to massive food shortages and famine.
  5. Major unemployment crisis in all countries especially among the urban youth.
  6. Regional integration is at times outweighed by national interests.
  7. Civil strife, ethnic wars and political instability within the region.
  8. Some trade commodities among member states are similar hence commercial exchange are limited.
  9. COMESA has to ensure that member states comply with the regulations of the organization some of whom may not comply. Example is on issues of tariff reduction and member preferring broad markets other than local exchanges.




National philosophy is a set of ideological beliefs championed by the ruling party that becomes widely acceptable within a particular country or political and geographical boundary.

Kenya has made tremendous progress since independence in political, social and economic fields.

African socialism.

Origin of African socialism.

Kenyan leaders under, the late mzee jomo Kenyatta, adopted African socialism as a national philosophy and ideology.

This was drafted as sessional paper no. 10 of 1965 entitled African socialism and its application to planning in Kenya.

This was due to:

  • There was a need to create a new society free from political oppressions, socio-economic inequalities, racialism and discrimination.
  • Creation of united and free Kenya in which individual rights and freedom.
  • The need for a just and humane society.

Development of African socialism.

This was stated in sessional paper no. 10 of 1965, which had 58 major policy on economic, social and political development, such as:

  • Political democracy.
  • Mutual social responsibility.
  • Various forms of owvership.
  • A range of controls to ensure that property is used in mutual interest of society and its members.
  • Progressive taxes to ensure an equalitable distribution of wealth and income.
  • Diffusion of ownership to avoid economic disparity.

The paper pointed out the need for Kenyans to be motivated by a sense of service and patriotism to their country and not to be driven by greedy desire for personal gains.

The government hoped that education would be a means of achieving some of these goals.

The government also provided medical care and social security for better society.

The paper particularly stressed that individuals property and ownership would be grauranteed. The government would not nationalized private property without adequate compensation and could participate in business either alone or in partnership with private investors.

The paper stressed the role of agriculture in national development, proper management of both private and public sectors through consolidation and registration of land.\

Progressive taxation, distribution of wealth and income would bring social equality through a heavier taxation on wealthier members of the society.


Origin of harambee philosophy.

Kenya had three evils like povety, disease and ignorance.

The word harambee is basically a call for hard work in the difficult task of national building.

Development of harambee philosophy.

Its origin and applications have strong roots in our African traditions; it’s founded in the spirit of mutual social responsibility and is African socialism in practice.

Characteristics of harambee movement.

  • Unity brings about co-operation among people before they settle down for a common project.
  • Volition makes people contribute labour and material to any project without being forced by any authority.
  • There is need for determination forms which is useful ingredient whenever undertaking a harambee venture.
  • Free participation allows the harambee spirit to acquire its democratic nature as a mass movement.sense of purpose buttress the principles of determination behind the harambee spirit.

Harambee projects heve been grouped into three major categories:

  • Social projects like schools, labarotories, libraries and medical facilities.
  • Economic projects like roads, bridges.
  • Agricultural and livestock development projects like cattle dips, irrigation and tree planting.


Origin of nyayo philosophy.

Moi was the late mzee Kenyatta’s vice president for 12 years, he became president in 1978 and he decided to follow in the footsteps of mzee (nyayo) of harambee.

Nyayoism is derived from a Kiswahili word nyayo, which means footsteps.

Development of nyayo philosophy.

Nyayo philosoply is guided by the need by every Kenyan to be mindful of the welfare of each over.

It’s based on three pillars of peace, love and unity.

Moi said that nyayoism is neither new nor foreign and was not different from harambee.

The spirit of harambee continued to be an inspiration embodied in the nyayo philosophy.

In his book “Kenya African nationalism and principles’’ moi says, love begets unity, unity procreates peace and peace is the beginning of progress.

Impact of national philosophies on national development.

Impct of African socialism.

  • It has promoted respect for individual rights as enshrined in the constitution.
  • Political democracy has been encouraged in the country.
  • The sessional paper echoed and promoted the constitutional provision of separation of powers and reinforcement of a fair and humane society based on the respect of citizens’ legal rights.
  • It has led to fair distribution of wealth and income through progressive taxation system.
  • The government has provided equal opportunities by providing educational to all Kenyans for social and economic changes.
  • There has been provision of essential services like amenities.
  • There is proper management of agriculture which is the backbone of the economy.
  • There is also ownership of property by both private and state ownership.
  • It has also led to the development of other related philosophies like harambee and nyayoism.
  • It has motivated Kenyans towards a sense of service to each other and not to be driven by personal gain.

Impact of harambee philosophy.

  • There has been good development in the field of education as many schools has been built.
  • A number of health centres, dispensaries have been set up.
  • There has been creation of public projrcts like soil conservation, afforestration and flood control.
  • The needy in the society have been assited like in education and health sector.
  • It has encouraged Kenyans no to depend on external assistane in order to face the challenges of national development.
  • Harambee gatherings act as forums for propagating and implementing government policies like, issues on HIV/AIDS, environmental conservation and management and security matters.
  • It has also encouraged national unity.
  • It has contributed to the redistribution of resources among the Kenyan people.

Challenges facing harambee philosophy.

  • It was misused by public servants and politicians who angaged in corruption to get money to donate in harambees.
  • It has also been one way of staging public shows between the haves and have nots.
  • There were cases when people were coerced to contribute negating the spirit of harambee.
  • To chech on the misuse of office by public servants, the government has enacted the ethics and public servants act barring public servants from playing an active role in harambee.

Impact of nyayo philosophy on Kenyans.

  • It has created national intergration and harmony.
  • It has promoted peace throughout the country which is essential for national development.
  • It has also promoted foreign relations or affairs.
  • There has been tremendous expantion in education sector like primary, secondary and universities in Kenya.
  • There has been improvement and expansion in the health sector.
  • There has been kenyanisation of the economy like jua kali sector.
  • It ahs resulted in rural development through the establishement of the District focus for rural development.
  • There has been promotion of sports and cultural activities throughout the country.
  • Agriculture has been boosted through the creation of nyayo Tea Zone.
  • There has been environmental conservation like afforestation and re-afforestation programmes.






















Political Development from 1963 – 1991

Africa independence there were three political parties (Kenya Agricutural Union) Kenya African Democratic union and Africa people party.

KANU and know engaged massive countrywide supportive only in ukambani fomed by Paul Ngeil.

Jomo Kenyatta, the president of KANU deficted tethnic and ideological differences within KANUas there were through samps the nationalists led by  Oginga Odinga and Bildad Kaggia with moderates led by Jomo Kenyatta, Tom Mboya and James Gishum.

KANU government faced rivaly from KADU which appointed for a judicial constution (majimbiano) as KANU favoured a unitary constitution for national unity.

Jomo Kenyatta for a long time tried to unite KANU and KADU without success in 1961, but in 1963 through his vice president Oginga Odinga persuade KADU and App to join KANU.

In 1964, parliament abolished the regional constitution which Kenya had at independence on 12th December 1964; Kenya became a Republic with an executive president.

The power of majimboism was abolished and adopted unitary government. There was a constitutional amendment in 1965 and 1966 especially in Executive through the control of provincial administration.

During the limuru conference of 1996, there were amendments eventing & provincial party vice – presidents instead of a single national vice-president.

This led to radicals breaking a way and formed Kenya Union (KPU)

There was another amendment of 1966 known as “Little General Election”

KANU won 21 in the lower house to the KPU’s seven. In the senate KANU took eight and KPU two.

From 1969 – 1982 Kenya remained a de facto one party state with (section 2A) as KANU the only legal political party.

In July 5, 1969 Tom Joseph Mboya was assassinated this lead to lack of confidence of the public in the government.

There was also the murder of Jusiah Mwangi Kariuki (J.M) in March 2, 1975.

Jomo Kenyatta died in 1978 and succeeded by Vice President Daniel Arap Moi who followed the footsteps of his predecessor. In 1988, general elections, KANU opted for the unpopular queue voting method against secret ballot.

In 1989, Dr. Joseph Karanja was appointed up to replace Mwai Kibaki who was appointed health Minister.

In February 1990, Dr. Robert Ouko died he was the minister of foreign Affairs and international co-operation his dead was a shock as there was demonstration in her county.

In 1990 KANU delegates abandoned the queue directing system

Multi-party democracy in Kenya

It began in 1963 with KANU, KADU and APP in 1964, KADU voluntarily merged with KANU as Kenya began de facts (one party state).

In 1960 have was political difference which leads to formation of Kenya peopoles union (KPU).

In June 1952, section 2(A) of the constitution was passed by parliament to make Kenya a de jure one party state this went on until December 1991 when same sections of 2(a) of the constitution was repeated by parliament (No.2) Bill 1996 relating  the county to a multi-party system.

Factors that led to introduction of multi-parties

  • Alleged rigging of the 1988 general Elections. The general election held in March 1988 were alleged to have been massively rigged, like anyone who gained 70 percent majority of votes in a queue win the election but not all arrived at this one people which short queue were also disland winners.
  • KANU’s policies who fialed to accommodate dillegent views who were stigmatized, stenously grilled and either suspended or expelled from the party.
  • Political changes in Soviet Union like the change dictatorship and replaced by more liberal government.
  • Western Aid conditions who encouraged government grivernance, accountability and respect for human rights and they were willing to give grant aid only to countries initiating democratic policies and were willing to change to pluralistic policies.
  • Influence of pluralism from Zambia and Tigo. By 991, wind of change demanding replacement of the single party systems with pluralism was widerspread in Africa in Zambia president Kenneth Kaunda allowed milti-partism.
  • Role of multi – party activist in Kenya like the clergy, politicians, lawyer and journalists relentlessly kept up the pressure.
  • The response f clergy to KANU polities lias reverend Timothy Njoya of the Presbyterian church of East Africa (P.C.E.A) and right Reverend Dr. Henry Okullu, ACK, Bishop of Maseno South Diocese who were joined by Charles Rubia and Kenneth Matiba and Oginga Odinga, James Orengo, late Masinde Muliro, Martin Shikuku and Prof. Wangari Mathai.
  • Pressure to release political prions Njaru Kithanya Pro. Edward Oyugi and Karuiku Ngotho.
  • KANU response to criticisation to organize country wide political values and dump played these rallies the attempt to revise tribalism, dump political stability and retard economic development. Rubia and Matiba applied for a license to address a public rally at Kamukunji, Nairobi on July 7th 1990 to explain why pluralism was crucial. The meeting was aborted because it was not licenses leading to arrest of two politicians and Raila Odinga. This was followed by riots in Nairobi and other towns (sabasaba riots).
  • Saitori review committee report of 1990 who recommended abolitation of the – voting system and exploision from the party.
  • 1992 multi- party elections were held, KANU led by Daniel Arap Moi won the elections, (Ford –A) led by Kenneth Matiba were runners up followed by (DP) of Mwai Kibaki and (Ford – Kenya led by Jaramogi Oginga Odinga.
  • 1997 multi – party elections, as KANU won with Deputy President Kibaki came second, wilde (NDP) of Raila Odinga and ford Kenya of Wamalwa Kijana came third and fourth respective.
  • 2002 mulitparty elections where (N.A.R.C) formed a coalition of political parties led by Mwai Kibaki as presidential candidate KANU of Kenyatta and Ford – people of Simon Nyachae who came second and third respectively.


Challenges of Multi – Party Democracy

Many of the political parties are ethnically inclined lacking national outlook and hindering development and natural unity.

There is inadequate fund for parties to recruit members, conduct civic education, propagate their policies and even hold internal elections.

Political parties are used as vehicles to accord the power and amend wealth.

Personality differences among leaders have lead to infighting and wrangling within the parties this weakened and disintegrate the party.

Interference by government machinery like provincial administration.

Ideological differences among party leaders have affected the democratization process.

Uniformed literate and poor electorate.


Nation building refers to the deliberate action of the government which assures improvement and increased social economic welfare of a people.

Role of the Ruling Party and Government and National Building

  • It forms the government which the leader becoming the president of the country
  • It formulates natural policies within which the government operates monitors the people general feelings towards the establishment and informs government accordingly.
  • It lays down the policy to guide its members of parliament party officials work hand – in – hand with civil servants at all levels in implementing government policy.
  • The party is charged with the responsibility of promoting the country’s socio – economic development.
  • It promotes political awareness and general duration among the people.
  • It maintains law and order by providing security to its people.
  • It formulates foreign policy and protects Kenyan nationals out of the country.
  • It provides economic frame work that enhances proper utilization and exploitation of natural resources.



  • They offer managerial approach and constructive alternative solution to country’s problems in parliament.
  • They make political decision – making especially in committees of the legislative
  • They their alternative idea to the general citizenship of the country.
  • They support strict adherence to the process of demoralization good governance, accountability, transparency in public affairs and wages was against corruption.
  • They work relentlessly for the repeat of unjust and oppressive laws.
  • They pressurize the government to release all political prisoners and guard against arbitrary arrest and detention.
  • They secure and ensure the availability of quality education at all levels and for all Kenyans.
  • They struggle for better marketing of good crops such as maize, rice and wheat and oash crops.
  • They influence better performance of agricultural institutions such as Agricultural finance corporation (FC) and Kenya farmers Association (K.P.A) and others.
  • They work to improve health services.


Economic Developments

The country lacked capital and qualified manpower and uneven development as some pasts of the country work for a head of others in development and in the provision of essential services.

Leaders of the nation undertook measures resolve his problems by adopting the national philosophies harambee, African personalism.

Nyayoism and the office development plans notable political social and economic changes have been realized like hand-holding in Kenya which refers to the various forms of land ownership.


Equitable access in land.

Security of land rights

Transport and cast effective administration land.

Sound conservation and protection of ecologically sensitive areas.

Elimination of gender discrimination in land and property ownership.

Encouragement of commitment to settle land disputes through recognized local community initiatives.

Types of land holdings in Kenya

Public land

Community land

Private land


This land belongs to the public and the custodian is the National or County government it fails under the following descriptions.

Land used or occupied by the state organ.

Land transferred to the state by sale, surrender or reversion.

Land which no individual or community ownership can be established

Land where manuals and manual oils are found.

All government, games resolves, water catchments areas, national parks and animal sanctuaries.

All roads

All rivers, lakes, and water bodies defined by act of parliament.

The territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone and the sea – bed.

The continental shelf

All land   between the high lower water – marks.


This is land held by communities identifies on the basis of ethnicity

Culture or similar community of interest.

Land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives

Land lawfully transferred to a specific community by any process of law.

They other land declared to be community land by an act of parliament land that is laughly held, managed and used by specific communities.

Ancestral lands are lands traditionally occupied by hunter gatherer communities land lawfully held as trust land by the county government.


Registered land held by any person held under any free hold tenure land held by any person under leasehold tenure.

Any other land declared private land under an act of parliament.

Land holding by non citizens.

Its hold by someone who is not a Kenyan citizen through leasehold training and doesn’t exceed 99 years.

National land commission


  • Manage public land
  • Recommend a natural land policy to the National Government conduct research related to land and the use of natural resources.
  • To initiative investigation on a complaint into present or past land injustice.


At independence, the government embarked on seeking solutions to land problems which had formed the central reason for anti-colonial campaigns which were

It formed the ministry of lands settlement (1963) the scheme indirect resettling African farmers on many small – scale farms which were through sub-division of large scale farm.

Co-operatives and land buying companies were also formed to help purchase farms for member.

There were other schemes in the coastal area as land was plenty of underdeveloped land.

It set up the land adjudication and registration programme concerned with converting the traditional African land tenure system to one based on registered freehold tenure originally, it was known as land consolidation because fragmented plots owned by one person in a particular area were consolidated into one holding before registration.

The government gave priority to the prorgamme for the completion of adjudication because registration is important in spreading up subsequent agricultural development.

There were developing large scale farms like Agricultural Development Cooperation (ADC) which diversified the agricultural sector to avoid reliance on one or two crops.

There was also the development of Kenya. The Development Agency (KTDA) which has established tea factories to facilitate tea growing and processing in the country.

The government laid great emphasis on research through the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI).

It’s a result of all these efforts high yielding and resistant (hybrid) varieties of crops and animals have been introduced leading to tremendous increase in food production.

At independence, the total area under irrigation was 3,340 hectares (8,300 acres) in 1983 irrigation covered. The most ambitious projects were undertaken by the Bura scheme in Tana River, Ahero in Nyanza, Mwea Tebere in Central and Perkerra in rift valley.

The government established development authorities, such as the Tana – Athi river development authority (TARDA) Kerio valley and Lake Basin Development Authorities, which are responsible for the co-ordination and proper use of resources in each water catchment area.

There was land reclamation about 56,600 hectares of irrigation and reclaimed land in Western Kenya.

The government has put in place major changes in land use which increase action to arrest land degradation caused by

Destruction of forests through clearing for cultivation or timber.

Poor cultivation methods especially on hillsides.

Reduction of water and grazing areas, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas.

Successive crop failure and diminishing crop yields.

Over stocking and cultivation along river banks.

The Ministry of Agriculture has, compiled an agro-ecological zone mapping which correlates information on rainfall, water and soil topography for possible cropping patterns.

There permanent presidential commission on soil conservation and afforestation in 1981.

There is also national tree planting day.

The government promoted the growth and development of co-operatives in the country which are agriculture based co-operatives.




  • Nomadic pastoralists are yet to allow the individual lease or land tenure system in their areas.
  • Inadequate funds which has impeded the speed of land demarcation and adjudication.
  • Inefficient technology to operate modern farm machinery which is also not available.
  • Poor transport and communication network.
  • Increased population leading to fragmentation of land into small units.
  • The rapidly spreading HIV and AIDS infection that deprive the agricultural sector the much needed labour.
  • The detared cultural practices where girls are not allowed to own land denies woman ownership right – amajor challenges to agricultural improvement.
  • High lost of agricultural inputs and low price of agricultural produce discourage the farmers.
  • The government has problems of resettling thousands of squatters who live an either private or government land.
  • Public land in Kenya is grabbed through fraundulent acquisition of title deeds and illegal allotment letters.
  • The spread of arid conditions and unreliable climatic conditions are a major challenge to land use.


At independence Kenya’s industrial development was basically of primary nature based on processing of agricultural raw materials and few mineral exploited in the country.

The government formed the Kenya industrial Estate (K.I.E) which was to provide technical advice and capital for the establishment of factories.

The girl provided environment for local – based banks like Kenya commercial Bank (KCB) and National Banks of Kenya (NBK) for loans and credit to Africans to start industries.

The government started factories such as the Kisumu cotton mills (KICOMI) Kenya Titexmills (KTM) in Thika and Nanyuki textiles while it encouraged the establishment of private textile industrial such as Raymonds and the Blankets factory in Nakuru.

The independence government encouraged the establishment of light engineering industries like jembes, pangas, nails, iron sheets and barbed wires.

Kenya ventured into production of heavy motor vehicles by setting up motor vehicles Assembly plant in Thika.

There was the venture into chemical industries following the establishment of oil refineries at changamwe, Mombasa.

Kenya is able to pump oil from Mombasa to other parts of the country through the establishment of Kenya oil pipeline.

Kenya has proper manufacturing industry in Webuye.

The agro – based factories to process tea, coffee and fruit were set up in the agricultural areas.

There is also beverage and food processing, especially in Soft drinks and grain milling (flour).

The developments in industries were boosted by the establishment of hydro-power at Okaria Naivasha.

The expansion of sugar processing industries was developed in the sugar cane growing areas of mumias, chemilil and others.

The government also encouraged the establishement of jua kali artisan industries using scrap and the recyling of materials.

The government has encouraged the growth of the tourism industry by supporiting organizations that support the industry.


  • Kenya had inadequate trained and skilled personnel.
  • There are law levels of local entrepreneurship.
  • There are insufficient funds.
  • There is inadequate internal and external markets.
  • Importation of cheap products such as used clothes, shoes, motor vehicles, the led to the collapse of some local industries.
  • Corruption, nepotism and mismanagement have led to the collapse of industry and scared away potential investors.
  • Poor infrastructure has hundred the distribution of raw materials and finished goods.
  • There is inadequate supply of power.



Education is the only way to develop skilled man power to replace expatriates in civil, service, commence and industry. The government therefore made deliberate.

There were committees setup to advice the government like Ominde commission of 1964 -1965, Gachathi (1976) Mackay (1982), Kariithi(1983), Kamunge(1983) and Koech (2002).

Most of the recommendation changes were adopted, like in 1963 there was 6,058 primary schools and in1986 of incrused to 18, 392.

In 1963, there were 151 secondary schools and in 1986 there were 2,485 in 1913, there were only one university.

In 1970 the University of Nairobi was born by 1993 there were force on versities Harambee institutes of Science and technology have been established in almost every district in the country.

Post – secondary training colleges and institutions wars opened in areas of agriculture, veterinary, forestry cooperatives, water technology medicine and others.

Three natural polytechnics were established in Nairobi, Mombasa and Eldoret.

Other educational departments and institutions were established under the umbrella of the Ministry of Education to perform tasks aimed at polishing up the system like inspectorate of schools.

The Kenya Institute of Edcuation (KIE) was established to develop relevant curriculum teaching/learning materials for use by schools and colleges.

The Kenya National Examinations council was established to develop administration and certify national examinations.

Kenya literature Bureau was established to publish materials for use in schools and colleges.

The Department of Adult Education in the Ministry of culture and social services was set up to develop and supervise the implementation of adult educations programmes.

The government recognized Kiswahili as national language while English remained the official Lingua Franca.

There was change in the educational system since independence; the 8-4-4 was affected in 1985.

The new curriculum emphasis practical and vocational – oriented subjects such as crafts, art work, metal work, agriculture, carpentry and home science.

In 1974, free primary education was introduced.

Currently there are 7 public universities in Kenya, private universities and others colleges.

University education has further been – enhanced through the sending of Kenyan students to the overseas universities.

In 2003, the government implemented the free primary education as directed by the ruling party the National Rainbow coalition.


High drops out rates of girls due to pregnancies or early marriages

  • The rate of the spread of HIV and AIDS infection among the public efforts
  • Poor performance in sciences and mathematics.
  • Education is expensive and costly hence out of which in ordinary Kenyans.
  • Frequent changes and revision of curriculum which involves huge financial resources.
  • Too many unemployed people with higher education and technical skills which discourages the youth from pursuing higher education.
  • Lack of clear cut education policies geared towards the fulfillment of education for self – reliance.
  • The increases in the number of school going children vise the existing learning resources.


At independence the governments acknowledge that there was need to eradicate disease along with poorly and ignorance. The government has been committed in the provision and improvement of health service to its people. This has lead to establishment of health centres, dispensaries and hospitals throughout the county.

The Ministry of Health established the position of director of medical services as head of the medical profession based in Nairobi. The provincial and district medical officers are in charge of the provinces and districts respectively.

The Ministry has established pre national referral hospitals at Keny/prenational hospital and their university referral hospital.

There has been successful national wide immunization against preventive dicenses and accessing of family planning services to the people.

A constituency AIDs fund has been legislated where funds are channeled specifically to educate and control the spread of HIV/AIDS infection.

The government has encouraged private hospitals and clinics to expand and extent hospitals.

Some municipalities provide health services for their residents and environmental health.

There is the formation of National hospital insurance fund (NHIF). The insurance cover facilitates access to health services to workers and self employed persons.

By 1990 there were 83 hospitals, rural health training centres, 1084 dispensaries

21 medical training colleges and one national public health laboratory run by the ministry of health.

The African medical research foundation (AMREF) was formed to enhance the provision of community health support, and Kenya Medical Research

To make health and medical services accessible to a large population the government provides highly subsidized cost sharing services in its hospitals, dispensaries and clinics.

The establishment of the faculty of medicine in more university added to the number of high cadre medical personnel training provided by University of Nairobi.


  • High cost of the medical equipment and drugs.
  • First growing population has put a strain on the available health facilities.
  • The HIV and AIDS encourage which affects large segment of the society poses a big challenge to the government.
  • Corruption and other related vices that affects the procurement, distribution and provision of drugs.
  • There is an ineffective national hospital insurance programme.
  • Brain drain: Due to better emoluments offered in developed countries.


Culture was developed to enhance national unity like through various documents notably the constitution, the government sessional paper No.10 of 1965 and political parties led by the ruling parties KANU (1963 – 2002) and NARC from 2003 emphasis have been made on the role of culture, sports games and art.

The Ministry of Education has set as one of its objectives for the children of Kenya as the promotion of respect for and development of Kenya’s rich varied cultures.

The ministry of Gender, sports and culture has also undertaken measures that promote culture and sports.


There is currently hundreds of traditional music and dance troupes all over the county as evidenced during national celebrations.


Drama is popular in schools, the ministry of education together with the Department of culture and the Ministry of gender, sport and culture has been organizing annual drama and music festivals.


The Kenya National Theatre has been a centre for the promotion of theoretical performance especially in Nairobi local and foreign plays are staged.


Sculpturing within the creative arts is an area which continues to attract several talented young Kenyans like mamba carvings Kisii soapstone carvings


Many rural people earn their living through the use of traditional technology like Bakery, poultry, traditional ironmonongery and other traditional skills.

The department of culture in cooperation with increased agencies is encouraging research in traditional technologies in such areas as food production and traditional medicines.

Cultural Festivals

This has enabled the various ethnic groups to learn and appreciate each other’s cultural heritage. The department of culture has encouraged the construction of rural and urban cultural centres.

Research and Documentation

Most of the cultural and historical research is being done by the University of Nambia especially at the institute of African studies.

Cultural Exchange programmes

The Kenya government has signed cultural exchange agreements with several countries which have resulted in a mutual exchange of artists.

The Cinema

Major urban centres have many theatres which show local and foreign films or movies in local areas, films are shown by the mobile cinema vans of the Ministry of information and communication to educate and entertain people.


Kenya is well known internationally for the outstanding sportsman and women it has produced. The Ministry of gender, sports and culture has in the last decade embarked on the construction of facilities such as studies and other complex units.


Social change and cultural contacts have brought new types and idioms of music, dance, games and other forms of entertainment in the country. The modern sports and games include track field events,  soccer, golf, volleyball, basketball, cricket, bridge, netball and indoors games such as and droughts.


  • Inadequate facilities for games and sports
  • Poor remunerations especially those who involve in music,drama,Theatre and sports.
  • Exploitation on royalty payments especially the music industry government and drama.
  • Inadequate funds to enhance cultural programmes.
  • Rivalry of local artists’ works has denied them revenue
  • Misappropriation of the funds for development of culture and sports activities are a big problem for the government to solve.
































Most centres by 1965 had achieved political independence such as to achieve political, economic and social development.

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

It was formerly known as Zaire under the late Mobutu Seseseko.

It was colonized by Belgiam and gain independence in June 30th 1960.

Political Developments.

At independence Joseph Kasarubu the leader of the Bakonge Association became president while Patrick Lumumba the leader of the Congolese National movement (MNC) became Prime Minister.

There were no educated Congolese so most senior posts were taken by unites political problems began when whites opposed to the granting of independence to the country.

There were chaos and the whole country was planned into disorder in what came to be known as the “Congo Crisis”

It began in the army as the Africans in the army maintained against the Belgian officers. The new state did not have enough army as they relied on the old white officers.

The Africans were opposed to this, a situation they regarded as a sell – out by politicians.

The Belgium sends its army to the DRC to quell the military and also protect Belgium civilians.

They Africans soldiers move dissatisfied when the Belgium navy bumbed the coastral town of matiadi as they killed many Belgian civilians.

This lead to a military, engagement as it lead to lawlessness and disorder.

There was another tension in the South where M      Tishamba was preparing a secessionist movement of the Kitanga (Shaba).

He used the held of Belgiana soldiers to establish has own independent state.

This also prompted a rebellion in Kasai provinces.

The problem were so confronted as the government asked for military assistance from the U.N  who were of no great help as it had policy of into interfering in the international affairs of a country.

Lumumba and Kasavubu were political antagonists; they had internal squabbles which lead to Lumumba’s assassination in December 1960. This was due to Lumumba held radical views, while Kasavubu belonged to conservative.

Lumumba followers pulled out of govenement and want preventable and formed their own government and justice guervilla training camps to overthrow Kazavubu.

The African leadership with U.N involvement the day by forming of national coalition government under Cyrille Adoula and Atitonine Gizenga.

Aduola’s tenure of office ended in 1964 and Silvester Kimba became prime minister and Kasalabu presidents.

In 1915, the government of Kasavubu was overthrown by the army and by General Joseph Desive Mobutu in a bloodless coup.

Mobutu established a dictatorial government under a capacity system, banning other parties suspending the constitution and parliament and renaming the country Zaire centralization of power by Mobutu intensified internal opposition.

Rebeltion under Laurent Kabila emerged in 1997 Mobutu was outled from power, and Laurent Owire kabila as he was assassinated in 2001. He was succeded by his son Joseph Kabila, as president.

Rebellion led by Wamba Dia Wamba and Eunice Ihanga continued against Kabila’s government.

Finally, through mediation by the then South African President, Thabo Mbeki and UNs envoy mosptapha Niasse, a government of national unity was formed in the DRC in April 2002.


Developments in industry through the policy of nationalization by Mobutu, minerals like copper, oil and diamond were exploited petroleum and hydroelectric resources were developed for energy production.

Foreign investments in key sectors were encouraged like agriculture, mining, industries, transport and communication.

New roads and railways were constructed and navigated on the river congo.

Trade improved at the local level as well as at the international level.

The entertainment industry grew due to the popular Congolese music. The foreign based musicians sent part of their profits back home.


The authenticity programme by Mobutu enhanced the Congolese culture Mobutu dropped his Christian name, Joseph, and became Mobutu Sese Seko in 1971 and the country’s name to Zaire.

Education was developed under Mobutu primary, secondary and universities expanded.

Health services were improved as hospital and health centres were built with national mineral insurance programme and a pension scheme for workers.

Sports, music and dance were supported by the government in allocation of funds. Zaire was remained the democratic republic of conge by President Laurent Kabila in 1997.


  • There was the ussues of collapse of education.
  • There was four medical care and high number of HIV and AIDs infection.
  • Inability to fully explain her rich natural and human resource.
  • Excessive reliance and foreign aid which leads to debt repayment crisis.
  • There was political up heale.
  • User reliance informer idonist masters.
  • There was stained reelations with her neighbours like Burner.


After attaining her independence in 1963, Tanganyika embarked on an ambitions development programme.

The main political mileage was the union of Tanganyika under Julius Nyerere, with Zanzibar under Abeid Karume forming Tanzania in 1964.

The Arusha declaration was signed in 1967, laying down the principles for development as self – reliance ujamaa (Socialism) nationalization and rejection of all forms of discrimination based on class, wealth, status, religion and sex.

Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged their two parties Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro – Shiraze party (CP) to form Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) in 1977.

Nyerere made remarkable efforts in Tanzania’s growth.

Nyerere retired in 1985 and was succedded by Ali Hassan Mwinyi.

Multiparty elections were held in Tanzania in 1995 under Benjamin Mkapa, who was elected the president.

In 2005, Jakaya Kikwete became the 4th president of Tanzania.


Increased agricultural production through the ujamaa programme.

Industrial development in sisal and textile industries and other small industries like cement oil and steal industries.

Income generating projects have been undertaken by the youth in Tanzania.

The nationalization policy assisted the government to transfer businesses from Europeans to Africans.

Transport and communication infrastructure was developed like Tanzan oil pipeline and Tazara railway line.

Trade imported, especially with Arusha being the headquarters of the rained East African Community.


Improvement the fields of education, schools and industries have been built.

By 1985, Tanzania had the highest literacy lead in East Africa.

Health and sanitation services were provided as hospitals and dispensaries were built.

The use of Kiswahili as the national and official language has enhanced cultural bonding.

The country guarantees freedom of worship.


  • There is lack of basic amenities
  • There was residence of ujamaa programmes.
  • There was lower production by farmers due to lack of farming autonomy.
  • The instability of the Tanzanian shilling.
    There were complications resulting form the political marriage between Zanzibar and Tanganyika.
  • There were power volumes in the early years of independence.



Social, Economic and Political Challenges In Africa Since Independence

  • Political instability resulted in military takeover in the 1960 e.g Nigeria, DRC, Somalia ideological differences amng pioneer leaders in various African countires led to civil strife.
  • Ideological and personal difference between African leaders stained international relations, sometimes leading to border closure.
  • Continued links with former colonial masters by Africa status (Neo-colonialism)
  • Leaders were ill prepared and inexperienced in administration at independence.
  • Inter ethnic wars have claimed many likes in Africa.
  • Due to unstable, government, civil wars and military take over people flee their countries leading to refugee problem.
  • There is rise of gueralla misconducts within ethnic committee.
  • In the 1990’s there was a wind of change towards multi-partyism


  • Poor economic planning and pursuance of policies such as nationalization and Africanisation programmes have discouraged foreign investors.
  • Un accordance on primary experts such as coffee, tea and cotton has led to realization of low incomes by the exporting countries.
  • There is poor infrastructure in Africa
  • Unemployment remains a time bomb.
  • Corruption and mismanagement of meager resources.
  • Unfavorable climatic conditions have diversely effected food production.
  • Shortage of vital industrial raw materials such over exploitation during the colonial period
  • Inadequate funds have undermined youth.
  • Underdevelopment in the agricultural sectors has allowed due to lack of farm inputs.
  • High inflation rates and devolution of currencies have affected many African states.


  • High crime rates and insecurity are a big menace, and have scared away investors.
  • Terrorist acts such as the bondings in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and libya have trheated peace.
  • Population explosion affects the provision of social services.
  • Environmental pollution affects many urban centres.
  • Influx of refugees in some countries has stained social amenities.
  • The provision of social services remains a challenge.
  • Rural – urban migration has led to conjuction and much coming of slums.
  • Illiteracy local among the poor remains high.
  • The poverty situation in Africa leading to poor living standards.

























It’s where a central government delegates certain powers and responsibility to lower levels of government according to the constitution.

In Kenya we have the National government when delegate its powers and responsibilities to the county government.

  • To promote democratic and accountable exercise of power.
  • To foster national unity.
  • Give powers for self – governance and help people participate in affairs that afford them.
  • To recognize the rights of the communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development.
  • To promote the rights and interest of minorities and marginalized groups.
  • To ensure equitable sharing of national and local resources.
  • To facilitate the decentralization of state organs.
  • To enhance chalks and balances in power.
  • To promote social and economic development.


It’s based on democratic principles

Founded on the doctrine of separation of powers.

Reliable source of revenue

Not more than two thirds of the members of representative bodies are from the same gender.


County Assembly

This is the law-making body where member are elected after every five years during the general election and serves for term of five years.

Composition of the County Assembly

Elected members voted in registered voters of the wards.

The number of special seat members to ensure no more than 2/3 rds of the memberships of the assembly are of the same gender.

Representatives of the youth and persons with disability.

The speaker who is an ex-officio member.

Features of the County Assembly

It makes and amends laws of the county.

It sensitizes the making of the county executive committee and other organs.

Receives and approves plans and policies for management and exploitation of the county’s resources.

Approves plans and policies for the development and management of the county’s infrastructure and institutions.

Summon any person to appear before it for the purpose of giving evidence or providing information.

Process of Law Making in the County

The laws are made by the county Assembly which is necessary for the county to effective perform its functions.

A bill has to go through the following stages.

1st Reading

A bill is introduced in the assembly as members familiarize with its contents.

2nd Reading

The bill is discussed and amendments or improvements are suggested

Committee Stage

Here it’s scrutinized by the committee and suggestions from the second reading included.

Report Stage

The committee reports to the assembly where members confirm tht her suggestions have been included.

3rd Reading

The bill is once again debated in details and any further amendments included.

Governors Assent

The governor signs the bill into law.  It is then published in the Kenya Gazette.

Executive Committee

It implements the policies and programmes of the county. It’s headed by the governor who is assisted by the Deputy Governor.

Powers and functions of the county governor

  • Appointments of the country Executive committee and approved by county assembly
  • Acts as a link between the country and National government.
  • Implements the policies of the National and county government in the county.
  • Nominates candidates for election of Deputy county government.
  • Shall be a member of the county Assembly and executive committee.


  • He is the deputy chief executive of the county.
  • He/she is a member of the county assembly.
  • Acts as the county Governor when the governor is absent
  • Shall be a member of the county executive.
  • Shall be the principle assistant to the county governor.


County governor

Deputy County”

Members appointed by governor with approval of assembly.


  • Implementing county legistlation.
  • Implementing national laws in the county.
  • Managing and coordinating the functions of the county administration and its departments.
  • Preparing bills for consideration by the County Assembly.
  • Providing rull regular reports to the county Assembly on matters relating to the county.


  • Development of agriculture in the areas of crop production and animal husbandry.
  • Development of fisheries and fish farming
  • Provision of health services.
  • Promotion of public health and sanitation.
  • Environmental management through control of air, water and noise pollution.
  • Provision of acceleration facilities such as sports stadia, county pallow and beaches markets and trade fairs.
  • Management and development of county transport and infrastructure.
  • Provision and management of pre-primary vocational educational such as village polytechnics, home craft centres and child care centres.
  • Regulation and development of trading activities through provision of trade licenses, markets and trade fairs.
  • Management and management of county transport and infrastructure.
  • Village polytechnics, home craft centres and child care centres.

Relationship between the county and National government

  • A function or passenger government at one level may be transferred to a government at the other level by agreement between the governments.
  • National and county government perform their functions and exercise their powers with due respect to each other.
  • The National and county government assist, support and consult as appropriate and implement each other’s legislation.
  • The National and county government liaise to exchange information and co-ordinate policies and administration to enhance capacity.
  • Both government co-operate in performance of their functions and exercise of powers and at times set up joint committees.
  • Through national legislation, procedures for settling dispute between national and county government are provided.
  • Parliament an arm of the National government sits out legislatives to ensure that county government has adequate support to enable them to perform their functions.
  • National government has powers to intervene in a county government of the latter to enable to perform its functions.
  • In case of a conflict, national legislation prevails over county regulation.
  • The natural government through the president may suspend the county government.


  • The high population growth stretches the available resources.
  • Underdeveloped transport and communication network.
  • Inadequate resources to provide them with a solid base
  • Interference in their working by the National government.
  • Rivalry and wrangling among leaders in the county.
  • Inadequate personnel to man key departments within the county.
  • Embezzlement or misuse of devolved funds by the corrupt county officials.
  • Delay in remittance of funds to the county by the national government.
  • National calamities such as drought and floods.
  • Duplication of roles with the National government.


  • Diversify sources of reliance for the county government.
  • Attracting investment
  • Strengthening the fight against corruption.
  • Establishing disaster management committee.
  • Formalizing the relationship between county and National government
  • Improving skills of personal in the county government by the capacity building through in-service and training.













It’s the money which the government raises from various sources while expenditure is the money which the government spends on it is operations and development.           And gided by:-

Openess and accountability including public participation.

Sharing the burden of taxation fairly.

Sharing the revenue equitability among national and county government.

Using public money in a prudent and responsible way.

Having a clear responsible method of financial management.


It’s the estimate of government revenue and expensive for the ensuring fiscal year.

The amount of revenue the government requires and hopes to raise sources for government revenue.

The projects which the government intends to spend.


  • Enabling government to source revenue.
  • Enables government to identify ways in which to spend revenue.
  • It enables government prioritize development needs.
  • Provides valuable information to people interested in investing in the country.
  • Creates confidence among foreign countries like donors and IMF.
  • Government can assess the performance in the previously your and improve on it.
  • Ensure balance in the country’s revenue


  1. a) National Government
  • Charges for services like water, health and electricity
  • Fine charged in court.
  • Insurance of licenses like trade and driving
  • Imposition of direct taxes like sales, excise and customs
  • Profits from parastatals and government shares and companies
  • Rent of the government buildings.
  • Domestic borrowing which is done through sale of government bunds and Treasury Bills.
  • Grants from friendly countries.
  • Allocations from the national government kitty
  • Charges for services like parking fees.
  • Revenue fund for each county government.
  • Properly rats on the county property.
  • Tax imposition.
  • Profile from county investment.


Capital expenditure and recurrent expenditure.


This is money spent on new public projects during a particular financial year like construction of roads, dams, railways and purchase of vehicles and machinery.


This is money spent on a regular basis through but a given financial year like payment of salaries, repair and maintenance of buildings roads and equipment and purchase of drugs and stationery.


The National government spends money in the following

Capital Expenditure

Construction of national infrastructure

Financing national development, projects like electricity generation.

Construction of higher education institutions.

Construction of national referral health facilities.

Recurrent Expenditure

Paying of salaries of state officer.

Repairing and maintaining natural infrastructure.

Establishment and maintainace of security organs

Serving external and domestic debts.

Maintenance of foreign embassies

Remitting funds to international organization like U.N.

  1. B) County Government
  2. a) Capital Expenditure

Maintance and repair of county infrastructure.

Payment of salaries of county employees.

Purchase of drugs, stationery, funds and lubricants

Servicing of loans incurred by county government.

Collection of refuse and solid waster disposal

Management of Public Finance

National Government

A budget is made to show expenditure

Parliament passes legislation prescribing the terms which the national give may borrow many.

Cabinet secretary in charge of finance reports to the relevant committee on the amount of debt use, servicing and progress of repayment.

Parliament passes legislation to ensure expenditure control and transparency.

The C.S for finance has power to temporarily stop the transfer of funds to a state organ in the event of mismanagement.

The controller of budget surprises implementation of the budget of the natural government.

The mediator-general audits government ministries and departments and within six months after the end of a financial year submits a report in parliament.

The principle secretaries are accountable of the national Assembly for financial management within their ministries.

The Kenya anti – corruption authority investigates and recommends for prosecution of public officials who mismanage and embezzle funds.


There is a budget preferred every year.

Many borrowed by a county government must be guaranteed by the National government and approved by the county assembly.

Parliament passes legislation to ensure expenditure control and transparency in the county government.

Many can be stopped by C.S. for finance to prevent mismanagement.

There is open tendering of procurement and disposal of public goods and services.

Implementation of the county budget is supervised by controller of budget.

The revenue and expenditure of county government is audited by the Auditor general.

The governor is accountable to the county Assembly for financial management.

The KACC investigate and recommends for profession f public offices who misappropriate funds.

Functions of the Commission on Revenue Allocation

  • Make recommendations on equitable sharing of revenue.
  • Revenue sharing between National and county government.
  • Sharing revenue among the county government.
  • Making recommendations on other matters concerning financing and financial management by county government.
  • Define enhance the revenue sources of the county and national government.
  • Encourage fiscal repsonbility.
  • Determine, publish and regularly review the criteria by which to identify the marginalized area.
  • Submit recommendations to the senate, the national assembly, the national executive, county assembly and county executive.




It began n 1770 when it government its independence.

In 1787, therefore, a convention of delegation from the seeral states met in Philadelphia and drew up a constitution.

The constitution was ratified in 1783 and George Washington took office as the first president of the U.S.A in 1789.

The Constitution had the following Features.

It was federal

It was written

The constitution was the supreme law of land.

The bills of rights with rights and freedoms.

The constitution was to be interpreted by the Supreme Court.

The legislature was bicameral.(representative and house of congress).

The processes of constitutional amendments were clearly spelt out.

There was independent executives Judiciary and legislation.

The Federal Process in the U.S.A

There were two types of elections in U.S.A

general elections.

By- election.

General Elections: it’s conducted every years at the end of presidential term and following dissolution of the house of representatives like president


State government

By – Elections it’s conducted when a seat falls vacant.

Presidential elections. Held after four years.

Political parties rank and nomination of its candidates there is pre-elections nomination known as primary election.

The political parties were democrats and republicans.

Republicans: traditionally draw support from the North particularly among businessman and industrial its conservative.

They had two principals.

Maintaining high tariffs (impart duties, safeguard American Industry)

A Laissez-faire approach to government.

Democrats’ bedrock.Support lies in this south and from immigrants in the large cities of the North. They are more progressive.

They are also independent candidates who run sponsorship primary elections are held between March and May of the election year.

Party conventions. Are held before July to confirm the winner of the primary elections as part candidate. In case the seating president is eligible to contest the election his party also holds a connection to endorse him and map out campaign strategies. After party conventions, the campaign period formerly states.

The presidential candidate picks a running mate who if they win the election will become the vice-president.

The mass media plays a crucial role like salling the polices and values of the candidates and the party and also hold three debates which are broadcasted live.

To finance the campaigns parties hold fund raisings, party members gives the candidates money to meet their travel and advertisements.

Public opinion polls are surveys conducted by newspaper and leading television network. They assess the performance of the candidates in the public opinion.

Presidential elections are held on 2nd November of the election year. Americans both at home and abroad vote before or on that day and counted on 22nd.

The winner of the presidential poll takes office in January of the following year. He appoints senior civil servants, ambassadors, cabinet but confirmed by the senate.

The election for senators held after every two years, they saver for a period of six years. They can be re-elected as many times as possible.

The election of the members of the House of Representatives is held after two years. Every member must belong to a political party.

Election for state governors and legislative bodies are held after every four years.


Qualifications for presidential candidate

A U.S.A citizen by birth

Must be 35 years and above.

Must have lived in USA for at least 14years.

Qualification for a senator

Must be U.S.A citizen for at least 9 years

Must be 3 years and above.

Must be a readent of the state.

Qualification for a member of the House of Representatives

Must be a U.S.A citizen for not less than seventy years.

Must be at least twenty five years old.

Must be a resident of the state.


The Legislative (congress)

Conists of the senate and the House of Representatives. Its functions include

  • It examines the actitivies of the executive
  • It approves the biggest and ensures expenditure is accounted.
  • It makes and amends laws.
  • It rectifies treaties
  • It reflects the aspiration and interests of the American people.

The Executive

Consists of the president, the vice president, the cabinet and the civil services.

The president is the chief executive, chief translator, chief diplomat, and commander in –chief of the armed forces.

The cabinet functions include

  • Advising the president
  • Formulating government policies
  • Supervising the ministers
  • The civil service does the following
  • Explains and interprets government policies
  • Implements government policies
  • Maintains government records
  • Advises politicians on matter of policy
  • Helps in collection of government
  • Draws up development plans and the government budget.

The vice – president

He/she is allowed to succeed the president in the absent of death, resignation or impeachment. Vice president chairs senate meetings and votes in event of a tie over an issue.


It’s divided into federal and state courts.


Resettle disputes between the president and congress, federal government and the states interpreting the constitution.

Handling cases involving the U.S.A and other states.


This means that namely the three arms of the U.S.A government is the powerful to interfere with the function of the other.

There is charts and balances with the three arms.

The president is not as powerful as it might appear. This is because elections to the house are held after losing two years, and a third of the senate is elected after every two years.

If the president can veto laws congress can overturn this veto.

The congress cannot remove a president unless it prove that a serious crime.

The Supreme Court keenly monitors both the president and congress.

Relationship between states and the Federal Government.

The U.S.A give operates on division of powers between the central and state government.

State legislatures are empowered to pass laws on purely state matters.

States are empowered to run their own affairs in areas of provision of social services like healthier duration and welfare.

Advantages of a Federal system of government

  • The rights of smaller states are safeguarded against bigger states.
  • It enables different states live together but with separate identifies smaller states have the advantage of benefiting from a common force hence enjoy greater security than when left on their own. When several state some together, they bring along rich pool of resources which are beneficial to the member states.
  • It enhances trade among the states by eliminating tarrifs and other barriers.
  • It enhances the political influence of the states as they come together and speak with one voice.


  • Secessionist threats may breakdown and weaken its stability
  • Diverse backgrounds and intervals of the various states call for more irreverence from the leaders.
  • Inequitable utilization and allocating of resources may lead to disparities in states development.



It began long as a struggle between parliament and the kings and in some instances, civil wars emptied. By the, there was transfer of power from the king to parliament.

Parliament pasted the bill of rights which established a constitutional monarchy this meant that the monarch was to rule under guidance from parliament

It has unwritten constitution however, here are various documents

Acts of parliament e.g magna cartel of

Legal publication by reputable authorities such as scholars, lawyers, political thinkers and statesman.

The Hansard which is the official verbatim reports of parliament.

Decisions made by the British law courts from time to time.

Royal prerogatives e.g deaclaring war.

Conventions and practices which have become respected are regarded as part of British constitution.

The Electoral process in Britain

  • General elections
  • By Election

Electives are hold within five years, with three political parties

The liberal party, which draws its member from the rich.

The labour party, which is a party of the middle class especially workers.

The conservative party which is backed by nobles and the clergy.

Anyone above 18years can vote.

Elections are secret ballot.

Candidates are sponsored by political parties.

The party with the majority of seats forms the government upon invitational by king or queen.

The leader of the party majority of seats in parliament becomes prime minister.

The prime minister forms the girl by making appointments to the cabinet senior civil service and foreign affairs.

Functions of government in Britain

Monarch, house of loads, house of command and the prime minister.


Its Head By queen or king

After election the queen invites the leader of party majority in the house of common to form a government answerable to parliament.

The queen summons the new parliament and both the houses together in the house oif lords.

Functions of the Monarch

  • The monarch appoints the Archbishop of the Church of England.
  • The Monarch is the symbolic head of commonwealth.
  • The Monarch is the commander in –chief of the armed forces.
  • The monarch represents Britain in international forces.

The House of Lords

Its function is legislative.

It also examines bills as they pass through parliament.

It keeps cheeks and balance of the power of the executives.

Ways to become a member of House of Lords.

Appointed by the Monarch

Through inheritance

Appointment to certain offices like judges and Archbishop

Functions of the House of Lords

  • Sits as a court of appeal to listen to criminal cases.
  • Assists the house of common in legislations of laws.
  • Debate non-controversial bills.
  • Holds bills from the house of comers for certain paid to seek publication.
  • Scrutinizes activities of the government in various ministries
  • Debates general issues of national importance.

The House of Commons.

It’s a legislative aim of government

It controls the recons and expenditure and also directs government pulley members are elected by people.

Qualification for Candidates

  • Must be a citizen of Britain
  • Must be twenty one years and above.
  • Be nominated by a political party or independent candidate

Functions of the House of Commer

  • It’s a major legislative arm of girl
  • It approves government revenue and expenditure.
  • Has power to pass a voting no confidence in the executive.
  • Debates in matters of national interest.
  • It directs government policy and keeps development purge on track.

The Executive

The Prime Minister

He/she is ruminated by directly by doctorate, through parties

Its servers for 5 years

After election leaders of the party with the highest number of M.P.S becomes the prime minister and thus forms the government.

Functions of the prime Minister

  • Appoints and dismisses cabinet ministries with the consent of the monarch chairs cabinet meetings.
  • Is the leader of the house of commons
  • Is the chief executive of the British government
  • Initiates both domestic and foreign policies.
  • Represents Britain in international fora.
  • Recommends to the sovereign the appointment of senior civil servants like and high commissioners.

The Cabinet

They are appointed by the Prime Minster from the legislative which has to be approved by sovereign/


  • It initiates, controls and implements political policy of the government
  • It is the highest decision making body in the county.
  • It initiates government legislation.
  • It coordinates implementation of government programmes.

Doctrine of Parliamentary supremacy

This means that parliament is the supreme and highest authority.

Parliament is the only organ allowed to make and amend laws.

All other organs of government operate under laws enacted by the parliament.

Parliament is empowered to pass a vote of no confidence in the executive

Parliament must approve all government recon and expenditure.

Limitations of the parliamentary supremacy

  • Decision can be nullified by any court of law.
  • Parliament is a representative institution complied of peoples representative local authorities make and pass by laws without consulting parliament legislation made by parliament may be altered by a future parliament.
  • It also takes into consideration the moral values of the society.
  • The actions of parliament are heavily influenced by public opinion.
  • There is need to look at interest of the affected instutions are taken into account.




India attained independence form Britain in 1947.

India house of people is equivalent into single member districts

It has a number of political parties; such as the congress party had the communist parties’ candidates for the districts have to fulfill the set requirements.

Electoral process.

  • General elections
  • By – elections.

During the general elections, presidential, parliamentary and regional governments elections are held.

Elections are held after every five years.

Elections for the legislative.

The parliament of the union is a bicameral house

It consists of two houses namely council of state and the house of the people.

Qualifications for the House of the People.

  • Must be a citizen of India
  • For a seal in the council of state, one should not be less than twenty years.
  • The council of states is composed of 12 members nominated by the president.
  • There are 238 representatives of the states elected by members of the state.
  • The house of people is composed of 530 members elected.
  • There are twenty members representing the union territories.
  • The voter of the party with the majority of state in parliament becomes Prime Minister Palace then appoints cabinet that for government.

Elections for the Presidency

  • It is elected to save for at term of five years.
  • The election is held in accordance with the system with vote and by secret ballot.
  • For one to be elected president following conditions must be fulfilled.
  • He/she must be a citizen of India
  • He/she must be above the age of 3years.
  • He/she must be a nullified for election as a member of house of the people
  • He/she should not had any office of profit under the government of India

Function of Government of India

  • It has federal system of government.
  • The state government is headed by governors
  • It has total control over the state government.

State governments are responsible for

  • Enacting laws for the state.
  • Construction and maintenance of transport and communication.
  • Maintenance of security or law and order.
  • Supervision of education
  • Regulation of commerce in state.

Functions of the president.

  • Has powers to make regulations for certain union territories
  • Appoints the chief minister and lieutenant governor of the National capital territory of Ddhi and the governors of this states or union territories.
  • Establishes special councils to arbitrate on inter-state disputes.
  • Nominates the twelve members of the council of states.
  • Member of the legislative.
  • Calls upon the leaders of the winning party after elections to form government.

The functions of the Prime Minister

  • Heads the council of ministers and government.
  • Advises the president in the exercise of his/her functions.
  • Represents India international functions.
  • Communicates to the president all decisions of the council of ministers, relating to administration of the affairs of the union and proposal for legislation.

Functions of the Parliament

Enacting and amending the laws of the union.

  • Prefers changes for impartment against the president in case he/she violates the constitution.
  • Has powers to declare lightings or watching to be national highways or national waterways.
  • It is charged with the security of the union.