History notes.
History notes.



WORLD WAR I (1914 – 1918)


The World War I was the 1st total war involving almost all world countries directly or indirectly. This was also the 1st mechanized war in the world where as previously man has been wedging war using swords and guns in to hourses or foot.

It saw introduction of new weapons i.e machine, large battleships, submarines, fighter jets, poisonous gas long ranger field guns etc.

The war was caused by worsening foreign/international relations among European countries in and outside Europe especially the Balkan region, the far East and Africa.

Causes of World War I

  • Formation of alliances amongst rival nations made them aggressive leading to breakout of the war e.g Germany formed with Australia, Hungary and Italy (triple alliance) others Britain, France and Russia formed another group called triple Atlanta. Such alliances were formed with the understanding that each country will have their allies in the event of war.
  • Imparialism and the competition for colonies among European nations created rivalry led in to war I.
  • During the 2nd half of the late European countries competed over the acquisition of colonies for raw materials and market for industrial produce.
  • Germany went a head and acquired colonies in Africa and in Eastern European.
  • Such acquisition angered Russian that was also interested in the area.
  • Creation of powerful weapons and armies by European Nations meant that the nations were getting ready for war. Between 1900 – 1914 Europeans countries competed with each other in expanding their needs and arms. Traditionally Britain had the best navy in the world called old navy. Germany also began building a strong navy to challenge British navy. The British want ahead and made a new navy for the purpose of staying ahead of Germany.
  • Apart from improving battle ships European nations also built new weapons and were eager to use them.
  • Sarajao Assassination. The immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of Arachduke janz Ferdinand by a Sorbian student.
  • Need for revenge France prepared for World War I to get a chance revenge on Germany following their defeat during Franco Persian war.
  • France also wanted to regeam her lost provinces of Alsare and Lorrain.
  • Nationalism in the Balkans spotted off the World War I due to many complicit between European powers and Balkan states who were fighting for independence.
  • The Automan empire (Turkey and Australia Hungary were with two great empire in Europe in the early 20th.
  • The people who occupied this area (Greeks, stakes, Albanians & the Serbs) amongst others wanted to achieve their independence. This led to a number of wars between Turkey and the Balkan legue.
  • The 1st and 2nd Morroccan crisis.

Intensified tension between France, Britain and Germany leading to the triple entante two members ie. Britain and France agreed to and colonial disputes.

They agreed that France would recognize British occupation of Egypt and Britain in turn recognize French occupation of Morocco while disregarding Germans intest that.

Kaiser of Germany was dissatisfied with the situation and promised Sultan to fight for his independence.

A conference was called in Spain to try and Soike which ended with Germany loss as she failed to guard Italian support.


The 1st World War bake cut in July 1914 with Austria Hungary declaring war on Serbia.

Serbia had an understanding alliance with Russia and so the Russian army began to mobilize. Germany then declared war on Russia and France as all major European countries soon joined the war.

NB The triple alliance consisting of Germany, Italy and Austria Hungary changed their name to Central powers. Bulgaria and Turkey also joined them while Italy left.

The triple entente was joined by Italy, Britain, France, Russiaa, Japan and later USA and came to be known as allies.

The war was fought in 3 countries Europe, Africa and Asia both on land and sea. In Europe war was fought in front western front and Eastern front.On Western front war was between Germany on one hand and Britain, France and Belgium in the other. On the Eastern front Germany, Austria Hungary and Turkey mainly fought against Russian forces.


On the Western front Germans fighting British and French forces and later towards the end of the war American forces join the war. The war on the Western front was part of the Von Schlieffen plan. Alfred Ven Schlieffen the chief of German general staff had in 1905 planned for the war against France. His plan was to attack France through neutral Belgium. It was estimated that within the night German soldiers would capture Paris. Thereby end French resistance and force Britain to sign a separate peace treaty. This plan also succeeded and by September 1914 German forces were on the outcast of France but were forced back by British and French force.


  • Russia mobilized her forces faster than expected that meant that German forces had to be diploid in the Eastern front earlier than expected.
  • German invasion of Belgium is not as first as anticipated both sides were more evenly matched as the German had thought. These factors led to a military stalemate on the Western front which lasted for most of the rest of the war.
  • The military stalemate on Western front took the form of French warfare.
  • The opposing sides resulted to digging up of network of trenches (dip ditches for protection against artillary and machine gun fire) stretching for 1080kms across France and Belgium.

Factors that contributed to military stalemate.

  • Both sides were using matched.
  • Trained warfare tended to shied defenders
  • Defenders used modern weapons and techniques of warfare e.g machine guns.
  • Russian forces mobilized easier than anticipated.



The war in Eastern front was between Russian on one hand and Germany and Austria Hungary on the other. Though the Russian army was large it was poorly led,, poorly trained  and ill-equipped and so Russian causalities remained high from beginning of the war upto 1917.

Turkey entered the way on the side of the central powers in November 1914 and Bulgaria in September 1915.

In May 19 Italy joined the allies.the war on eastern front was influenced by events in Russia in 1917.

In March 1917, the revolution broke out in Russia (the Bolshevik revolution) which led to abduction os tsar Nicholas ii.

The new leaders did not wish to continue the war against Germany.

A peace treaty (the treaty of brest-litovisk). This treaty was signed with Germany on 3rd march 1918.

Germany therefor released more of here soldiers to the western front.

During the course of the war new weapons came into use e.g the machine gun, the Armoured the submarine, Aircrafts and poison gas.



In 1914, Britain was still the undisputed naval power. She used her navy to blockade German ports, to ensure they didn’t get supply of food and raw materials.

Germany retalieted by using German boats (submarines) to sink all ships which were bound for British ports. By February 1915 Germany had declared the seas around the British ailes a war zone in which all enemy ships will be sunk with or without warning.

May 7th 1915, German submarines sunk a USA Liner (the Lusitania) off the coast of Treland leading to deaths of 1200 people. Who included many Americans.

This incident horrified the western world and brought USA to the brink of war with Germany. After this Germany agreed not to sink passenger.

In March 1916 however, Germany violated this agreement when she sunk the Sussex a Britain ship carring USA passengers. The Germans wanted to Britain out of the war by cutting off her suppliers of food and raw materials before the USA could act.

In 1917, the german high command declared un restricted submarine warfare on all ships trading with Britain.

Ships from neutral countries were no longer issued with a warning but were sunk on sight just like enemy ships.

Among neutral states whose ships sunk by german was the USA.


Reasons why the USA had remained neutral upto 1917.

  • The war was regarded partly as European affair and so USA did not want to involve her self in quaralles of European powers.
  • There were people of German descent in the USA and there was fear that as USA declared war on German than the war might be fought on her soil between Americans of German discent and American of Britain, French,Russian or other discents .
  • USA was gaining economically upon trade with both sides. The USA  entered the war inside of allies for following reasons
  1. Sinking of USA merchant ships (Sussese and lusitania) provoked USA into the war.
  2. Discovering of the Zimmermann latter written by German foreign minister. Arthur Zimmermann to German embasy in mexico promising mexico support if they attack USA.
  3. The USA had given of loans to the allies during the war and she feared that an alliey defeat will lead to loss of money.
  • Though USA tours didn’t play major part in actual fighting their presences boosted many of allies and weakened that of Germany to an extend that Germans will resist was reduced.
  • With entry of USA in the war soon came to end in November 1918.



  • Allies had adequate manpower as compared to the central powers i.e the allied camp had a total of 27 countries while central powers had only 4.
  • Allies had better industrial and financial resources from both Europe and the colonies e.g food, raw materials and war equipment.

The superior allied sea power

  • The allies enforced the deadly naval blockade which caused disparate food shortages and stopped exports while ensuring allied armies were fully supplied.
  • Entry of the USA on allied powers side gave them vast new resources for effective execution of the war.
  • Allied political leaders were (Lloyd George P.M Britain, Woodrow Wilson Presdent U.S.A, Singer Orlande andd Clemeceau P.M France) were more competent in strategies and conduct of the war than that of central powers.
  • The epidemic of deadly Spanish flue worsened the situation leading to low morale among the contral powers as they retreated.
  • Central powers surrounded by allied countries as they all lay in centre of Europe. They also lacked an extensive coastline and thus were easily blockaded.
  • Germany was seriously left down by her allies who kept down dropping out of the war one by one.



The war was fought in those regions where Germany had colonies neighbouring

those of allied power. Cameroon, Namibia, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanganyika as hostility in East Africa began when Britain attacked Dar el – salaam and Tanga. The German East Africa Commander general Paul von better-verbek moved to attack uganda railway from Kilimanjaro.

Britain received more troops from India, sourth Africa, Malawi and Zimbabe hence defeating Germans.

Belgium forces occupied Rwanda and Burundi while sourth Africa occupied Namibia bringing an end of the war in Africa.

Results of World War 1

  • Many people died either killed in war front by epedermies emanating from the war.
  • Many people contracted disease due to the war i.e many soldiers contracted signal disease.
  • War interfied with agriculture activity leading to mass spiritual and death.
  • Destruction of properties e.g Railway lines, roads, building etc.
  • Huge amounts spend to purchase weapons and this serially affected European economy.
  • S.A industries were not destroyed by the wars this lead to it being world power.
  • Empires such as Austria Hungary and Russia declined.
  • Peace settlement after war improved international relationships with creation of light of Nations which improved world peace.
  • Air transport advanced during the war facilitating major improvements later.
  • Europe determination of overseas colonies was greatly undermined because most countries began demanding for independence.
  • Art of surgery dispite significantly during war due to many war causalities who required operation.


In January 1919 states men at the 27 allied countries converged at Paris to determine fate of the defeated powers.  The central powers were not party to the decision and were simply presented with draft resolutions for signature.

The negotiations were terminated by Britain, France, USA and Italy. Russia didn’t participate as she had already withdrawn from the war and signed a peace treaty with Germany.

The key personalities at the conference were

Lloyd George (P. M. Britain)

George clemencau (P.M. France)

Woodrow Wilson (P. M. USA)

Villorio Orlando (P. M Italy)

Five treaties were signed with each of the Central powers. They were

The treaty of German with Austria (1919)

Treaty of nevilly with Bulgaria (Nov 1919)

Treaty of Trianan with Hungary (June 1920)

Treaty of laussane with Turkey (july 1920)

Versesailles treaty with Germany (June 1919)

All the peace treaties were collectively known as the treaty of Versailles.

Terms and results of treaty of Versailles

  • Germany found guilty of starting world war I
  • Germany’s land size reduced by 1/8 populatio by 6.5 million
  • Germany’s was deprived of her colonies and overseas investments.
  • Germany lost the provinces of Alsase and Lorraine to France.
  • City danzing was declared free city under jurisdiction of the league of nations.
  • Germany was totally disarmed and only allowed to retain or defence force for 100.000mn.
  • Germany forced to pay war compensation of 6.5b per year to allies.
  • The saar valley which its disposals of coal and iron was placed under jurisdiction of the of nation.
  • The treaty outlawed future union between Germany and Asia.
  • They allowed if an international peace organization called the League of Nations.

NB The treaty of versaillies sometimes called the points Woodrow Wilson because te time forced upon German were not properly represented at the conference.

Four points of Woodrow Wilson

Earlier in 1918 president Wooden when hand outlined the 14 principles on which piece with Germany would be best.

  • Abolition of scared democracy
  • Free navigation at sea for all nation in war and peace
  • Removal of economic burriers between states.
  • Reduction of armament
  • Adjustment of colonial claims in the interest people governed
  • Varcating of Russian tariry by German forces.
  • Restoration of freedom to france and the return of the alsase and Lorraine province to them.
  • Restoration of independence in Belgium.
  • Adjustment of Italian boundaries on basis of nationality.
  • Self goverment for non-Turnish people in Turkish Empire.
  • Independence of Poland and provision of access to the sea
  • Creation of an association to preserve peace in world
  • Evacuation of Serbia, Montenegro to the access of the sea for sarbia.


It was formed in April 1991 as general association of nation to keep world peace.

Headquarter was in Geneva, Switzerland

Aims of League of Nations.

  • Settle International disputes before they got out go hand and thus prevent another war.
  • Maintain peace through collective security
  • Nature international co-operation hence solve global economic and Social Problems
  • Promote peace of the sovereignity of member states
  • Gradually work towards disarmament and discourage production of weapons of mass destruction.

Organization of the league

Main bodies of

  1. the Assembly
  2. Council
  3. Secretariat
  4. International court of justice
  5. International labour organization

The assembly

Meeting of delegates from all members states where each country had one vote. The assembly meet annually at their headquarter Geneva.

The council.

Composed of five permanent and five non-permanent members permanent include






N/B USA moved out since it didn’t join the league. The five non – permanent members were to be nominated by assembly.

The secretariat

It’s the administrative body of the league

It’s Headed by secretary general

1st secretary general was Sir Erick drumrmend of Britain who served between 1919 – 1923.

International court of justice

Its headquarter was in Hague, Holland (Netherlands)

It was established to deal with settlement of disputes between countries.

International labour organization

Maintaining good working condition of workers around the world


  • It presented world peace for about 20 years 1919 to 1939.
  • It helped solve border disputes e.g between Turkey and iraque in 1924 to 1926 and between Finland and Sweden (1920 to 1921).
  • Through the mandate system the league helped improve the standards of living of people in the trust colonies (Saar valley) which were Germany colonies.
  • Helped solve the refugee problem resulting from the World War I.
  • Through international labour organization working conditions for workers improved.
  • Established a finance scheme to help countries to reconstruct economic after the war.
  • Through its technical and social organization the league helped to promote International co-operation.
  • The league laid down the foundation of the formation of the UNO.


  • Failed to prevent dispute between Japan and China in 1933 when Japanese invaded Chinese troops e.g
  • In 1934 Italy invaded Ethiopia and the league failed to act comprehensively.
  • Failed to stop various countries from making secret trieties contrary to the league covenant.
  • Failed to stop Germany from rearming itself again in 1930’s
  • Russia invaded Finland in 1939 without leagues intervention.

Reasons why the league failure

  • Major Powers’s e.g USA didn’t join making it weak.
  • Most league members were not committed to its constitutions.
  • It didn’t have an army of its own to enforce its decisions
  • It perpetually lacked funds to finance its operation.
  • Most members’ countries adopted policy of a peacement towards the aggressor nations of Germany and Italy hence not following the constitution.

WORLD WAR II (1939 – 145)

The League of Nations was weak and cold not maintain World peace.

After twenty years the world war immersed in another World War II.


  • The rise of Adolf Hitler and his determination to regain German’s lost glory let to war as he invaded other countries.
  • The unfavourable terms imposed Germany by the Versailles treaty led to war as Germany fought for revenge.
  • The growth of nationalism made countries to concentrate on internal affairs at the expenses of international issues.
  • Economic problems faced by most world countries after World War I made countries as Japan. Germany and Italy for blame others for monopolizing the World trade and wealth.
  • The inter war period (1919 – 1939) led to several dictators raising power in Europe they include Joseph Sterlin – USSR

Banito Mussulini – Italy

Adolf Hitler – Germany

This leaders favoured military campaign as a means of territorial expansion.

  • League of Nations failed in most of the mission e.g failed to stop Germany from rearing and this failure was a direct mission to World War II.
  • The policy of appeasement practiced by Britain and France encouraged Germany and Italy to attack other countries at will.
  • Germany invention of Poland at 12am in Sept 1st 1939 was the immediate cause of World War II.
  • The major powers had also established alliance between themselves like Hitler and Mussulini signed an agreement known as the Barlin – Rome Axis and latter Japan joined in 1939 to be known as Berlin – Rome – Tokyo.


War broke out in 1st Sept 1939 with Germany invention of Poland.

In March 1940 Russia invaded and occupied Finland to gain military and air bases for attack in Germany.

In May 1940, Germany started expansion west ward with invention of France.

The Germans occupied Paris within two months.

By October 1940 all other major Western European nations’ e.g Belgium, Netherlands had be overturn by the Germans. From October 1940, Hitler directed his millitary against Britain and the attack was called operation sea lion.

In June 1941, Hitler inciated the attack on the suvict union ealier known as the aggressionpart.

Attack in Russia was called Operation Barabarossa. In December 1941 USA entered the war on the side of the allies following the Japanese attack at his military base at pearl harbour in Hawai.

The attack in Russia failed

The Germans failed to capture muscow and wore defeats by Russians on the battle of sterling Grad in June 1943 and this marked the thorning point of World War II. By May 1944, Russian Red army had pushed Germany from territory to Berlin.

A combinied American, British and French force embarked on invention of Europe (operation overlead) to push back German to her territory.

In 1944, the allies were closing in for Germany from the West and soviet army from the East. Faced with impending defeat, Hitler committed suicide in April 30th 1946.

The new German leader Docnitz surrendered and signed documents on 7th May 1945. War continued in the East and the pacific between USA and Japanese forces.

War against Japan was concluded by USA boming the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Heroshima in August 1945 hence marking and of World War II.


  • Led to death of many people above 35 to 60m people.
  • Bombing Heroshima and Nagasakai released radio active substances which affected the lives of many people long after the war.
  • large sums of many spent on war by individual nations involved in fighting.
  • Destruction of properly leading to collapsed of economy in European countries and Japan.
  • Led to construction of military industries and military technology which continued to endanger human security. Countries e.g Germany, Italy & Japan lost colonies they had colonies.
  • End of World war saw rise of USA and USSR as world super powers.
  • War led to division of Germany into West and East.
  • Led to intensification of nationalism and struggle for independence in countries e.g India, Pakistan, Egypt and Ghana.
  • Peace settlement after war led to formation of UNO.
  • Led to cold war.
  • There was Communist government in many parts of Europe e.g Hungary East Germany Poland, Romania the communist established under support of USSR.













This is where sovereign nations from different parts of the world interact politically, economically and socially.

This interaction may be in the following field’s trade, humanitarian assistance and diplomacy.

Nations relating may come together to form organizations so as to enhance their interaction such organization included

  • The united Nations organization (U.N.O)
  • The common wealth.
  • The non – aligned movement


Association of independent nations formed after 2nd World War in 1945.

Its membership is open to al nations irrespective of their political and ideological believers or differences in economic system or levels of development.

Formation of the U.N.O

It was created after the collapse of the lague of nations.

It created a UN Charter that was drawn up by representatives of 50 countries at the UN conference in international organization (UNCIO) held in San Francisco in U.S.A.

In the charter there were aims set forth as follows ‘we the people of the UN are determine”…………………… to save succeeding generations from discourage of war that had brought untold sorrow to mankind.

To reffrain faith in the fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person in the equal rights of man and women and of national large and small.

To establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from trieties and other sources of international law can be maintained.

To promote social progress and better standards of life in large and for this ends to practice tolerance and live together in peace as one another  as a good neighbours.

To unite war strength to maintain international peace and security.

To ensure the acceptance of principals and institutions of method that armed forces shall not be used; some in the common interest.

To employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advances of all peoples.


  • Maintain peace and security
  • Developing friendly relations among member state.
  • Replacing the legue of Nation that had collapsed.
  • Promotion of international understanding and cooperation
  • Precaution of another war.
  • Promotion of cultural interactions
  • Promotion of fundamental human rights and freedoms
  • Promotion of social progress and better living standards.
  • Promotion of economic dispute among others.
  • Protections of interest of minorities’ e.g children & women.


To achieve its objectives and purposes the U.N establishment principal organs as follows.

  • General Assembly
  • The security council
  • Internal court of justice
  • The economic and social council
  • The secretariats
  • The trusteeship


All members represented

Member state may sent five representatives but has only one note.

Decisions require a 2/3 majority depending on impatience of the matter.

This where there are key positions of the functions.

it has the following functions.

  • Discuss and make recommendations on any questions or matter within the score of the chatter.
  • Receives annual reports from secretary general the security council, economic and trust annual.
  • Guide activities of the five organs of the UN.
  • Controls finances of the organization and approves its budget.
  • It deals with various matters two of which consider political problems.

NOTE the agenda of the assembly usually consist of more than 100 items.


Its responsibility is to maintain international peace and security. The member state stayed in New York so that they can meet in a meant’s notice if an emergency arises. There are eleven nations which sit on the council; five permanent members like

  • united states of America.
  • Russia
  • The United Kingdom
  • France
  • Chania

They serve for two years after which others are elected in their place.

For a decisions to be undertaken here must be 2/3rds agreement and must include all the permanent members who have a vote power.

This means that if one permanent member votes “No” no decisions can be reached.

The council is also authorized to investigate any dispute which might threaten international peace and security and make recommendations for a powerful settlement.

The council may also call members of the UN to  apply economic and diplomatic sanctions against any state of the council found guilty of breach of peace or act of  aggression or even military action be taken.


This is base at Hague, Netherlands

It settles disputes over international borders

It also deals with other disputes like treatment of diplomatic and consular staff, fishing rights, nuclear tasts, territorial waters delimitation and human right violation.


It has 54 members who serve for three years, 18 elected by general assembly each year to replace another 18 whose term has expired.

Its function

  • To promote social and economics development.
  • It also censors any attempts to abuse or inhibit human likes and freedom.
  • It has two commission that is human rights and status of women, drug problems and children rights.
  • The commission on the status of women seeks to obtain voting and other legal rights and educational opportunities for women in those countries where they are denied equal treatment with man.


It has 16,000 staff headed by the secretary – General.

It administers programmes and policies laid down by other UN. Organs.

It registers treatiets, carries on correspondence, and publishes reports and research work.

The secretary – general of the U.N.O is elected by the General Assembly for a five year term of office.


It’s in charge of territories which are governed by member states of the United Nations on behalf of the UN itself.

Activities of this specialized and agitated Agencies of the UN

The international labour organization (ILO).

Its work is to promote workers welfare.

There is an annual conference with over 120 member countries are represented with equal voting powers.

Its headquarters of ILO is in Geneva, Switzerland.

The food and Agriculture organization (FAO).

It increase production of food by using improved seeds and fertilisers and new types of plants.

To improve marketing and distribulation of all food and agricultural products.

Promote rural development and improve living conditions of rural population.

It helps to control pests such as locust and combat epidermis of animal diseases such as rinderpest

At the request of member governments, FAO sends agronomists and technologists to give instructions on such matters as the control of soil erosion, afforestation and irrigation.

The headquarters of FAO is in Rome, Italy.

United Nations educational scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO).

Its function is to fight illiteracy.

It was formed in 1946

It also publishes books and other research journals.

It’s also concerned with the presevation of historic monuments, Artificial and valuable cultures.

It promotes dissemination of information as social sciences, instruments of peace and justice.

Its headquarters is Paris in France.


It was set up in 1`948 with its headquarters at Geneva.

Its main purpose is to combat diseases on a worldwide scale


Its also known as international bank for reconstruction and development.

It was created in 1945 with Washington DC as the headquarters.

Its function is to give loans to nations for development or job balance of payments support.

The bank is headed by a Board of Governors who comes from member states who meet once in year to assess and guide the bank’s activities.

Those with the greatest influence are the U.S.A, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and India.


It works closely with the World Bank

Its aim is to help stabilize the different currencies of the world.

It also promotes international trade.

It also raises funds from subscriptions from member states.


It provides the basic needs for the children of the world e.g medicine, vaccination and milk for under nourished.


Headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya

Oversias the implementation of progrmaes aimed at managing and conserving the environment


It’s concerned with maintaining weather equipment for the North Atlantic region to guide pilots through fog and darkness.

Other agencies are universal postal union (UPU) World meteorological organization (WMO), international telecommunication union (ITU) United Nation High commissioner for refugees (UNHCPR).

Financing of the UNO

This is provided by member states

The member states are assessed according to their ability and they pay a percentage of the total budget according to that assessment.


It has helped reduce tension and conflicts between member states.

It has solved disputes between Iran and secret union (1946), India and Pakistan (1949) and Eritria and Ethiopia (2002) and Nigeria and Cameroon (2004).

  1. It assisted South Korea when it was invaded by North Korea in 1953.
  2. The UN sent troops to Democaratic republic of Congo Leopaldville(DRC) to help restore peace and order and the civil war.
  3. It also argued upon Britain and France to grant independence to their countries in Africa and the rest of the world.

It helped initiate development programmes in developing countires e.g the UNDP has given assistance amounting to 95 million to 93 developing countries.

  1. The world food programmes has been involved in distribution of relief food supplies to flood, drought and earthquake victivmes e.g Equator, Hungary, Middle East, Sudan and Somalia.
  2. The UN has obtained equal rights for women in voting, educational opportunities and other legal rights.
  3. FAO launched the freedom from hunger campaign 1960. Since then these movement has been successful all over the world.
  4. The United Nation High Commission for Refugees(UNHR0 has over the years helped to provide food, shelter and other basic facilties to refugees who have escaped their countires due to political and other persecution.
  5. WHO has helped in control of Malaria in most areas of the World
  6. The World Bank has played a crucial role in reconstruction of the economies of many nation affected by World War II. It has helped some countries to develop economically by providing development assistance and other budgetary support for the economies.


  1. Member states of UNO have different forms of government and ideiologies. Therefore there is hadly any quotation of international importance that is not affected by ideological disputes.

Example: – Communist China and Russia have always been susipicious of other capitalist members and vice versa.

  1. Nationalism has affected the performance of U.N.O members of UNO are sovereign.
  2. UNO lacks sufficient funds which to carry out it work efficiently.
  3. UNO depends on contributions from member states and sometimes member states do not remit their contributions on time.
  4. UNO lacks the machinery to enforce its decisions. For example it does not have an army on its own, it relies on troops availed by willing members states.
  5. UNO is dominated by five permanent member of the Security Council. These countries have the veto powers and for an important decision to be taken they must all vote ‘YES’
  6. Another challenge is that of deep rooted regional conflicts

Exaples i) Arab – Israel conflicts

  1. The Gulf crisis
  2. Problems in Angola and Sudan.
  • Ethnic strife in Rwanda and Burundi

All this end up stretching the UN beyond its capability and resources.

  1. UNO members are also members of other regional or international organization Example i) Arab league
  2. ii) The North Atlantic treaty organization (NATO)

iii) Non – Aligned movement(NAM).

  1. vi) African Union.

The interests of this organization are sometimes not in accord with those of UNO.

  1. The decisions of UNO have often been ignored and member states have frequently taken action without any reference the UNO.

Example: – American and British invasion of Iraq in 2003 without UNO approval.


It is a voluntary association of independent states which were formerly part of the British Empire e.g colonies or domains. Some of this countries are Canada, Australia and New Zealand and republic like Kenya, India, Lesotho and Malawi.


Its origin is traced to what used to be the British Empire.

It was launched formerly but it doesn’t have a constitution.

It began with the publication of the Durham report in 1839.

However it reached another stage I 1931 with the statute of West Minister.

This can be considered as a referral constitution landmark whose contribution helped to shape the association.

Details of this association were worked out in 1926.

In this year imperial conference, a committee chaired by Lord Balfour, the Prime Minister of Canada, prepared a report and incorporated it the statute of West Minister of 1931.

The Statute stated that no act of the British parliament could be law of any dominion unless the dominion parliament itself agreed to pass it.

It also stated that any law relating to succession to the throne could require the consent not only of the British government but oe each Dominion parliament.

The statute defined the UK and the dominion of Canada, New Zealand and Australia as automats communities with the British Empire.

All were to be equal in status and not subordinate to one another.

They were all united by a common factor, their alliegence to the crown.

This was the first time in History that equality was established among independence states.

This was the beginning of what was to be called common wealth.


Modern commonwealth started in 1947 after India gained its independence.

Each commonwealth state chooses on it free will to become a member of commonwealth.

So when India and Pakistan achieved Independence they opted to become members of the commonwealth.

Membership then increased as Africa states became independence beginning with Ghana in 1957.

Most African states joined the association in 1960’s and 1970’s.

Modern commonwealth has also allowed membership from independent non – British colonies e.g Mozambique, Cameroon and Togo. There are 53 countries in commonwealth…


All commonwealth members accept the British queen as their head.

They have the same education system with similar structure.

They share a common heritage of public institution acquired from Britain.

These put the principles of democracy into practice. Such institution is a parliamentary government, an independent judiciary and a civil service free from politics.

  1. The commonwealth people enjoy universal adult suffrage.
  2. Government within the commonwealth practice consultation and exchange of information.
  3. The members also hold regular conferences of Head of States where they discuss matters of common interests.
  4. They have cultural ties. For example the commonwealth games and many of them use English as their official language.
  5. They also from a power block and set up certain standards and ideals. Such ideals have led to the withdrawal of some countries from the commonwealth.

Example i) South Africa in 1961 because of Apartheid policy.

  1. ii) Pakistan in 1972 after common wealth members recognized Banglades, formerly East Pakistan as a new state.


Head of commonwealth government held a conference in Singapore in 1971.

Members agreed that the organization should have laid down ideals and principles.

They include:-

  • The commonwealth members believed that international peace and order were important for the purpose of security and development of humankind.
  • They emphasized the importance of liberty of the individual and equal for all regardless of home and race.
  • They set to remove all those factors contributing to differences in wealth between various section of humankind which had previously prevailed and continued to cause world tension.
  • They opposed all forms of colonial domination and racial discrimination and were committed to the principles of human dignity and equality.
  • They aimed at achieving free flow of international trade.
  • They believed that international co-operation was an important factor in promoting world peace and could only be achieved through international associations such as the commonwealth.

N/B in 1979 the commonwealth head met in Lusaka Zambia.

They adopted a declaration on racism and racial prejudice.

This was a fellow up step of the declaration of 1971.

At Lusaka conference the Head of States proclaimed their desire to work jointly to put an end to all forms of discrimination.


  1. The queen of England who is the head of the organization directs the activities of the organization and is officially invited to open all commonwealth meetings.
  2. The commonwealth secretariat is based in London and is headed by the secretary General. It is charged with the day to day running of the organization. It organizes meetings for the head of states and prime ministers of the member states.
  3. The summits of foreign minister of various countries converge to deliberate on issues affecting their countries.


The secretariat was established in 1965 all Ghana’s request. Its functions are

  1. a) Circulating information and anything of general interests to member countries.
  2. b) Co-coordinating business that is it makes careful study of commonwealth’s organization that deals with matters of economic and financial.
  3. c) Encouraging those projects that will be of some benefit to the commonwealth members.
  4. d) Organization the prime ministers conferences which take place after every two years as well as other conferences.
  5. c) It is also responsible for several programmes of co-operation.
  6. f) Difference officials at the secretariat perform different duties. The overall is the secretary general.

NB: Expenses of the secretariat are paid for by contribution made by independent government, contributions are based on population and income of the individual member states.


There are various Agencies that help in focusing particular work of the commonwealth.

These include

  1. a) Commonwealth fund for technical co-operation whose major function is to assist in funding of projects, training programmes and supply of experts to member countries.
  2. b) The commonwealth Agricultural Bureau is mainly concerned with assisting countries in agricultural production by providing technical assistance and researching in the field of agriculture.
  3. c) Commonwealth parliamentary association is a forum for the Member of Parliament from commonwealth countries where parliamentarians meet to exchange ideas aimed at improving debates in their respective countries.
  4. d) Commonwealth regional health works in collaboration with WHO to improve the health and general hygiene of the people of commonwealth member countries.


Commonwealth states hold various conferences which are seen as important forums for consultations.

The president or prime ministers had meetings every two years.

In this meeting they discuss international economy and politics and whatever decisions they make are made by consensus, not voting.

Meetings between ministers cover foreign affairs, defense, supply and finance ministers responsible for this ministry meet yearly.

Minister for Health, Edcuation and will meet every after three years.

Commonwealth states are represented by High commissioners in the capitals of other member states.

The main duty of this commissioner is to maintain close co-operation between member states.

They are of equal status to ambassadors and are important elements in the interstate consultation.


  1. Providing financial assistance to member countries example the special commonwealth African assistance plan which was established in 1960.
  2. Providing a forum for promoting peace among the member states.
  3. It provides education and research among member states as Research findings are exchanged among member countries.
  4. Providing technical assistance to member countries in the fields of Agriculture, medical, industry, transport, communication and engineering.
  5. Granting member states favourable trading opportunities.
  6. It provides democratizations amongst member states oby sending election observes and monitors.
  7. Promoting friendship and understanding among member states e.g through commonwealth games.
  8. Enhances the development of legal system among member states.
  9. It provides a forum for heads of states to consult on international issues.
  10. It is a watchdog against the violation of human rights among members.

Examples i) Condemned apartheid in South Africa

  1. ii) Suspended Zimbabwe for violating property right of her while citizens.


  1. Shortage of funds: Member’s states are supposed to contribute funds for the running of the organisatin programmes. Due to their weak economies many states have defaulted payment of the funds.
  2. Ideologial differences – This have resulted into misunderstanding between members states. The socialist ideas propagated by the former solution and the capitalist ideals of the Western Worlds have caused division among member states.
  3. Membership of other organization: – Commonwealth members are also members of other regional organization such as African Union, European Union, common market of Eastern and South African countries (COMESA), European Union, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) etc.
  4. Civil Wars: – After attainment of independence, many African countries have been torn by civil wars. Thus the countries have to attend to the more crucial internal problems before engaging in any external affairs.
  5. Boarder disputes:- For long decade long conflicts between Pakistan and India have threatened one of the major function to ensure that peace prevails in all the countries.
  6. Absence of enforcement machinery – Absence of enforcement machinery is another challenge facing the commonwealth. It lacks a standing army to enforce its decisions. It relies on member states good will. The only weapons used by the organization are economic sanctions.

However it sometimes ignored by some of the member states.


This term cold war refers the rivalry which emerged between the West (USA and his allies) and the former East block (USSR) and her allies) after the end of World War II.

It was a war of propaganda and was characterized by economic hostilities towards each other and military and financial to their allies.


  1. a) Ideological differences
  2. b) The disagreement over disarmament between USSR and U.S.A
  3. c) The iron curtain policy adopted by U.S.S.R.
  4. d) European conflicts in the late 1940s.
  5. e) The UN domination by the Western Powers.
  6. f) The formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  7. g) The Marshall Plan of 1949 and Truman doctrine.

Ideological Differences

The USA and her capitalist allies did not trust the secret union even when both were fighting against Germany.

The USSR was also cautious when dealing with her Western allies.

The main reasons for this mistrust was ideological difference between the capitalist advocated for free enterprise in economic development and freedom of the individual, the communist east wanted means of production to be commonly owned under strictly command of the state.

The Disagreements over Disermament between USSR and the USA

It was the wish of the USA that manufacture of deadly weapons is checked.

The horrors of the Atomic bomb in Japan were still fresh in the minds of the UN delegates.

So this plan was accepted by the UN’s atomic Energy commission.

The plan suggested international ownerships and unlimited international inspection of Atomic energy materials and production.

The USA agreed to destroy the stockpiles of atomic bombs after the plan was affected.

The Soviet Union viewed this issue as propanganda of the worst kind especially because she had not yet manufactured any atomic bombs.

She thus wanted the Atomic weapons destroyed before the plan on inspection was affected.

The two powers could not agree on the arms issues and as a result the United States and the Soviet Union to increase their stock pile of Atomic bombs.

The Iron Curtain Policy Adopted By the USSR

The USSR already occupied part of Eastern Europe before the end of the Second World War like Romanice, Balgeria, Czechoslouakia, Hangary, East Germany and Poland.

Soviet power over these nations was so thorough that it prompted Winston Churchill, the then prime minister of Britain, to say that an iron curtain has been dropped by Soviet Union to seal Eastern Europe from the West. This new tight and artificial division of Europe made International relation very poor.

European Conflicts In the Late 1940’s

These conflicts increased the lension between the two sides, the civil war in Greece where USA and Britain supported one side and USSR the other.

The UN Domination by Western Power

The UN was one of the battlegrounds of the cold war.

Proposals at the UN would never get anywhere because of the Russian Veto.

When USA suggested that Veto powers be limited, USSR maintained that the power limited USSR maintained that the veto was only way of assorting herself in the UN which was mostly pro-USA.


NATO was a military alliance of USA and most states of Western Europe formed in 1949.

The organization committed the USA to the defense of Western Europe in return those countries would support the U.S.A.

This threatened USSR and her satellites states.

They viewed it as a capitalist scheme set to destroy the communist Russia.

So the USSR and her allies also set to check the capitalist activities thus the cold war was on.

The Marshall Plan of 1949 And Truman Doctrine.

The Marshall plan of 1949 and Truman Doctrine was a declaration by the USA was also factors which led to the intensification of the cold war.



War was caused mainly by ideological differences and ambitions of the USA and the Soviet Union in Europe.

In 1946 the Soviet Union contributed to the overthrow of the Greek post war government.

This spreading soviet influence prompted the US president Truman to introduce the famous Harry Truman doctrine in March 1947.

This doctrine state that USA would support free people resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure.

This declaration is widely considered as the official eruption the cold war.

It led to American intervention in Greece, Turkey and other countries where the Soviet Union was trying to spread communism.

To counter further spread of communism, the USA felt there improved economic contions were necessary.

Europe needed financial and material aid for reconstruction.

To achieve this aim the USA in 1947 put forward the European recovery programme (ERP) which later known as the Marshall plan.

It was named after it initiates, the American secretary of state General marshall.

The Soviet Union hated the Marshall plan and discouraged its satellites states from benefiting from it.

It closed all the land to Berlin, a city in East – Germany which had participated between the allied countries and the Soviet Union.

The allies then airlifted material AID to West Berlin from 1948 to 1949.

In addition they blocked the passage of good meant to Eastern Berlin, in the soviet Zone.

After the war German was divided into two states.

The allied power took control of the West which they named West Germany and formed an Anti-service. Military organization called the North Atlantic Treaty organization (NATO) in 1949.

The Soviet Union controlled East Germany.

In response to the Marshall Aid plan, the formation of the council for mutual economic assistance (COMECON was formed by the soviet – union.

Russia then poured it money in its satellites to assist them in attaining the production targets set by the soviet government.

The Soviet Union answer to NATO was the formation of the war saw pact in 1955.

The pact brought all the soviet satellites into a military union.

From 1950s, Europe remained a divided house and a major battle field of the cold war.

The dominance of the two major superpowers continued to be a towering reality.

They almost went to actual war when the Soviet Union built a wall which physically divided Berlin into soviet controlled east and allied controlled West.


In Indo-China USA and USSR clashed over Vietnam which had been colonized by the French but was taken over by the Japenese after World War II.

After the war the French tried to recolonize Vietnam but failed.

USA and USSR got involved in vietnma each supporting different Natioanalist leaders.

USSR supported HOCHI MINH.

USA supported BAO DAI.

Led Vietnam to be divided into two parts.

Soviet Union supported the North and the United States supported south.

Division led to the Vietnamese war in which the two powers were used.

During the war the viet cong, the communist guerillas continued to operate in South with the hope of establishing a communist government there USA wished to block the spread of communism to the sketch and as such gave direct military aid in the form of troops, military aircrafts and warships to the South.

Even with these effects the Americans were defeated by the communist and forced to withdraw.

This defeat hastened the American cold war propaganda more than ever.

Cold War in Cumba Central America

In 1959, Fidel Castro took over power in Cuba with the support of the soviet union

The US Tried unsuccessfully to remove him.

The Soviet Union gave Cuba weapons and hoped to use the Island nation as a military launching base against USA in the event of war.

The US was concerned  and field threaten because some of the weapons the USSR gave Cuba included dangerous missiles which were within US range in October, 1962, President John Kennedy declared that US would stop the USSR military build up in Cuba by imposing a strict blockade on all communist military ships approaching Cuba.

It asserted that the only condition for peace was the removal of the missile from Cuba.

Khrushcher, the soviet leader was compelled to accept Kennedy’s demands with the removal of the soviet missiles from Cuba, a dangerous crisis war ended

Cold War in Angola

The Soviet Union and Cuba supported the movement for popular de libertaca de Angola (MPLA) of Agostine Neto in the war of independence against the portueguese.

A civil was begun and the USA who were against the spread of the soviet influence joined the crisis.

United National de independencies total de Angola (UNITA) of Jonas Savimbi.

The USA also encouraged South Africans direct military intervention.

This came to be known as Anglo crisis which saw Angola torn by civil war right through into the 1990s.


The cold war increased hostility between the two super powers over political and economic dominance in the world.

However, the superpowers made attempts to co-exist without taking advantages of one another.

They adopted the de’tente policy e.g they made several attempts to improve relation between them.

This attempts led to several agreement on disarmaments.

Fore example(i) The partial test Ban treaty of 1963

  1. ii) The non proliferation treaty of 1968.

iii) Strategic arm limitation talks (SALT )1972

  • Salt II on 1979

Recently Western domiciles have been established in formerly communist countries such as Poland, East Germany and Russia.

The soviett Union played a major role in weakening communism especially after Gorbachev adopted a more liberal policy.

He also sought Aids from the West to improve the soviet ailing economy.

The two factors and other internal problems made several states of the union use interest in the communism ideology.

They thus sought to leave the union and form their own independent

Last stage of the cold war came when Iraq invaded the tiny rich country Kuwait. Saddam Hussein claimed that Kuwait was iraq 19th century since.

Invasion led to the gulf was which the Americans under the mandate of the United Nations called allied force to liberate Kuwait.

USA was successful this time.

The allied forces were able to face the Iraqs out of Kuwait and install Thed esposed rulers.

This success was a clear indication of weakening soviet power in 1991 the Warsaw past was cancelled.

This was a step further towards the end of the cold war.

The period that followed the gulf war saw the disintergration of the osoviet union into many independence republics.

By the end of 1991 several states left the union and formed their own republic. Others led by colonialist Russia under President Boris Yelsin joined to form the confederation of independence states (CIS). Others like Georgia plunged into civil war while groups of people in other states called for secession.

This was the final straw that broke the camels basic and ended the cold war.


  • The war led to space race: After the World War I and II, the two super powers completed in development of space craft (Rockets) which could be used to explore outer space.
  • The war caused insecurity: – The war caused insecurity as each power tried to spread its own ideology either by force like in the case of Hungary or through peace like the case of Cuba.
  • Although the two super powers co-operated during the second world war the soviet union always refused to co-operate with USA on matters economically the type of Government to be formed in some countries e.g Vietnam and Korea.
  • Each power advocated for a government based it ideologies resulting to splitting up territories like in the case of it and s. Kuria.
  • The mistrust, accusations and counter accusations if the two powers resulted in international insecurity and disruption of World peace leading to the arms race.
  • In certain situations the cold war led to real war like in Korea and Vietnam each power advocated for a government based of its ideologies resulting to splitting up of territories like in the case of North and South Korea.
  • The mistrust, accusations and counter accusations of the two powers resulted in international insecurity and disruption of world peace leading to the arms race.
  • Various crises took place in 1950s and 1960s

Examples i) The Hungarian revolution 1956

  • ii) The Suez canal crisis which were in most cases caused by the cold war as the two powers compelled forward dominance.
  • There were coups and counter coups in the third world countries lead to rise of dictators.
  • Europe was divided into two with an iron curtain that is Berlin wall restricting movement of people from East to West Germany and vice versa.

The Non-Aligned Movement (Nam)

It is the kind of neutralism,It is the policy of not aligning with any power block

Non alignment expresses freedom of decision and choice in deciding each international issue on it merit.

It is therefore a free and independence policy

The movement was concerned with concept such as neutralism and neutrality

Neutralism refers to foreign policy of states in time of peace.

Neutrality refers to a term in International law referring to the rule that states are supposed to follow during a legal state of war in which they are out participants.

Formation of NAM

After World War II former Europeans colonies in Africa and Asia began to attain independence.

Many Nations feared that the super powers were threatening their sovereignty.

They found it necessary to form an association which would unite them against nomination of either US or the Soviet Union.

This resulted in the formation of NAM in 1947.

The movement grew steadily from 1947 when it had a few founding members among them India and Yugoslavia.

The leaders of these two countries Jawa Harlar Nehm and Marshal Tito played a key role in shaping NAM.

The bandung conference was held in Indonesia in 1955. It was the first NAM meeting and had 29 participants from Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

These included heads of five states from China, India, Egypt, Indonesia and Yugoslavia.

The main issue during this conference was how they were going to tackle international issues such as cold war which were threating the new independence states.

The conference thus defined NAM as spelt its objectives.

The Objective of Nam

  • Member states must pursue independence policy base on peaceful co-existence without taking advantage of one another.
  • Need to participate in multilateral military alliance e.g NATO or WARSAW of which were prompted by the superpowers.
  • The safeguard the sovereignty of member states and support liberation and independence movement.
  • To participate in bilateral military alliances with great powers or have foreign military bases on their territories up with their agreement.
  • To discourage Neo-colonialism by promoting economic independence of it members countries.
  • To try and get better terms of trade particularly for the countries whose economies depend on exploitation of raw materials.
  • To fight all forms of discrimination, for example racism.
  • To encourage the member to actively participate in UNO programmes
  • To strive to improve agriculture and increase food production by making fund available towards this goal.


The NAM movement held several conferences, including one which took place in Belgrade Yugoslavia in 1964. NAM  meetings are held four years and are attended by Heads of States of member countries.

The NAM countries have strengthened their influence in World affairs by increasing their voting power in the Untied Nations General assembly, after independence NAM has been regarded as an important diplomatic weapon for influencing the superpowers and securing maximum assistance from the developed World.

It has enable members countries to formulate policies freely and according to their needs and situations.


  • Disagreements, conflicts times of war between states have affected the performance of NAM.
  • The movement has been affected by political instability due to civil wars and military coup de tats in some members.
  • States member countries are poor; they therefore are not able to remain economically independence because they acquire aids from both the East and West. This makes it impossible for them to pursue independence policies.
  • The movement lacks funds date to the poverty of some of its member stated who are not able to remit their dues on time o r at all.
  • Lack of a secretariat makes the co-ordination of its activities difficult personality difference between some of it leaders have undermined the holding fruitful discussion.
  • Member states are also loyal to other organization such as OAU, European Union and the commonwealth. This has affected their commitment and active anticipation.
  • The break up of the USSR and the subsequent end of the cold war has established the movement.












It refers to the way African countries relate to each other

This relation is manifested in the existence of organizations such as OAU and other regional organizations.

The earliest organization which was aimed at African Unity was referred to as PAN AFRICANISM.



The term pan Africanism is derived from two words Pan-which mean act Africanism referring to African Origin.

Pan – Africanism is defined as a belief in the uniqueness and spiritual unity of black people.

It also acknowledged their right to self alternation in Africa.

Pan-Africanism calls for treatment of all Africans with dignity as equals in all parts of the world movement is thus seen as the manifestation of African  process just universal discrimination of the Black people.

Origin of Pan-Africanism is not traced in Africa. It has its origin in New World in the 19th Century.

Atlantic slave trade led to dispersal of black people over  f American  in the carribean.

Slave suffered untold suffering and misery. This made them to be conscious their occur and origin in Africa.

Mistreatment, discrimination and humiliation the black people underwent convined them that they could find true friendship, understanding and motherhood at home in Africa.

However Africa had been colonized by European powers at the start of the century.

Before black people in America and West Indies joined with the Africans pan Africanist movement as a vehicle to fight for their social, African and economic right.


Realisation by Africans that they have close cultural factor as they have suffered similar experiences such as slavery and colonialism and the world they constitute the down trodden lot.

Desire by Africans to pull together for mutual support.


  • Strive towards the improvement of the living conditions of black people all over world.
  • fight against colonialism which further enhanced the declaration of black people
  • Fight European racism and thus counter the myth of European superiority which later used to subjugate the blacks.
  • Take Measure to restore the dignity of the black people and liberate them the bondage of slavery.
  • Fight the serious political economical and cultural disadvantages facing the black in the diaspora.


Many Negroes passively accepted their position as the bottom dogs and as a race created to serve others in a world dominated by the whites. They were homeless by slave trade and slavery. They were viewed as inferior people because of their colour.

There were many developments mainly economic development which led to introduction of machines.

These machines changed the mode of production whereby human labour from slaves was replaced by machines rendered slaves to be redundant and thus a burden to their owners who freed them.

British began anti-slave trade and anti-slavery campaigns in 1807 and 1833.

There was also American civil war which was caused by the issue of slave trade and slavery.

Negroes received western education as a new spirit among the blackmen in the new world grew.

They travelled widely and wrote about their plight in their own newspapers like BOOKER T. WASHINGTON, DR. W.E.B DUBOIS, MARCUS GARVERY, and GEORGE PADMORE.

The earliest pan- Africanists from Africa included J.E.K. Aggrey from gold coast (Ghana) and wilmost blyden from Liberia.

D.R W.E.B DU BOIS was born in USA in 1868. He was one of the founders of the national association for the advancement of coloured peoples (NAACP), he was a scholar who authored several works in politics and novels and edited the association’s journal.

This association championed the struggle for Negroes civil rights in America.


First pan Africanist congress, in London, 1900.

Was held in London in 1900

It was sponsored by a Trinidad lawyer called Henry Sylvester Williams. Was at the conference that Dr. E. B Dubois was first introduced to Africanism.

Made his famous statement “The problem of the 20th Century is the problem colourline”

Obejctives of the First Pan African Congress`

Bring people of African origin in all parts of the world together and thereby as a forum through which they could protest against European congression against blacsk.

Appeal to an end to European colonization and exploriation of Africa. For ways of establishing better relations between the causican and African races.

Initiate a movement for securing to all Africans in and outside Africa fall rights and to promote their economic rights.

Appeal to missionaries and philontrhopist in Britain to protect African against aggression by the colonizers.

To address the living standards and conditions of Africans (blacks) in different parts of the world and more so black in South Africa and Condem in human treatment.

This congress, the quotation of South Africa and Rhodesia was discussed and congress condemned mistreatment of blacks in this countries. Set up upon Africanist association and journal.

However, this conference laid the foundation for future saidarity meetings and sowed the seed of togetherness of the black people.

Second Pan-Africanst Congress (Paris, 1919)

It was convened under the leadership of Dr. W.E.B de Bois.

It was held when the peace conference ending the World War I was taking race in Parts in 1919.

It Amied at presenting the grievances of people of African origin before the delegates to the peace conference.

This congress made some recommendations

  • The need for international laws to protect the black people.
  • African land to be held in trust.
  • The prevention of exploitation by foreign campanies.
  • The right of Africans to be educated.
  • Africans to participate in their government as fast as their development permitted.

Third Pan Africanist Congress (Longon, Paris And Bruses, 1921)

This congress was held in three sessions, London, Brassser and Paris.

London session was attended by 41 Africans, 35 Americans coloureds, West Indians and 24 Africans who were living in Europe at that time.

It was also under the pationage of Dubois.

Main demand was establishment of political organizations among suprressed black peoples.

The congress emphasized international and interracial harmony and democracy.

The Fourth Pan- Africna Congress (London And Lisbon, 1923)

It was head in London and Lisbon.

Reiterated the earlier resolutions and also demanded that black people treated like human beings.

Fifthe Pan – African Congress (New York 1927)

Boi was once again the main figure in the congress in issue discussed was the attitude of the communist towards pan-African’s communist tried to discredit Da Bois and Marcus Garvey after they led to central both men.

After the fifth Pan African congress, Pan – Africanism ceased for almost twenty years when a new star on Pan Africanism came into the scene name was John Padniore.

However, up to 1945, the movement was not active on the African continent.

The Sixth Pan-African Congress, Manchester, 1945

In 1944, 13 organisations representing students welfare and political grouping formed the pan-african federation among them, George padmore, C.L.R. Wallace Johnson and jomo Kenyatta.

The participants included du bois(west indies), jomo Kenyatta(Kenya), kwame Nkrumah(Ghana), George padmore(Trinidad), peter Abrahams(south Africa), otto mackonnel from west africa and magnus Williams(Nigeria) represented DR. nnamdi azikiwe.

  • It addressed itself to the problems facing Africa.
  • It was dominated by Africans.
  • The trade unions from Sierra Leone, Nigeria, gold coast, Gambia, West Indies were represented making it a mass movement.
  • It was more vocal and radical.it expressed the hope that before long the peoples of asia and Africa would have broken their chains of colonialism

Reasons Why the Movemetnt Had Not Established Itself in the African Continet Before 1945

  • There were very few African representatives and the few who existed were their students aborad or in exile.
  • Divide and rule policy of European powers-this policy hindered the unity of Africans.
  • The colonial authrorities did not allow Africans to organize movements that were opposed to colonia rule.
  • Lack of contact and communication between Africans in French, Britain, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese colonies. Africans in each colony were concerened with issues that were of particular interest to them.
  • There was little attention given to the movement by two independent African countries namely Ethiopia and Liberia. The two were pre-occupied with their own internal problems.

Example i) Ethiopia was trying to consolidate the Nation after the death of Menelic II.

  1. ii) Liberia was still under considerable influence from U.S.A.
  • The French policy of assimilation blind folded the Africans who were given partical rights and thus strove to acuire French citizenship.
  • in the African continent, there were more pressing problem such as land alienation.
  • Lack of suitable venue to be held conferences on African soft until when Ghana gained independence and provided one.


Pan Africanism activities increased in Africa after 1945. The activities increased because of:

  1. I) Change of international opinion about colonialism of the World War II.
  2. ii) The inspiration of colonized African counties by India independence in1947, Burma 1948 and Ghana 1957.

iii) The support from trade unions and Nationalistic movements formed in Africa

  1. Encouragement from UNO which supported the ideas of equality of all human races regardless of race.
  2. Attainment of Ghana’s independence which provided abuse for holding conferences on AFRICAN SOIL.

NOTE. IN 1958, a conference was held in Accra Ghana.

In 1960, a second conference was held in Addis Ababa Ethiopia here differences emerged among African leaders.

Some former French colonies formed the Brazzaville group and were less critical of their colonial masters. They wanted continued political links with them.

Anglo-phone countries formed the Casablanca group which adopted a militant attitude towards all the Western powers.

By 1963, these differences had reduced

Another conference was held in Addis Ababa in 1963. it was attended by 32 African states.

At this conference OAU was born. It was to reflect the ideals and aspiration of Pan – Africanismm.


  • The movement enlightedned black people all over the World and created awareness in them about their suffering. Turned into active nationalism and struggle for independence clonised Africa.
  • It was first initiatives that provided a forum for black people to voice their grievances and discuss internal and external problems.
  • Natured the spirit of solidarity among black people.
  • Encourage co-operation among African leaders and states towards organization.
  • Movement laid the foundation for the interet in research on African culture, story, music, religion, medicine etc.
  • Africanism was seen in action during the Ethiopian crisis in 1935. Solini invaded Ethiopia and this sparked protest among blacks all over world against Italy. However, Italy lost the war.
  • Aspiration of Pan-Africanism reached its political goal in 1963, when it established the organization of African unity in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


  • Movement lacked adequate funds to run its operations.
  • Movement failed to fully resolve the differences that arose among the independence African countries that emerged between the French speaking countries and the Anglophones.
  • Did not have a base in Africa since most African countries were still under colonial rule.
  • The were sharp differences between extremist and moderate e.g Bubois Booker T. Washington.
  • Economic empowerment of African states was not achieved as most of them remained dependent on their colonial masters for economic support.


Organization owes its origin to Pan- Africansim movement and was born in May 1963, 30 out of 32 independent African states met in Adis Ababa Ethiopia.

Among the 32 indpendant African states which were at present were Morroco and Togo,

It was during this meeting that the leaders agreed to form a continous body among the leading stesmann present were

Julius Nyerere (Tanzania)

Kwameh Nkrumah (Ghana)

Haile selassie (Ethiopia)

Ghana and Uganda supported a union government African.

However, the other African staes were prepared to accept association of states.

African leaders drew up a charter on 25th May 1963 and signed the OAU charter.

African states that had not yet gained independence sense observers they included Kenya which becomes a member in 1964.

Formation of OAU saw the dissolution of all the previous groupings Brazzaville and casoblanca groups.


  • Promote the unity and solidarity of the African states.
  • Co-ordinate and intensify the members collaboration and efforts to achieve a better life for the people of Africa.
  • Defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states
  • Dedicate all forms of colonialism from the continent of Africa especially in Portuguese Africa, Namibia and South Africa.
  • Avoid interfering in the internal affairs of member stats and to recognize the sovereignty and equality of all African and Malagasy states.
  • Promote international co-operation having due regard to the charter of the UN and universal declaration of human rights.
  • Hold – non- Alignment in African relation with the rest of the world.


This charter was drawn in 1963 and signed by 30 heads of states.

It contained 33 Articles which outlined the right and duties of the organization

Article One:    Established the heads of states assembly

Article two:     Outlined the aims and purpose of the organization.

Article three:   Points out the purposes stated in Article two, that is to adhere to

Sovereignty equality Non – interference and condemnation of political


Article Four:    Outlined OAU membership i.e each sovereign African states was entitled

to membership.

Article five:     Gave all members states equal right and opportunities.

Article Six:      Committed all members’ states to pledge and observe the principles of the organization.

Article Seven: Established four principles organization which are:-

  1. The assembly of head of states and government
  2. Council of Ministers.
  3. General secretariat
  4. Commission of mediation, conciliation and arbitration

Article 8 – 11: Spelt the function of the assembly of heads of states and governments as supreme organs.

Article 12 – 15: Created the council of ministers and spelt out its functions

Article 16 0 18:           Created the general secretariat headed by the secretariat general.

Article 19:                   Established the commission of meditation, conciliation and arbitration of the organization.

Article 20 – 22:           Set out specialized commission in the areas of co-operation as outlined in Article number 2(two).

Article 23:       Made the OAU budget as drawn by the secretary general. It was approved by the council of minister. Member states paid contribution according to assessment scale. No member state was allowed to pay 20% of the total budget.

Article 24 – 25: Dealt with the preparation of the charter text in English, French and other African languages. These are rectified with a two third majority.

Article 26: Provided for rectification and registration with the UNO

Article 27: Stipulated that the interpretation of the charter be by the third majority of the assembly.

Article 28: Spelt out the procedure of the admission with the OAU by independent African states which is decided by a simple majority of the assembly.

Article 29: Specified the working language of the organization as French, English and if possible any other Africa language.

Article 30: Authorized the secretary General to receive gifts and donations on behalf of the organization provided that this was approval by the council of ministers.

Article 31: Provided for the privileges and immunities of the secretariat staff waiting for member states as decided by the council of ministers.

Article 32: Stipulated the conditions for leaving the organization. If a member state wished to leave the organization was to give a one year notice formerly and it then withdrew the following year.

Article 33: Established the amendment of the charter on a written request by a member state after a year notice.


The effects it objectives and purposes the OAU’s charter provided for the establishment of various organs. These organs were:-

  1. The assembly of Heads of states and governments
  2. The council of Ministers.
  3. The General secretariat.
  4. The commission of mediation, conciliation and arbitration.

The assembly of Heads of states and Government

It was the supreme organ of O.A.U

Met once a year although it could hold extra ordinary sessions to discuss the matters and issues affecting the continent

Members of the assembly had equal voting rights, thus each state had vote.

Elected a chairman yearly from among the head of states and government and the head of states and government conference used to hold on relational basis various countries.

Head of state of the hosting state automatically became chairman of it.

However this was changed in 1982 over the issue of whether Colonel Muamar Gadafi of Libya was eleigible to head OAU.

Result was many African leaders boycotted the meeting which aborted due to lack of quorum.

Impact was president Moi of Kenya was chairman for two terms 1983.

1983 it was agreed that all OAU summit meeting would be held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


It Consisted of all foreign ministers of OAU member states.

Performed the following functions:

  • Prepared the Agenda for the meetings of the heads of states and governments.
  • It implementes the decision passed by heads of states and government.
  • Prepared the OAU budgets for approval by head of states and governments.

The council met twice yearly but again extra ordinary sessions could be led to discuss urgent and important matters.

The council meetings preceded those of the Assembly of the Heads of States governments and each.Minister has one vote.


It was headed by the secretary General who Was elected for a four year term of office and Could offer himself or herself for re-election if he/she wished.

It did the day to day work of OAU

Its headquarters was at Addis Ababa.


It was responsible for peaceful settlement of disputes including member of the 21 states.

OAU has also specialized commission and agencies which dealt with the more technical aspect of the organization.


In history OAU witnessed a number of achievement and failures.


  • It greatest achievement was in area of liberation of Africa from colonialism. It made tremendous efforts to liberate some countries from colonial oppression.
  • It stood firmly behind the African nationalist in south Africa, in their fight against apartheid.
  • It appealed to the security council of united nations to stop member countries from selling arms and military hardware to south Africa.
  • OAU mediated in border disputes e.g between Kenya and Somalia and between Chad and Nigera.
  • Through its specialized Agencies OAU has promoted areas of transport and communication, postal and Telecommunications link e.g through URTNA (Union of Radio and Television Network of Africa)
  • It managed to maintain peace and stability on the continent like in 1963 it broke a ceasefire between Algeria and morocco.
  • It has contributed to economic development like African development bank.
  • It has aweken and sensitized Africans on their common problems like desertification, external interference, dependency and over-reliance on one trade commodity.
  • It has united the diverse countries of Africa with their defferences in ideology.
    • Has promoted social and cultural heritage e.g All African games enabled African countries to meet and co-operate in sports.
    • Through scientific and technical Research Agencies OAU has encouraged research into medical use of African herbs and has contributed to eradication of some livestock diseases like East Coast Fever.
    • The OAU has encouraged regional economic co-operation as a start of achieving continental economic integration.

Example i) EAC (East African community)

  • ii) COMESA(Common market for Eastern, South Africa)

ECOWAS (Economic community of West Africa)


  • It failed to effectively deal with the Congo crisis of 1964 which almost dealt it affected blow.
  • The charter of OAU was silent of issues of democratic reforms, peace justice and freedom of expression.The result was that a large number of OAU leaders turned out to be military rulers and dicatetors. This led to instability and abuse of human rights in most member states.
  • OAU failed to achieve total unity and peace in Africa. This disunity manifested itself in the form of conflicts between member states and divison on which liberation movement to support.
  • The organization watched helplessly as handreds of thousands Tutsi and Hutu moderates were lailled in Rwanda Genocide.
  • It failed to intervene in the cival war in Zaire when Rwanda and Uganda invaded and occupied vast pasts of that country.


  • African countries have different forms of Government and ideologies, most states guard their independence jealously. They also lend to co-operate with their former colonial masters.
  • OAU member’s states were also members of other regional or international organizations e.g common wealth, ECOWAS, EAC and COMESA.Sometimes the interest of these organization were in conflicts with those of OAU
  • The large number of OAU states posed difficulties in co-coordinating and assembling all member states for the annual extra ordinary sessions.
  • The super powers interfered massively in the affair of African States e.g Angola and Zaire.
  • Boarder disputes between member countries e.g i) Between Somalia and Kenya, Libya and Sudan,Somalia and Ethiopia.
  • Portioning of Africa through scramble divided the continent into colonial territories which led to different groupings. For example the France – Phone African states felt more united among them that the Anglo-phone states.This left a negative legacy which had to be fought in attempt to forge close ties among member states.
  • Some heads of states were never in agreement and proved difficult to reconcile it manifested itself through policital assassination. OAU had to try and not let the situation get out of control.
  • Membership was voluntary making it easy for members to join or withdrew at work.
  • Military coups. It is estimated that over seventy African leader were overthrown in the first 25 years of independence beside many other aboritive coups. This coups interrupted OAU plans and prorgrammes.
  • Lack of military force is another challenge OAU faced. OAU lacked a permanent army that could enforce maintaince of peace.


The union was launched in Durban, South Africa on 9th July 2002 to replaced the OAU

It was also attended by Louis Farrakham and the Nation of Islam delegation representing black in the diaspora.

Thabo Mbeki was elected the chairman of the union.

Former Ivorian minister (foreign) Amara Essy was elected the secretary general.

He replaced Tanzania Salim Ahmed Salim who served OAU for 12 years.


  • To uphold the sovereign equality and independence of its 53 members states.
  • To promote peace, security and solidarity on the African continent.
  • To promote and protect human and peoples right, consolidate democratic institutions and culture and ensure good governance and the rule of raw in the continent of Africa.
  • To accelerate the process of implementing the treaty establishing the African economic community in order to promote the social economic development of Africa and to face more effectively the challenges pose by globalization.
  • To Achieve greater unity and solidarity between African countries and peoples in African.
  • To establish the necessary condition which enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and international negotiations.
  • To promote and defend issues of interest, the continent and its people.
  • To encourage international co-operation taking due account of the charter of the United Nations and the universal declaration of Human rights.
  • To promote co-operation in all fields of human activity in order to raise the saving standards of African peoples.
  • To co-ordinate and harmonies the policies between the existing and future regional economic communities for gradual attainment of the objectives of the union.
  • To advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields, particularly in science and technology.Its work with recount international partners in the eradication of preentable diseases and the promotion of health on the continent.


The African union consists of the following organs

The Assembly

The execute council

The permanent representative committee

The commission

Specialized technical committee

The pan-African parliament

The economic, social and cultural council

Financial institutions.

The peace and Security Council


It consists of the heads of states of all member states.

It is the most important decisions making body of the union.

It meets annually and elects a chair person.

In this assembly decisions are made by consensus or two third majority.


  1. i) It decides on common policies for the union
  2. ii) Considers application for membership

iii) Adopts the budget.

  1. iv) Direct the process of conflict resolution
  2. v) Appoints judges for the court of justice.


The council is made up of foreign affairs ministers of the member states.

The council is accountable to the Assembly.

Functiions of The Council

  1. i) Prepares materials for the assembly to discuss and approve.
  2. ii) Decides on matters such as foreign trade, social security, food, agriculture and communications.


It is composed of ambassadors to the African Union and  has the responsibility of preparing the work for the executive council.


The commission is the secretariat of the union the chairman, a deputy and eight commissioners.

Functions of the Commission

  1. i) Handles the day to day administrative issues of the union.
  2. ii) Implements the decisions of the union.

iii) Co-ordinates AU activities and meetings.

  1. iv) Receives application for membership.
  2. v) Initiates proposals for consideration by other organs.


It deals with monetary and financial issues, the rural economy, trade, immigration, industry and science and technology.

They are responsible for implementation of projects and programmes of the union they are:

  • The committee of rural and agricultural matters
  • The committee on the monetary and financial affairs.
  • The committee of trade, customs and immigration matters.
  • The committee on industry, science and technology, energy natural resources and environment.
  • The committee on health, labour and social affair.
  • The committee on transport, communication and tourism.
  • The committee on education, culture and human resources.


Consist of elected representative nominated from five regions of African union.


The court rules on human rights abuses in Africa in terms of a legal statute framework.


Performs an advisory functionsand Is composed of professional and cruel representatives.


Three financial institutions were set up under the African Union.

These institutions were to provide funding for projects and programmes.

  1. The African central bank
  2. The African monetary fund
  3. The African investment bank


This has 15 members responsible for monitoring and intervening in conflicts.

The council is a lerted by an early warning system as to any threat to security in the continent.

It is financed by a peace fund.

The council is advised by a council of elders and has an African force at its disposal.

This function of the council is outlined in Article 6 of AU charter.

Functions of Peace and Security Council

  • Promotion of peace, security and stability in Africa.
  • Early warning and preventive diplomacy.
  • Peace making including the use of good officer, medication, conciliation and inquiry.
  • Peace support operations and intervention, pursuant to article 4(h) and (J) of the constitutive act.
  • Peace building and post conflict reconstruction
  • Humanitarian action and disaster management.
  • Any other function as may be decided by the assembly


The AU charter was signed by 55 heads of states and of states and governments of the member states of the former organization of African unity (OAU) on 9th July, 2002 in Durban South Africa.

Like the OAU charter, it is a lengthy document with 33 articles.

Article 1:         Deals with definitions of key term in the charter.

Article 2:         States the establishment of AU in accordance with the provisions of the constitute act.

Article 3:         Outlines the objectives of the union

Article 4:         Defines the organs of the union

Article 5:         Defines the organs of the union

Article 6:         Outlines the composition and functioning of the assembly.

Article 7:         Stipulates the process of decision making by the Assembly.

Article 8:         Outlines the rules of procedure of the Assembly.

Article 9:         States the powers and functions of the Assembly.

Article 10:       Gives the composition of the Executive council and outlines it procedures

and functions.

Article 11 – 13:           Stipulates the decision making process of the executive council

rules of procedures and functions.

Article 14 – 16:           Outlines the establishment and composition of the specialized and

technical committee, giving their functions and organization.

Article 17:       Establishes the Pan – African parliament and defines its composition,

powers, functions and organization.

Article 18:       Establishes the court of justice, its statutes, composition and functions.

Article 19:       Spells out the financial institution of the union.

Article 20:       Deals with the establishment of a commission of the union to function as

the secretariat.

It defines its composition, structure, functions and regulation as

determined by the assembly.

Article 21:       Establishes the permanent representative committee and spells out its


Article 22:       Establishes the economic, social and cultural council as an advisory organs and states that its composition, power and organization are to be determined by the assembly.

Article 23:       Deals with the imposition of sanctions against member states.

Article 24:       Identifies the headquarters of the union as, Adis Ababa in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.

Article 25:       Defines the working languages of the union as, if possible African language, English, French and Portuguese.

Article 26:       Empowers the court to deal with matter of interpretation arising from application on implementation of the charter.

Article 27:       Deals with the signature, ratification and accession to the charter.

Article 28:       Stipulates that the act shall enter into force 30 days after the deposit of the instrument of ratification by the member states of the AU.

Article 29 – 31: Outlines the procedure for membership, suspension and cessation of membership.

Article 32: Outlines the process of amendment and revision of the charter.

Article 33: Outlines the transitional arrangement and final provision in the transformation of OAU in the AU.


  1. a) Resolving the recurrent common conflicts among several African Nations.

UN secretary General Kofi Annan warned that if Africans wanted to follow the example of Europe after WWII and build a union, they would a union, they would have to resolve their conflicts.(African Union Sumit 2002).

  1. b) Tackling the issue of regional powers.

This is where the powerful African countries like Nigeria and South Africa are afraid of using their own regional influence and concerned at any initiative that would weaken their sovereignty or ability to act independently.

  1. c) Member Nations need to seriously and genuinely address issue of ethnic, religious and regional division which has been increasing rapidly in many of the member Nations of the AU.
  2. d) Given that underlying reasons for insecurity include poverty and thus conflict over scarce resources, member states used to address the problem of insufficient institutional and constitutional structures to manage dispute peacefully.
  3. e) There is an urgent need for remaining military leaders to allow for democratic representatives.


Formation of E.A.C

The community was formed to strengthen common market among Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

It was a culmination of efforts made since 1902 to promote economic co-operation for East African states.

This effort had seen the establishment of the East African High Commission in 1948.

The commission consisted of governors of Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika.

It was followed by East African community services organization EACSO.

The East African community was therefore to take over the control of some services and research activities from EACSO.

The East African community was therefore to take over the control of some services and research activities from EACSO.

After the three East African sates become independent in the early 1960s.

It was clear that the leaders of the state did not care about a federation.

It was however, still very necessary that a form of co-operation among this states be formed.

In 1965, the Philip commission was set up to look into possibilities of such a co-operation.

The commission recommended the setting up of the East African co-operation which could replace EASCO.

This recommendation formed the basis of the treaty of Economic co-operation of the three East African States.

In 1967, Presidents Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya) Milton Obote (Uganda) and Julius Nyerere Tanzania signed a treaty which established the East African Community.

This treaty came into effects on 1st December 1967.


  1. To promote trade among the three East African countries, that was now independent.
  2. To provide common services in areas such as railways, habours, post and Telecommunication.
  3. To provide for free trade of goods provided within East Africa. A common currency was introduced by East African currency board.
  4. Provide a wider and more secure market for good produced in the region
  5. To facilitate free movement of people.
  6. To enable and strengthen closer ties and understanding between the member states.
  7. To help bring economic balance between the states and equally share the former EACSO assets.
  8. To establish similar custom tariffs and duties 10 non member states.
  9. To enhance self – sufficiency, self reliance and full independence from the rest of the world to avoid being trodden upon.


To facilitate its organization the following structures and institutions were set up.

The East African Main Institutions

The East African community had special institutions which were established by the 1967 treaty.These institutions were charged with co-ordination of various activities in the community.

The institutions were:-

  1. i) The East African authority
  2. ii) The East African legislative assembly

iii) The common market tribunal

  • The councils
  1. The central secretariat
  2. The court of appeal


This was the supreme authority

It consisted of the three Heads of states

There main duty was to decide of major issues affecting the countries.


This assembly was charged with making of laws concerning the services provided by the community.

It had 36 member, three of whom were ministers, one secretary general and members chosen from the three states.


This was a tribunal to settle trade disputes between the partner states.


The councils were five

Namely i) Finance

  1. ii) Communication

iii) Common market

  1. iv) Economic consultative
  2. Planning and research and social council

Each council had its own responsibility


To- co-ordinate the work of these councils, a central secretariat was set up in Arusha, Tanzania.

The secretariat was responsible for seeing that the common market council succession was carried out.

It was headed by a secretary General.


The court of appeal for East Africa was established in 1951.

It was to hear appeal from the courts in three member states.

The East African industrial court was a staff tribunal.


Another important organ of the East African community was the East Africna development Bank (E.A.D.B) which had its headquarters in Kampala.

The bank was established to promote balanced industrial development.

Objectives of the East African Development Bank

  1. Provide financial and technical assistance to partner states.
  2. Give priorities to industrial development in relatively less developed partner states.
  3. Fiannce the projects designed to make the economies of partner states complementary in the industrial field.
  4. Supplement the activities of National development by joint financing, specifically using the agencies as channel for financing specific projects.
  5. Co-operate with other National or international organs private or public.
  6. Underake ‘such other activities and provide such other services as may advance the objectives of the Bank.
  7. Establish similar custom tariff and duties to non member states.


Four East African community corporations set up in addition to the council.

These were

  1. i) East African Railway corporations were set up with its headquarters in Nairobi
  2. ii) The East African habours corporation with its headquarter in Dar – es salaam.

iii) The East African post and Telecommunication corporation with the East African airways corporation with it headquarters in Nairobi.

Facilities Which Came Under Direct Control On the Community

  1. a) The East African National resources research council. the council supervised research work from centres such as the;Fresh water fisheries (Jinja), Marine fisheries (Zanzibar), Agriculture and forestry research (Nairobi) and Vetinary research Nairobi.
  2. b) The East African Board. The Board worked the East African customs and exercise Department to ensure that the tax systems in the three states were in line with one another and gave help and advice in tax matters.
  3. c) The East African Research council which co-ordianted works on a variety of medical problems – leprosy, sleeping sickness, tuberculosis and viral diseases.
  4. d) The East African literature Bureau in Nairobi which promoted the production and sale of books. It encouraged more Africans to write books.


Service                                                                        Headquarters

  1. A Railway corporation Nairobi
  2. A Habours corporation Dar-es-Salaam

E.A Post and Telecommunication corporation           Kampala

E.A Customs and exercise                                          Mombasa

E.A Development Bank                                              Kampala

E.A income tax                                                           Nairobi

E.A Agriculture, veterinary and forest Research        Muguga (Kenya)

E.A Amani institute (scientific Research)                  Amani (Tanzania)

E.A Fisheries Research                                               Jinja

E.A Literature Bureau                                                            Nairobi

E.A Metrological Department                                                Nairobi

E.A Civil Aviation Directorate                                   Nairobi

E.A Marine Fisheries                                                  Zanzibar

Court of Appeal for East Africa                                 Nairobi

E.A industrial Research                                              Nairobi

E.A Tropical Pesticides Research Centre                   Arusha

E.A Airways                                                               Nairobi


  1. Uneven economic development, Uganda and Tanzania believed that Kenya benefit more from the EAC than them.
  2. National pride and interest:-National interests of the respective countries were given priority to regional interest (each member was proud of her own independence IT favoured railway Kamplala k trade transport.
  3. Ideological difference,Tanzania was committed to socialists ideologists while Kenya and Uganda pursued capitalist ideologies.
  4. Political Instability in Uganda:In January 1971 Idi Amin staged a military coup against Milton Obote there followed a period of political instability in Uganda.
  5. Personality differences, President Nyere and Idi Amin became bitter enemies because Obote was given refugee in Tanzania after he was overthrown by Amin.
  6. In adequate compensatory and corrective measures: There was financial constraint resulting from failure of member states to remit their contribution to East African Community.
  7. Use of different currencies made transactions difficult
  8. Personal ambitions: Each leader of the member states wanted to appear as the most powerful
  9. Boundary closures:This was between Tanzania and Uganda during the 1978 – 1979 war. Tanzania also closed it boarder with Kenya.

10.Kenya complained that its Nationals working in Tanzania were being harassed.

Tanzania didn’t act on the complain as a result Kenya pulled her Nationals and established her own state organization.

  1. From 1975 Kenya and Tanzania began to nationalize the asset of EAC that were within their boarder.


In 1993, however the three East African leaders (president Moi of Kenya, Museveni of Uganda, and Mwingi of Tanzania) met to discuss the possible revival of the community.

On 30th November 1993, the three leaders signed an agreement in Arusha, Tanzania, reviving the East African community.

They emphasized the need for free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the three member states.

This was coupled with common services and joint policies for transport, communication, security, education, science and research would enhance regional co-operation.

During the second summit of 3 heads of states in Arusha on 29th April 197 it was divided that a process of treaty making begin that would involve further negotiation among the member states including the public.

The result was the establishment of East African community which was signed in Arusha on the 30th November 1999.

It became operational on the 7th July 2000 and the new regional organization came into being.


On 15th January 2001, the summit of the new East African community was held in Arusha.

It signed various protocols relating to the rules for the admission of other countries to the E.A.C

Thereafter the community was formerly launched.


  1. Harmonization of fiscal and monetary policies.
  2. Encourage free movement of capital.
  3. Trade liberalization and development e.g by removal of internal tarrifs to member states.
  4. Co-operation in agriculture and food security.
  5. Development of areas of common economic interest e.g Lake Victoria and it basin.
  6. Development of infrastructure and supportive services e.g roads, railway, telecommunications etc.
  7. Develop adequate and reliable energy supply in the region.
  8. Development of human resources, science and technology.
  9. Development in social sector issue e.g health, culture and sport.
  10. Encourage free movement of persons be easing of boarder crossings.
  11. Promote co-operation in legal and judicial affairs.
  12. Strengthen political co-operation so as to attain peace and relation with other regional and international organizations.


The East African community has several organizations and institutions.

These a) Summit

  1. b) Council of ministers
  2. c) The co-coordinating committees
  3. d) Sect oral committees.
  4. e) The East African court of Justice
  5. f) The East African legislative Assembly.
  6. g) The secretariat.


It comprises heads of governments of member states which  meets at least once every year but may hold extra-ordinary meetings on the request of any member of the summit.

There is office of the chairperson and it’s rotational among the member states.

The main function of the summit is to give general direction toward the realization of community goals.

Decisions are made by consensus.


It is made up of ministers from the member states that are responsible for regional co-operation.

The council meets twice a year but a member state can request for an extraordinary council meeting.

The council is the main decision making institution.

It also implements the decision and directives of the summit and submits annual report.

It also prepares agenda for the summit.


It comprises permanent secretaries responsible for regional co-operation.

It is subject to the direction of the council.

It meets at least twice a ear.

It co-ordinates the activities of the secretarial committees.


Established by the council on the recommendations of the respective coordinating committees.

They meet as often as is necessary.

They are responsible for the preparation of a comprehensive implementation of the programme of the community in respect to it sector.


The court comprises of 6 judges two from each member states who are appointed by the summit.

The court is based in Arusha Tanzania.

It main function is to ensure the adherence to the law in the interpretation, application of and compliance with the East African community treaty


It has 27 elected members and 5 ex official members consisting of the minister responsible for regional co-operation from the partner state and the secretary – General and the counsel to the community.

There is the speaker of the Assembly, committee of the Assembly and cleric to the Assembly.

The Assembly provides a democratic forum for debate.

It also has a watch dog function and plays a role in the legislative process.


It is headed by the secretary – General who is appointed by the summit on rotation basis serves for a 5year period.

The secretary General is the chief executive officer of the community the accounting officer and the secretary of the summit.

He carries out any duties given to him by the council from time to time.

The secretariat in the executive arm of the community.

It ensures that regulations and directives adopted by the council are properly implemented.


The autonomous institutions of the EAC which assist it in effective operation are

  1. Lake Victoria Development programme
  2. The East African Development Bank(EADB)
  3. Lake Victoria fisheries organization
  4. The inter university council for East Africa (IUCA).


The treaty for establishment of the East African community provides that a custom union shall be the first stage in the process of economic integration.

Therefore real economic integration was only to commence with thee coming into the being of the customs union.

The treaty provides that the customs union shall be followed by a common market, then a monetary union and finally a political federation.

The objective of establishing a customs union is formation of a single custom territory to enable partner states to enjoy economies of scale with a view to supporting the process of faster economic union, EAC will create a single market of over 90 million people (2002) and a combined GDP of a round USA dollars 30 brailing, besides assisting to level the playing for the regions producers by imposing uniform competition policy and law.

The customs union became operational in February 2005.

There is now a common regime of taxes being followed on all goods among member states.


A Common set of import duty rates applied on goods from third world countries.

Duty free and quota free movement of tradable goods among its constituent custom territories.

A common set of customs, rules and procedures.

A structure for collective administration of the custom union

A common trade policy with non memer states.


  1. a) Member states give more preference to their internal matters at the expense of community affair. This has slaved down the process of integration.
  2. b) Uneven levels of economic development have given Kenya on undue advantage in the competition. Fr example Kenyan manufactured goods are more competitive.
  3. c) Member countries also belong to other regional organization such as COMESA, SADC leading to divided loyalty.
  4. d) Insecurity along the common boraders caused by banditary, cattle rustlers etc has in some cases several relations between member states e.g the insecurity along Kenya Uganda border.
  5. e) Member states produce similar goods making it difficult for them to trade with each other.
  6. f) The East African community members do no have a common currency. Besides the currencieces e.g the Dollar, sterling pound, Euro etc This has hindered trade among the countries.
  7. g) Poor transport and communication Network among the member countires which hinders the movement of people and goods.
  8. h) Conflicts over the exploitation of common natural resources e.g the use of Lake Victoria resources (Migingo Island).



It  began in 1958 when Ghana and Guinea formed a political union.

The two countries were joined by Mali.

In 1960, other Nations of West Africa began making moves along way of limited economic co-operation from 1963.

For example there was an agreement between Gambia and Senegal on currency matters, air service and trade.

There was also Niger River commission between Mali, Upper Bolta (Burkina Faso) and Niger on the use of the Niger River.

Other similar organization were the Lake Chad Basin commission between Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon and the Senegal commission between Senegal, Guinea, Mali and Mauritania.

In 1972, Togo and Nigeria signed a bilateral agreement after some quite diplomacy and consultations; the way was cleared for a meeting of the different West African Nation in 1974.

All the arrangement was preparatory steps towards the formation of ECOWAS which was formerly established with the signing of the treaty of Longos on 28th May, 1975.

Its operations began in November 1976.

Originally there were fifteen (15) signatories. Te community now has seventeen (17) (members, Cape Verde having joined in 1977.


  1. a) Benin j) Senegal
  2. b) Liberia k) Guinea
  3. c) Mali i) Sierra – Leone
  4. d) Burkina Faso m) Mauritania
  5. e) Cape Verde n) Gambia
  6. f) Togo o) Ghana
  7. g) Guinea Bissau p) Niger
  8. h) Nigeria q) Ivory Coast.
  9. i) Togo


  1. To foster economic co-operation among member states in various fields.
  2. To ensure free movement of goods, within the area by removing trade barrier among member states.
  3. To achieve economic independence for its members.
  4. To develop Agriculture, commence and industry as well as other sectors of the economy.
  5. To set up technical and specialized commission of mutual interest.
  6. To enhance co-operation in communication and cultural matters
  7. To improve the living standards of the people in member states.
  8. To promote and improve good relation between member states.


The ECOWAS in order to streamline its operations put up the following structures in it organization.

  1. Authority of Heads of States and Government
  2. Council of Ministers.
  3. The Tribunal
  4. Executive secretarial.


These is the supreme organ of ECOWAS and It meets once year, although extra ordinary session may be held in need arises.


It is composed of one minister from each member states and responsible for the general management of the organization.


It is charged with the responsibility of interpreting the treaty.

It settles disputes between the member states.


It is based in Lagos, Nigeria

It is headed by an executive secretary who serves for a four year term.

It is charged with the day to day administration of the organization and implementation of policies.

There are four specialized commission dealing with the following matters:

  1. i) Trade, customs, tariffs, immigration and monetary affairs.
  2. ii) Industry, Agriculture and Natural resources

iii) Transport, communication and Energy

  1. iv) Social and cultural affair.


  • Politically, it has enabled the head of states to meet regularly for consultation of issues concerning the region.
  • Members have benefited economically from the co-operation, for example, Availing Nigerian petroleum and petroleum and petroleum products to The members at cheaper rate than in the open market.
  • It has enhanced the movement of goods and labour within the region achieving success in the field of customs.
  • As achieved success in the field of mutual defense and has actively participated in resolving conflicts in the region, for example, and intervened in the civil wars in sierra – Leone and Liberia.
  • The organization has enhanced cultural exchanges among the member states.
  • Progress has been made in the field of transport, communications, Agriculture and industry in the region.
  • ECOWAS has set up a development fund.


  • Influx of workers from less developed areas to move developed states within the organization.For example, many Ghanaians went to Nigeria expecting to find better opportunities. But following complaints from its citizens, the Nigerians government expelled thousands of Ghanaians and other foreign workers in 1983.
  • The closure of boarders between some member states has also been a problem e.g Ghana and Togo as well as Burkina Faso and Mali
  • Foreign interference especially through the presence of Israel and French Soldiers in cote de-ivore is another problem
  • Ideological differences between various leaders have prompted suspicion and mistrust among the member states.For example: – there was tension between the president of Ivory Coast, the late Felix Houphonet – Biogony and the late Burkina Faso president Thomas Sankara.
  • Member states of ECOWAS are also members of other organization. For example Mano-River Union, the cape Verde/Guinea Bissau Free Trade Area, the commonwealth and the Annual Franco African Conference This create divided loyalty and commitment
  • There has also been friction between Anglo-phone and Franco Phone countries.
  • Member states have not been making their annual payment regularly to ECOWAS in foreign currency. If this continues for long, it will waken the organization.
  • Nationalism – Member states gives domestic interest priority and not the common issues affecting the community.
  • The region is poorly linked with transport and communication Networks which hampers the smooth running of the organization.
  • A number of member stats have experienced military coups e.g Ghana and Nigeria. Countries like Liberia have had civil wars leading to the intervention of ECOWAS by sending a peace keeping force between 1990 and 1990. others are like Sierra Leone and Burkina Faso.
  • Member’s states have different currencies which fluctuate widely against major international currencies like American dollar and British pound. This creates the problems of rates of exchange hindering trade among states.



COMESA replaced the former preferential Trade Area (PTA) which had been in existence from the early days of 1981.

It was established as an organization of free independent sovereign states which had agreed to co-operate in developing their natural and human resources for the good of all their people.


The treaty establishing COMESA was signed on 5th November 1993 in Kampala Uganda.

It was ratified a year later in Lilongw Malawi, on December 8th 1994 when the first COMESA Summit was convened.

The second COMESA was held on April 20th 1996 in Lusaka Zambia.

It focused on promotion of regional trade, economic integration, security and peace.

The third summit was held in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo on June 29th 1998 under the theme “information – a tool for increased Trade and investment in COMESA”

The Headquarters of COMESA is located in Lusaka Zambia

The Member Countries of Comesa

  1. a) Angola \ k) Malawi
  2. b) Burundi l) Swaziland
  3. c) Comoros m) Uganda
  4. d) Dr. Congo n) Zambia
  5. e) Eritrea o) Zimbabwe
  6. f) Egypt p) Sudan
  7. g) Ethiopia q) Seychelles
  8. h) Kenya r) Rwanda
  9. j) Madagascar s) Namibia
  10. t) Mauritius

Comesa Treaty

According to the Agenda set by COMESA treaty the way forward to the organization was lead out as:

  1. By the year 2000, zero tariffs were to be achieved among member states.
  2. By 2004, a common external tariffs or customs union(common market status)
  3. By 2005 a monetary union, free movement of people including right of establishment (economic community status) will be established.


  1. COMESA sustains growth and development of the member states by promoting a more balanced and harmonious development of its production and marketing structures.
  2. It promotes doing development in all fields of economic activity.
  3. It creates an enabling environment for foreign cross boarder and domestic investment including the joint promotion of research and adaptation of science and technology for development.
  4. COMESA strengthens the relations between the common market and the rest of the world and the adaptation of common position in international For a.
  5. It contributes towards the establishment, progress and the realization of the objectives of the African Economic community.
  6. COMESA works for promotion of peace, security and stability among member states in order to enhance economic development in the region.


There are four organs of COMESA which are empowered to take decisions on behalf of the organization.

These are

  1. The Authority of head of states and government.
  2. The council of ministers
  3. The court of justice
  4. The committee of governors of Central bank

The Inter Government committee, the technical committees, the secretariat and the consultative committees mark recommendation to the council of ministers which in turn make recommendation to the authority.


Consist of heads of states and governments

It is the supreme policy organ of the COMESA

Its decisions and directives are by consensus and are binding on all subordinate institutions, other than the court of justice on matters within the jurisdiction.

It is responsible for general policy and directs and controls the performance of the executive function of the common market.

It controls the achievement of the aims and objectives of the organization.


It is composed of ministers designated by member states.

Decisions are made by consensus.

It makes policy decisions on the programmes and activities of COMESA.

The council monitors and reviews the financial and administrative management of the organization.

It ensures proper functioning of COMESA in accordance with the provision of the treaty.


It is the judicial organ of COMESA with jurisdiction over all matters referred to it as pursuant to COMESA treaty.

It ensures proper interpretation and application of the provision of the treaty.

The court of justice adjucates disputes among member states.

The decisions of the court are binding and final and the court act independently of the authority and council.

It is headed by a president and consists of six other judges appointed by the authority.


It is empowered by the treaty to determine the maximum debt and credit limit the COMESA clearing house.

It determines the daily interest rates for outstanding debt.

It also monitors and ensures the proper implantation of the monetary and financial co-operation programmes.


A multi- disciplinary body composed of permanent secretaries from member states in the areas of trade and customs, Agriculture, industry transport and communicatons, administrative and budgetary matters and legal affairs.

Decisions and made by a simple majority.

Main functions are:-

  1. Development of programme and action plan in all sector of co-operation except the finance and monetary sectors.
  2. ii) The intern-governmental committee monitors and keeps under constant reviews and ensures proper functioning and development of the common market.

iii) It oversees the implementation of the provisions of the treaty and for that  purpose request a technical committee to investigate any particular matter.


It is headed by the secretary – General appointed by the authority for a five year term.

The secretariat provides technical support and advisory services the number states in the implementation of the treaty.

It undertakes research and studies as a basis of implementing the decision adopted by the policy organs.


It mainly provides a link and facilitates dialogue between the business community and other interest groups and organs of COMESA.


They are twelve

They are responsible for preparation of comprehensive implementation of programmes and monitoring their implementation before recommending to the council

They are one

  1. i) Adminstrative and budgetary matters



Tourism and wildlife

Trade and customs

Transport and communication

Finance and monetary affairs

Legal affairs

Natural resources and social affairs

Comprehensive information systems.


  • It has achieved more co-operations in the area of trade, customs, transport development finance and technical cooperation.
  • Trade facilitation and liberalization measures have borne fruit as intra – COMESA trade has grown tremendously.
  • Transport costs have reduced by about 25% following COMESA traffic facilitation measures.
  • The P.T.A. bank has over the years been instrumental in promoting investments and providing trade finance facilities.
  • It has established several important institutions including the P.T.A trade and development Bank, the COMESA clearing house, the COMESA re-insurance company and COMESA leather and leather products institute.
  • It has promoted relationship between monitor states fostering peace and understanding.
  • COMESA has improved infrastructure through interstate, transport and communication links which have benefited member states.
  • Member have benefited from joit services rendered by multi-National institution e.g Multi-National fertilizer plant in Uganda, leather products plant based in Ethiopia etc.
  • Regular tractk fairs (shows) have been organized and taken place in member states which has enhanced trade and cultural interaction.


  1. Most member states experience a hostile external trade environment characterized by unfavourable terms of trade.
  2. COMESA member are suffocating under a large debt burden occasioned by continued borrowing from international markets.
  3. New economic policies by the World Bank and I.M.F coupled with reducing levels of official’s development aid have led to economic decline within the region.
  4. Unprecedented natural calamities e.g droughts and floods leading to massive food shortages and famine.
  5. Major unemployment crisis in all countries especially among the urban youth.
  6. Regional integration is at times outweighed by national interests.
  7. Civil strife, ethnic wars and political instability within the region.
  8. Some trade commodities among member states are similar hence commercial exchange are limited.
  9. COMESA has to ensure that member states comply with the regulations of the organization some of whom may not comply. Example is on issues of tariff reduction and member preferring broad markets other than local exchanges.




National philosophy is a set of ideological beliefs championed by the ruling party that becomes widely acceptable within a particular country or political and geographical boundary.

Kenya has made tremendous progress since independence in political, social and economic fields.

African socialism.

Origin of African socialism.

Kenyan leaders under, the late mzee jomo Kenyatta, adopted African socialism as a national philosophy and ideology.

This was drafted as sessional paper no. 10 of 1965 entitled African socialism and its application to planning in Kenya.

This was due to:

  • There was a need to create a new society free from political oppressions, socio-economic inequalities, racialism and discrimination.
  • Creation of united and free Kenya in which individual rights and freedom.
  • The need for a just and humane society.

Development of African socialism.

This was stated in sessional paper no. 10 of 1965, which had 58 major policy on economic, social and political development, such as:

  • Political democracy.
  • Mutual social responsibility.
  • Various forms of owvership.
  • A range of controls to ensure that property is used in mutual interest of society and its members.
  • Progressive taxes to ensure an equalitable distribution of wealth and income.
  • Diffusion of ownership to avoid economic disparity.

The paper pointed out the need for Kenyans to be motivated by a sense of service and patriotism to their country and not to be driven by greedy desire for personal gains.

The government hoped that education would be a means of achieving some of these goals.

The government also provided medical care and social security for better society.

The paper particularly stressed that individuals property and ownership would be grauranteed. The government would not nationalized private property without adequate compensation and could participate in business either alone or in partnership with private investors.

The paper stressed the role of agriculture in national development, proper management of both private and public sectors through consolidation and registration of land.\

Progressive taxation, distribution of wealth and income would bring social equality through a heavier taxation on wealthier members of the society.


Origin of harambee philosophy.

Kenya had three evils like povety, disease and ignorance.

The word harambee is basically a call for hard work in the difficult task of national building.

Development of harambee philosophy.

Its origin and applications have strong roots in our African traditions; it’s founded in the spirit of mutual social responsibility and is African socialism in practice.

Characteristics of harambee movement.

  • Unity brings about co-operation among people before they settle down for a common project.
  • Volition makes people contribute labour and material to any project without being forced by any authority.
  • There is need for determination forms which is useful ingredient whenever undertaking a harambee venture.
  • Free participation allows the harambee spirit to acquire its democratic nature as a mass movement.sense of purpose buttress the principles of determination behind the harambee spirit.

Harambee projects heve been grouped into three major categories:

  • Social projects like schools, labarotories, libraries and medical facilities.
  • Economic projects like roads, bridges.
  • Agricultural and livestock development projects like cattle dips, irrigation and tree planting.


Origin of nyayo philosophy.

Moi was the late mzee Kenyatta’s vice president for 12 years, he became president in 1978 and he decided to follow in the footsteps of mzee (nyayo) of harambee.

Nyayoism is derived from a Kiswahili word nyayo, which means footsteps.

Development of nyayo philosophy.

Nyayo philosoply is guided by the need by every Kenyan to be mindful of the welfare of each over.

It’s based on three pillars of peace, love and unity.

Moi said that nyayoism is neither new nor foreign and was not different from harambee.

The spirit of harambee continued to be an inspiration embodied in the nyayo philosophy.

In his book “Kenya African nationalism and principles’’ moi says, love begets unity, unity procreates peace and peace is the beginning of progress.

Impact of national philosophies on national development.

Impct of African socialism.

  • It has promoted respect for individual rights as enshrined in the constitution.
  • Political democracy has been encouraged in the country.
  • The sessional paper echoed and promoted the constitutional provision of separation of powers and reinforcement of a fair and humane society based on the respect of citizens’ legal rights.
  • It has led to fair distribution of wealth and income through progressive taxation system.
  • The government has provided equal opportunities by providing educational to all Kenyans for social and economic changes.
  • There has been provision of essential services like amenities.
  • There is proper management of agriculture which is the backbone of the economy.
  • There is also ownership of property by both private and state ownership.
  • It has also led to the development of other related philosophies like harambee and nyayoism.
  • It has motivated Kenyans towards a sense of service to each other and not to be driven by personal gain.

Impact of harambee philosophy.

  • There has been good development in the field of education as many schools has been built.
  • A number of health centres, dispensaries have been set up.
  • There has been creation of public projrcts like soil conservation, afforestration and flood control.
  • The needy in the society have been assited like in education and health sector.
  • It has encouraged Kenyans no to depend on external assistane in order to face the challenges of national development.
  • Harambee gatherings act as forums for propagating and implementing government policies like, issues on HIV/AIDS, environmental conservation and management and security matters.
  • It has also encouraged national unity.
  • It has contributed to the redistribution of resources among the Kenyan people.

Challenges facing harambee philosophy.

  • It was misused by public servants and politicians who angaged in corruption to get money to donate in harambees.
  • It has also been one way of staging public shows between the haves and have nots.
  • There were cases when people were coerced to contribute negating the spirit of harambee.
  • To chech on the misuse of office by public servants, the government has enacted the ethics and public servants act barring public servants from playing an active role in harambee.

Impact of nyayo philosophy on Kenyans.

  • It has created national intergration and harmony.
  • It has promoted peace throughout the country which is essential for national development.
  • It has also promoted foreign relations or affairs.
  • There has been tremendous expantion in education sector like primary, secondary and universities in Kenya.
  • There has been improvement and expansion in the health sector.
  • There has been kenyanisation of the economy like jua kali sector.
  • It ahs resulted in rural development through the establishement of the District focus for rural development.
  • There has been promotion of sports and cultural activities throughout the country.
  • Agriculture has been boosted through the creation of nyayo Tea Zone.
  • There has been environmental conservation like afforestation and re-afforestation programmes.






















Political Development from 1963 – 1991

Africa independence there were three political parties (Kenya Agricutural Union) Kenya African Democratic union and Africa people party.

KANU and know engaged massive countrywide supportive only in ukambani fomed by Paul Ngeil.

Jomo Kenyatta, the president of KANU deficted tethnic and ideological differences within KANUas there were through samps the nationalists led by  Oginga Odinga and Bildad Kaggia with moderates led by Jomo Kenyatta, Tom Mboya and James Gishum.

KANU government faced rivaly from KADU which appointed for a judicial constution (majimbiano) as KANU favoured a unitary constitution for national unity.

Jomo Kenyatta for a long time tried to unite KANU and KADU without success in 1961, but in 1963 through his vice president Oginga Odinga persuade KADU and App to join KANU.

In 1964, parliament abolished the regional constitution which Kenya had at independence on 12th December 1964; Kenya became a Republic with an executive president.

The power of majimboism was abolished and adopted unitary government. There was a constitutional amendment in 1965 and 1966 especially in Executive through the control of provincial administration.

During the limuru conference of 1996, there were amendments eventing & provincial party vice – presidents instead of a single national vice-president.

This led to radicals breaking a way and formed Kenya Union (KPU)

There was another amendment of 1966 known as “Little General Election”

KANU won 21 in the lower house to the KPU’s seven. In the senate KANU took eight and KPU two.

From 1969 – 1982 Kenya remained a de facto one party state with (section 2A) as KANU the only legal political party.

In July 5, 1969 Tom Joseph Mboya was assassinated this lead to lack of confidence of the public in the government.

There was also the murder of Jusiah Mwangi Kariuki (J.M) in March 2, 1975.

Jomo Kenyatta died in 1978 and succeeded by Vice President Daniel Arap Moi who followed the footsteps of his predecessor. In 1988, general elections, KANU opted for the unpopular queue voting method against secret ballot.

In 1989, Dr. Joseph Karanja was appointed up to replace Mwai Kibaki who was appointed health Minister.

In February 1990, Dr. Robert Ouko died he was the minister of foreign Affairs and international co-operation his dead was a shock as there was demonstration in her county.

In 1990 KANU delegates abandoned the queue directing system

Multi-party democracy in Kenya

It began in 1963 with KANU, KADU and APP in 1964, KADU voluntarily merged with KANU as Kenya began de facts (one party state).

In 1960 have was political difference which leads to formation of Kenya peopoles union (KPU).

In June 1952, section 2(A) of the constitution was passed by parliament to make Kenya a de jure one party state this went on until December 1991 when same sections of 2(a) of the constitution was repeated by parliament (No.2) Bill 1996 relating  the county to a multi-party system.

Factors that led to introduction of multi-parties

  • Alleged rigging of the 1988 general Elections. The general election held in March 1988 were alleged to have been massively rigged, like anyone who gained 70 percent majority of votes in a queue win the election but not all arrived at this one people which short queue were also disland winners.
  • KANU’s policies who fialed to accommodate dillegent views who were stigmatized, stenously grilled and either suspended or expelled from the party.
  • Political changes in Soviet Union like the change dictatorship and replaced by more liberal government.
  • Western Aid conditions who encouraged government grivernance, accountability and respect for human rights and they were willing to give grant aid only to countries initiating democratic policies and were willing to change to pluralistic policies.
  • Influence of pluralism from Zambia and Tigo. By 991, wind of change demanding replacement of the single party systems with pluralism was widerspread in Africa in Zambia president Kenneth Kaunda allowed milti-partism.
  • Role of multi – party activist in Kenya like the clergy, politicians, lawyer and journalists relentlessly kept up the pressure.
  • The response f clergy to KANU polities lias reverend Timothy Njoya of the Presbyterian church of East Africa (P.C.E.A) and right Reverend Dr. Henry Okullu, ACK, Bishop of Maseno South Diocese who were joined by Charles Rubia and Kenneth Matiba and Oginga Odinga, James Orengo, late Masinde Muliro, Martin Shikuku and Prof. Wangari Mathai.
  • Pressure to release political prions Njaru Kithanya Pro. Edward Oyugi and Karuiku Ngotho.
  • KANU response to criticisation to organize country wide political values and dump played these rallies the attempt to revise tribalism, dump political stability and retard economic development. Rubia and Matiba applied for a license to address a public rally at Kamukunji, Nairobi on July 7th 1990 to explain why pluralism was crucial. The meeting was aborted because it was not licenses leading to arrest of two politicians and Raila Odinga. This was followed by riots in Nairobi and other towns (sabasaba riots).
  • Saitori review committee report of 1990 who recommended abolitation of the – voting system and exploision from the party.
  • 1992 multi- party elections were held, KANU led by Daniel Arap Moi won the elections, (Ford –A) led by Kenneth Matiba were runners up followed by (DP) of Mwai Kibaki and (Ford – Kenya led by Jaramogi Oginga Odinga.
  • 1997 multi – party elections, as KANU won with Deputy President Kibaki came second, wilde (NDP) of Raila Odinga and ford Kenya of Wamalwa Kijana came third and fourth respective.
  • 2002 mulitparty elections where (N.A.R.C) formed a coalition of political parties led by Mwai Kibaki as presidential candidate KANU of Kenyatta and Ford – people of Simon Nyachae who came second and third respectively.


Challenges of Multi – Party Democracy

Many of the political parties are ethnically inclined lacking national outlook and hindering development and natural unity.

There is inadequate fund for parties to recruit members, conduct civic education, propagate their policies and even hold internal elections.

Political parties are used as vehicles to accord the power and amend wealth.

Personality differences among leaders have lead to infighting and wrangling within the parties this weakened and disintegrate the party.

Interference by government machinery like provincial administration.

Ideological differences among party leaders have affected the democratization process.

Uniformed literate and poor electorate.


Nation building refers to the deliberate action of the government which assures improvement and increased social economic welfare of a people.

Role of the Ruling Party and Government and National Building

  • It forms the government which the leader becoming the president of the country
  • It formulates natural policies within which the government operates monitors the people general feelings towards the establishment and informs government accordingly.
  • It lays down the policy to guide its members of parliament party officials work hand – in – hand with civil servants at all levels in implementing government policy.
  • The party is charged with the responsibility of promoting the country’s socio – economic development.
  • It promotes political awareness and general duration among the people.
  • It maintains law and order by providing security to its people.
  • It formulates foreign policy and protects Kenyan nationals out of the country.
  • It provides economic frame work that enhances proper utilization and exploitation of natural resources.



  • They offer managerial approach and constructive alternative solution to country’s problems in parliament.
  • They make political decision – making especially in committees of the legislative
  • They their alternative idea to the general citizenship of the country.
  • They support strict adherence to the process of demoralization good governance, accountability, transparency in public affairs and wages was against corruption.
  • They work relentlessly for the repeat of unjust and oppressive laws.
  • They pressurize the government to release all political prisoners and guard against arbitrary arrest and detention.
  • They secure and ensure the availability of quality education at all levels and for all Kenyans.
  • They struggle for better marketing of good crops such as maize, rice and wheat and oash crops.
  • They influence better performance of agricultural institutions such as Agricultural finance corporation (FC) and Kenya farmers Association (K.P.A) and others.
  • They work to improve health services.


Economic Developments

The country lacked capital and qualified manpower and uneven development as some pasts of the country work for a head of others in development and in the provision of essential services.

Leaders of the nation undertook measures resolve his problems by adopting the national philosophies harambee, African personalism.

Nyayoism and the office development plans notable political social and economic changes have been realized like hand-holding in Kenya which refers to the various forms of land ownership.


Equitable access in land.

Security of land rights

Transport and cast effective administration land.

Sound conservation and protection of ecologically sensitive areas.

Elimination of gender discrimination in land and property ownership.

Encouragement of commitment to settle land disputes through recognized local community initiatives.

Types of land holdings in Kenya

Public land

Community land

Private land


This land belongs to the public and the custodian is the National or County government it fails under the following descriptions.

Land used or occupied by the state organ.

Land transferred to the state by sale, surrender or reversion.

Land which no individual or community ownership can be established

Land where manuals and manual oils are found.

All government, games resolves, water catchments areas, national parks and animal sanctuaries.

All roads

All rivers, lakes, and water bodies defined by act of parliament.

The territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone and the sea – bed.

The continental shelf

All land   between the high lower water – marks.


This is land held by communities identifies on the basis of ethnicity

Culture or similar community of interest.

Land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives

Land lawfully transferred to a specific community by any process of law.

They other land declared to be community land by an act of parliament land that is laughly held, managed and used by specific communities.

Ancestral lands are lands traditionally occupied by hunter gatherer communities land lawfully held as trust land by the county government.


Registered land held by any person held under any free hold tenure land held by any person under leasehold tenure.

Any other land declared private land under an act of parliament.

Land holding by non citizens.

Its hold by someone who is not a Kenyan citizen through leasehold training and doesn’t exceed 99 years.

National land commission


  • Manage public land
  • Recommend a natural land policy to the National Government conduct research related to land and the use of natural resources.
  • To initiative investigation on a complaint into present or past land injustice.


At independence, the government embarked on seeking solutions to land problems which had formed the central reason for anti-colonial campaigns which were

It formed the ministry of lands settlement (1963) the scheme indirect resettling African farmers on many small – scale farms which were through sub-division of large scale farm.

Co-operatives and land buying companies were also formed to help purchase farms for member.

There were other schemes in the coastal area as land was plenty of underdeveloped land.

It set up the land adjudication and registration programme concerned with converting the traditional African land tenure system to one based on registered freehold tenure originally, it was known as land consolidation because fragmented plots owned by one person in a particular area were consolidated into one holding before registration.

The government gave priority to the prorgamme for the completion of adjudication because registration is important in spreading up subsequent agricultural development.

There were developing large scale farms like Agricultural Development Cooperation (ADC) which diversified the agricultural sector to avoid reliance on one or two crops.

There was also the development of Kenya. The Development Agency (KTDA) which has established tea factories to facilitate tea growing and processing in the country.

The government laid great emphasis on research through the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI).

It’s a result of all these efforts high yielding and resistant (hybrid) varieties of crops and animals have been introduced leading to tremendous increase in food production.

At independence, the total area under irrigation was 3,340 hectares (8,300 acres) in 1983 irrigation covered. The most ambitious projects were undertaken by the Bura scheme in Tana River, Ahero in Nyanza, Mwea Tebere in Central and Perkerra in rift valley.

The government established development authorities, such as the Tana – Athi river development authority (TARDA) Kerio valley and Lake Basin Development Authorities, which are responsible for the co-ordination and proper use of resources in each water catchment area.

There was land reclamation about 56,600 hectares of irrigation and reclaimed land in Western Kenya.

The government has put in place major changes in land use which increase action to arrest land degradation caused by

Destruction of forests through clearing for cultivation or timber.

Poor cultivation methods especially on hillsides.

Reduction of water and grazing areas, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas.

Successive crop failure and diminishing crop yields.

Over stocking and cultivation along river banks.

The Ministry of Agriculture has, compiled an agro-ecological zone mapping which correlates information on rainfall, water and soil topography for possible cropping patterns.

There permanent presidential commission on soil conservation and afforestation in 1981.

There is also national tree planting day.

The government promoted the growth and development of co-operatives in the country which are agriculture based co-operatives.




  • Nomadic pastoralists are yet to allow the individual lease or land tenure system in their areas.
  • Inadequate funds which has impeded the speed of land demarcation and adjudication.
  • Inefficient technology to operate modern farm machinery which is also not available.
  • Poor transport and communication network.
  • Increased population leading to fragmentation of land into small units.
  • The rapidly spreading HIV and AIDS infection that deprive the agricultural sector the much needed labour.
  • The detared cultural practices where girls are not allowed to own land denies woman ownership right – amajor challenges to agricultural improvement.
  • High lost of agricultural inputs and low price of agricultural produce discourage the farmers.
  • The government has problems of resettling thousands of squatters who live an either private or government land.
  • Public land in Kenya is grabbed through fraundulent acquisition of title deeds and illegal allotment letters.
  • The spread of arid conditions and unreliable climatic conditions are a major challenge to land use.


At independence Kenya’s industrial development was basically of primary nature based on processing of agricultural raw materials and few mineral exploited in the country.

The government formed the Kenya industrial Estate (K.I.E) which was to provide technical advice and capital for the establishment of factories.

The girl provided environment for local – based banks like Kenya commercial Bank (KCB) and National Banks of Kenya (NBK) for loans and credit to Africans to start industries.

The government started factories such as the Kisumu cotton mills (KICOMI) Kenya Titexmills (KTM) in Thika and Nanyuki textiles while it encouraged the establishment of private textile industrial such as Raymonds and the Blankets factory in Nakuru.

The independence government encouraged the establishment of light engineering industries like jembes, pangas, nails, iron sheets and barbed wires.

Kenya ventured into production of heavy motor vehicles by setting up motor vehicles Assembly plant in Thika.

There was the venture into chemical industries following the establishment of oil refineries at changamwe, Mombasa.

Kenya is able to pump oil from Mombasa to other parts of the country through the establishment of Kenya oil pipeline.

Kenya has proper manufacturing industry in Webuye.

The agro – based factories to process tea, coffee and fruit were set up in the agricultural areas.

There is also beverage and food processing, especially in Soft drinks and grain milling (flour).

The developments in industries were boosted by the establishment of hydro-power at Okaria Naivasha.

The expansion of sugar processing industries was developed in the sugar cane growing areas of mumias, chemilil and others.

The government also encouraged the establishement of jua kali artisan industries using scrap and the recyling of materials.

The government has encouraged the growth of the tourism industry by supporiting organizations that support the industry.


  • Kenya had inadequate trained and skilled personnel.
  • There are law levels of local entrepreneurship.
  • There are insufficient funds.
  • There is inadequate internal and external markets.
  • Importation of cheap products such as used clothes, shoes, motor vehicles, the led to the collapse of some local industries.
  • Corruption, nepotism and mismanagement have led to the collapse of industry and scared away potential investors.
  • Poor infrastructure has hundred the distribution of raw materials and finished goods.
  • There is inadequate supply of power.



Education is the only way to develop skilled man power to replace expatriates in civil, service, commence and industry. The government therefore made deliberate.

There were committees setup to advice the government like Ominde commission of 1964 -1965, Gachathi (1976) Mackay (1982), Kariithi(1983), Kamunge(1983) and Koech (2002).

Most of the recommendation changes were adopted, like in 1963 there was 6,058 primary schools and in1986 of incrused to 18, 392.

In 1963, there were 151 secondary schools and in 1986 there were 2,485 in 1913, there were only one university.

In 1970 the University of Nairobi was born by 1993 there were force on versities Harambee institutes of Science and technology have been established in almost every district in the country.

Post – secondary training colleges and institutions wars opened in areas of agriculture, veterinary, forestry cooperatives, water technology medicine and others.

Three natural polytechnics were established in Nairobi, Mombasa and Eldoret.

Other educational departments and institutions were established under the umbrella of the Ministry of Education to perform tasks aimed at polishing up the system like inspectorate of schools.

The Kenya Institute of Edcuation (KIE) was established to develop relevant curriculum teaching/learning materials for use by schools and colleges.

The Kenya National Examinations council was established to develop administration and certify national examinations.

Kenya literature Bureau was established to publish materials for use in schools and colleges.

The Department of Adult Education in the Ministry of culture and social services was set up to develop and supervise the implementation of adult educations programmes.

The government recognized Kiswahili as national language while English remained the official Lingua Franca.

There was change in the educational system since independence; the 8-4-4 was affected in 1985.

The new curriculum emphasis practical and vocational – oriented subjects such as crafts, art work, metal work, agriculture, carpentry and home science.

In 1974, free primary education was introduced.

Currently there are 7 public universities in Kenya, private universities and others colleges.

University education has further been – enhanced through the sending of Kenyan students to the overseas universities.

In 2003, the government implemented the free primary education as directed by the ruling party the National Rainbow coalition.


High drops out rates of girls due to pregnancies or early marriages

  • The rate of the spread of HIV and AIDS infection among the public efforts
  • Poor performance in sciences and mathematics.
  • Education is expensive and costly hence out of which in ordinary Kenyans.
  • Frequent changes and revision of curriculum which involves huge financial resources.
  • Too many unemployed people with higher education and technical skills which discourages the youth from pursuing higher education.
  • Lack of clear cut education policies geared towards the fulfillment of education for self – reliance.
  • The increases in the number of school going children vise the existing learning resources.


At independence the governments acknowledge that there was need to eradicate disease along with poorly and ignorance. The government has been committed in the provision and improvement of health service to its people. This has lead to establishment of health centres, dispensaries and hospitals throughout the county.

The Ministry of Health established the position of director of medical services as head of the medical profession based in Nairobi. The provincial and district medical officers are in charge of the provinces and districts respectively.

The Ministry has established pre national referral hospitals at Keny/prenational hospital and their university referral hospital.

There has been successful national wide immunization against preventive dicenses and accessing of family planning services to the people.

A constituency AIDs fund has been legislated where funds are channeled specifically to educate and control the spread of HIV/AIDS infection.

The government has encouraged private hospitals and clinics to expand and extent hospitals.

Some municipalities provide health services for their residents and environmental health.

There is the formation of National hospital insurance fund (NHIF). The insurance cover facilitates access to health services to workers and self employed persons.

By 1990 there were 83 hospitals, rural health training centres, 1084 dispensaries

21 medical training colleges and one national public health laboratory run by the ministry of health.

The African medical research foundation (AMREF) was formed to enhance the provision of community health support, and Kenya Medical Research

To make health and medical services accessible to a large population the government provides highly subsidized cost sharing services in its hospitals, dispensaries and clinics.

The establishment of the faculty of medicine in more university added to the number of high cadre medical personnel training provided by University of Nairobi.


  • High cost of the medical equipment and drugs.
  • First growing population has put a strain on the available health facilities.
  • The HIV and AIDS encourage which affects large segment of the society poses a big challenge to the government.
  • Corruption and other related vices that affects the procurement, distribution and provision of drugs.
  • There is an ineffective national hospital insurance programme.
  • Brain drain: Due to better emoluments offered in developed countries.


Culture was developed to enhance national unity like through various documents notably the constitution, the government sessional paper No.10 of 1965 and political parties led by the ruling parties KANU (1963 – 2002) and NARC from 2003 emphasis have been made on the role of culture, sports games and art.

The Ministry of Education has set as one of its objectives for the children of Kenya as the promotion of respect for and development of Kenya’s rich varied cultures.

The ministry of Gender, sports and culture has also undertaken measures that promote culture and sports.


There is currently hundreds of traditional music and dance troupes all over the county as evidenced during national celebrations.


Drama is popular in schools, the ministry of education together with the Department of culture and the Ministry of gender, sport and culture has been organizing annual drama and music festivals.


The Kenya National Theatre has been a centre for the promotion of theoretical performance especially in Nairobi local and foreign plays are staged.


Sculpturing within the creative arts is an area which continues to attract several talented young Kenyans like mamba carvings Kisii soapstone carvings


Many rural people earn their living through the use of traditional technology like Bakery, poultry, traditional ironmonongery and other traditional skills.

The department of culture in cooperation with increased agencies is encouraging research in traditional technologies in such areas as food production and traditional medicines.

Cultural Festivals

This has enabled the various ethnic groups to learn and appreciate each other’s cultural heritage. The department of culture has encouraged the construction of rural and urban cultural centres.

Research and Documentation

Most of the cultural and historical research is being done by the University of Nambia especially at the institute of African studies.

Cultural Exchange programmes

The Kenya government has signed cultural exchange agreements with several countries which have resulted in a mutual exchange of artists.

The Cinema

Major urban centres have many theatres which show local and foreign films or movies in local areas, films are shown by the mobile cinema vans of the Ministry of information and communication to educate and entertain people.


Kenya is well known internationally for the outstanding sportsman and women it has produced. The Ministry of gender, sports and culture has in the last decade embarked on the construction of facilities such as studies and other complex units.


Social change and cultural contacts have brought new types and idioms of music, dance, games and other forms of entertainment in the country. The modern sports and games include track field events,  soccer, golf, volleyball, basketball, cricket, bridge, netball and indoors games such as and droughts.


  • Inadequate facilities for games and sports
  • Poor remunerations especially those who involve in music,drama,Theatre and sports.
  • Exploitation on royalty payments especially the music industry government and drama.
  • Inadequate funds to enhance cultural programmes.
  • Rivalry of local artists’ works has denied them revenue
  • Misappropriation of the funds for development of culture and sports activities are a big problem for the government to solve.
































Most centres by 1965 had achieved political independence such as to achieve political, economic and social development.

Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

It was formerly known as Zaire under the late Mobutu Seseseko.

It was colonized by Belgiam and gain independence in June 30th 1960.

Political Developments.

At independence Joseph Kasarubu the leader of the Bakonge Association became president while Patrick Lumumba the leader of the Congolese National movement (MNC) became Prime Minister.

There were no educated Congolese so most senior posts were taken by unites political problems began when whites opposed to the granting of independence to the country.

There were chaos and the whole country was planned into disorder in what came to be known as the “Congo Crisis”

It began in the army as the Africans in the army maintained against the Belgian officers. The new state did not have enough army as they relied on the old white officers.

The Africans were opposed to this, a situation they regarded as a sell – out by politicians.

The Belgium sends its army to the DRC to quell the military and also protect Belgium civilians.

They Africans soldiers move dissatisfied when the Belgium navy bumbed the coastral town of matiadi as they killed many Belgian civilians.

This lead to a military, engagement as it lead to lawlessness and disorder.

There was another tension in the South where M      Tishamba was preparing a secessionist movement of the Kitanga (Shaba).

He used the held of Belgiana soldiers to establish has own independent state.

This also prompted a rebellion in Kasai provinces.

The problem were so confronted as the government asked for military assistance from the U.N  who were of no great help as it had policy of into interfering in the international affairs of a country.

Lumumba and Kasavubu were political antagonists; they had internal squabbles which lead to Lumumba’s assassination in December 1960. This was due to Lumumba held radical views, while Kasavubu belonged to conservative.

Lumumba followers pulled out of govenement and want preventable and formed their own government and justice guervilla training camps to overthrow Kazavubu.

The African leadership with U.N involvement the day by forming of national coalition government under Cyrille Adoula and Atitonine Gizenga.

Aduola’s tenure of office ended in 1964 and Silvester Kimba became prime minister and Kasalabu presidents.

In 1915, the government of Kasavubu was overthrown by the army and by General Joseph Desive Mobutu in a bloodless coup.

Mobutu established a dictatorial government under a capacity system, banning other parties suspending the constitution and parliament and renaming the country Zaire centralization of power by Mobutu intensified internal opposition.

Rebeltion under Laurent Kabila emerged in 1997 Mobutu was outled from power, and Laurent Owire kabila as he was assassinated in 2001. He was succeded by his son Joseph Kabila, as president.

Rebellion led by Wamba Dia Wamba and Eunice Ihanga continued against Kabila’s government.

Finally, through mediation by the then South African President, Thabo Mbeki and UNs envoy mosptapha Niasse, a government of national unity was formed in the DRC in April 2002.


Developments in industry through the policy of nationalization by Mobutu, minerals like copper, oil and diamond were exploited petroleum and hydroelectric resources were developed for energy production.

Foreign investments in key sectors were encouraged like agriculture, mining, industries, transport and communication.

New roads and railways were constructed and navigated on the river congo.

Trade improved at the local level as well as at the international level.

The entertainment industry grew due to the popular Congolese music. The foreign based musicians sent part of their profits back home.


The authenticity programme by Mobutu enhanced the Congolese culture Mobutu dropped his Christian name, Joseph, and became Mobutu Sese Seko in 1971 and the country’s name to Zaire.

Education was developed under Mobutu primary, secondary and universities expanded.

Health services were improved as hospital and health centres were built with national mineral insurance programme and a pension scheme for workers.

Sports, music and dance were supported by the government in allocation of funds. Zaire was remained the democratic republic of conge by President Laurent Kabila in 1997.


  • There was the ussues of collapse of education.
  • There was four medical care and high number of HIV and AIDs infection.
  • Inability to fully explain her rich natural and human resource.
  • Excessive reliance and foreign aid which leads to debt repayment crisis.
  • There was political up heale.
  • User reliance informer idonist masters.
  • There was stained reelations with her neighbours like Burner.


After attaining her independence in 1963, Tanganyika embarked on an ambitions development programme.

The main political mileage was the union of Tanganyika under Julius Nyerere, with Zanzibar under Abeid Karume forming Tanzania in 1964.

The Arusha declaration was signed in 1967, laying down the principles for development as self – reliance ujamaa (Socialism) nationalization and rejection of all forms of discrimination based on class, wealth, status, religion and sex.

Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged their two parties Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro – Shiraze party (CP) to form Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) in 1977.

Nyerere made remarkable efforts in Tanzania’s growth.

Nyerere retired in 1985 and was succedded by Ali Hassan Mwinyi.

Multiparty elections were held in Tanzania in 1995 under Benjamin Mkapa, who was elected the president.

In 2005, Jakaya Kikwete became the 4th president of Tanzania.


Increased agricultural production through the ujamaa programme.

Industrial development in sisal and textile industries and other small industries like cement oil and steal industries.

Income generating projects have been undertaken by the youth in Tanzania.

The nationalization policy assisted the government to transfer businesses from Europeans to Africans.

Transport and communication infrastructure was developed like Tanzan oil pipeline and Tazara railway line.

Trade imported, especially with Arusha being the headquarters of the rained East African Community.


Improvement the fields of education, schools and industries have been built.

By 1985, Tanzania had the highest literacy lead in East Africa.

Health and sanitation services were provided as hospitals and dispensaries were built.

The use of Kiswahili as the national and official language has enhanced cultural bonding.

The country guarantees freedom of worship.


  • There is lack of basic amenities
  • There was residence of ujamaa programmes.
  • There was lower production by farmers due to lack of farming autonomy.
  • The instability of the Tanzanian shilling.
    There were complications resulting form the political marriage between Zanzibar and Tanganyika.
  • There were power volumes in the early years of independence.



Social, Economic and Political Challenges In Africa Since Independence

  • Political instability resulted in military takeover in the 1960 e.g Nigeria, DRC, Somalia ideological differences amng pioneer leaders in various African countires led to civil strife.
  • Ideological and personal difference between African leaders stained international relations, sometimes leading to border closure.
  • Continued links with former colonial masters by Africa status (Neo-colonialism)
  • Leaders were ill prepared and inexperienced in administration at independence.
  • Inter ethnic wars have claimed many likes in Africa.
  • Due to unstable, government, civil wars and military take over people flee their countries leading to refugee problem.
  • There is rise of gueralla misconducts within ethnic committee.
  • In the 1990’s there was a wind of change towards multi-partyism


  • Poor economic planning and pursuance of policies such as nationalization and Africanisation programmes have discouraged foreign investors.
  • Un accordance on primary experts such as coffee, tea and cotton has led to realization of low incomes by the exporting countries.
  • There is poor infrastructure in Africa
  • Unemployment remains a time bomb.
  • Corruption and mismanagement of meager resources.
  • Unfavorable climatic conditions have diversely effected food production.
  • Shortage of vital industrial raw materials such over exploitation during the colonial period
  • Inadequate funds have undermined youth.
  • Underdevelopment in the agricultural sectors has allowed due to lack of farm inputs.
  • High inflation rates and devolution of currencies have affected many African states.


  • High crime rates and insecurity are a big menace, and have scared away investors.
  • Terrorist acts such as the bondings in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and libya have trheated peace.
  • Population explosion affects the provision of social services.
  • Environmental pollution affects many urban centres.
  • Influx of refugees in some countries has stained social amenities.
  • The provision of social services remains a challenge.
  • Rural – urban migration has led to conjuction and much coming of slums.
  • Illiteracy local among the poor remains high.
  • The poverty situation in Africa leading to poor living standards.

























It’s where a central government delegates certain powers and responsibility to lower levels of government according to the constitution.

In Kenya we have the National government when delegate its powers and responsibilities to the county government.

  • To promote democratic and accountable exercise of power.
  • To foster national unity.
  • Give powers for self – governance and help people participate in affairs that afford them.
  • To recognize the rights of the communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development.
  • To promote the rights and interest of minorities and marginalized groups.
  • To ensure equitable sharing of national and local resources.
  • To facilitate the decentralization of state organs.
  • To enhance chalks and balances in power.
  • To promote social and economic development.


It’s based on democratic principles

Founded on the doctrine of separation of powers.

Reliable source of revenue

Not more than two thirds of the members of representative bodies are from the same gender.


County Assembly

This is the law-making body where member are elected after every five years during the general election and serves for term of five years.

Composition of the County Assembly

Elected members voted in registered voters of the wards.

The number of special seat members to ensure no more than 2/3 rds of the memberships of the assembly are of the same gender.

Representatives of the youth and persons with disability.

The speaker who is an ex-officio member.

Features of the County Assembly

It makes and amends laws of the county.

It sensitizes the making of the county executive committee and other organs.

Receives and approves plans and policies for management and exploitation of the county’s resources.

Approves plans and policies for the development and management of the county’s infrastructure and institutions.

Summon any person to appear before it for the purpose of giving evidence or providing information.

Process of Law Making in the County

The laws are made by the county Assembly which is necessary for the county to effective perform its functions.

A bill has to go through the following stages.

1st Reading

A bill is introduced in the assembly as members familiarize with its contents.

2nd Reading

The bill is discussed and amendments or improvements are suggested

Committee Stage

Here it’s scrutinized by the committee and suggestions from the second reading included.

Report Stage

The committee reports to the assembly where members confirm tht her suggestions have been included.

3rd Reading

The bill is once again debated in details and any further amendments included.

Governors Assent

The governor signs the bill into law.  It is then published in the Kenya Gazette.

Executive Committee

It implements the policies and programmes of the county. It’s headed by the governor who is assisted by the Deputy Governor.

Powers and functions of the county governor

  • Appointments of the country Executive committee and approved by county assembly
  • Acts as a link between the country and National government.
  • Implements the policies of the National and county government in the county.
  • Nominates candidates for election of Deputy county government.
  • Shall be a member of the county Assembly and executive committee.


  • He is the deputy chief executive of the county.
  • He/she is a member of the county assembly.
  • Acts as the county Governor when the governor is absent
  • Shall be a member of the county executive.
  • Shall be the principle assistant to the county governor.


County governor

Deputy County”

Members appointed by governor with approval of assembly.


  • Implementing county legistlation.
  • Implementing national laws in the county.
  • Managing and coordinating the functions of the county administration and its departments.
  • Preparing bills for consideration by the County Assembly.
  • Providing rull regular reports to the county Assembly on matters relating to the county.


  • Development of agriculture in the areas of crop production and animal husbandry.
  • Development of fisheries and fish farming
  • Provision of health services.
  • Promotion of public health and sanitation.
  • Environmental management through control of air, water and noise pollution.
  • Provision of acceleration facilities such as sports stadia, county pallow and beaches markets and trade fairs.
  • Management and development of county transport and infrastructure.
  • Provision and management of pre-primary vocational educational such as village polytechnics, home craft centres and child care centres.
  • Regulation and development of trading activities through provision of trade licenses, markets and trade fairs.
  • Management and management of county transport and infrastructure.
  • Village polytechnics, home craft centres and child care centres.

Relationship between the county and National government

  • A function or passenger government at one level may be transferred to a government at the other level by agreement between the governments.
  • National and county government perform their functions and exercise their powers with due respect to each other.
  • The National and county government assist, support and consult as appropriate and implement each other’s legislation.
  • The National and county government liaise to exchange information and co-ordinate policies and administration to enhance capacity.
  • Both government co-operate in performance of their functions and exercise of powers and at times set up joint committees.
  • Through national legislation, procedures for settling dispute between national and county government are provided.
  • Parliament an arm of the National government sits out legislatives to ensure that county government has adequate support to enable them to perform their functions.
  • National government has powers to intervene in a county government of the latter to enable to perform its functions.
  • In case of a conflict, national legislation prevails over county regulation.
  • The natural government through the president may suspend the county government.


  • The high population growth stretches the available resources.
  • Underdeveloped transport and communication network.
  • Inadequate resources to provide them with a solid base
  • Interference in their working by the National government.
  • Rivalry and wrangling among leaders in the county.
  • Inadequate personnel to man key departments within the county.
  • Embezzlement or misuse of devolved funds by the corrupt county officials.
  • Delay in remittance of funds to the county by the national government.
  • National calamities such as drought and floods.
  • Duplication of roles with the National government.


  • Diversify sources of reliance for the county government.
  • Attracting investment
  • Strengthening the fight against corruption.
  • Establishing disaster management committee.
  • Formalizing the relationship between county and National government
  • Improving skills of personal in the county government by the capacity building through in-service and training.













It’s the money which the government raises from various sources while expenditure is the money which the government spends on it is operations and development.      And gided by:-

Openess and accountability including public participation.

Sharing the burden of taxation fairly.

Sharing the revenue equitability among national and county government.

Using public money in a prudent and responsible way.

Having a clear responsible method of financial management.


It’s the estimate of government revenue and expensive for the ensuring fiscal year.

The amount of revenue the government requires and hopes to raise sources for government revenue.

The projects which the government intends to spend.


  • Enabling government to source revenue.
  • Enables government to identify ways in which to spend revenue.
  • It enables government prioritize development needs.
  • Provides valuable information to people interested in investing in the country.
  • Creates confidence among foreign countries like donors and IMF.
  • Government can assess the performance in the previously your and improve on it.
  • Ensure balance in the country’s revenue


  1. a) National Government
  • Charges for services like water, health and electricity
  • Fine charged in court.
  • Insurance of licenses like trade and driving
  • Imposition of direct taxes like sales, excise and customs
  • Profits from parastatals and government shares and companies
  • Rent of the government buildings.
  • Domestic borrowing which is done through sale of government bunds and Treasury Bills.
  • Grants from friendly countries.
  • Allocations from the national government kitty
  • Charges for services like parking fees.
  • Revenue fund for each county government.
  • Properly rats on the county property.
  • Tax imposition.
  • Profile from county investment.


Capital expenditure and recurrent expenditure.


This is money spent on new public projects during a particular financial year like construction of roads, dams, railways and purchase of vehicles and machinery.


This is money spent on a regular basis through but a given financial year like payment of salaries, repair and maintenance of buildings roads and equipment and purchase of drugs and stationery.


The National government spends money in the following

Capital Expenditure

Construction of national infrastructure

Financing national development, projects like electricity generation.

Construction of higher education institutions.

Construction of national referral health facilities.

Recurrent Expenditure

Paying of salaries of state officer.

Repairing and maintaining natural infrastructure.

Establishment and maintainace of security organs

Serving external and domestic debts.

Maintenance of foreign embassies

Remitting funds to international organization like U.N.

  1. B) County Government
  2. a) Capital Expenditure

Maintance and repair of county infrastructure.

Payment of salaries of county employees.

Purchase of drugs, stationery, funds and lubricants

Servicing of loans incurred by county government.

Collection of refuse and solid waster disposal

Management of Public Finance

National Government

A budget is made to show expenditure

Parliament passes legislation prescribing the terms which the national give may borrow many.

Cabinet secretary in charge of finance reports to the relevant committee on the amount of debt use, servicing and progress of repayment.

Parliament passes legislation to ensure expenditure control and transparency.

The C.S for finance has power to temporarily stop the transfer of funds to a state organ in the event of mismanagement.

The controller of budget surprises implementation of the budget of the natural government.

The mediator-general audits government ministries and departments and within six months after the end of a financial year submits a report in parliament.

The principle secretaries are accountable of the national Assembly for financial management within their ministries.

The Kenya anti – corruption authority investigates and recommends for prosecution of public officials who mismanage and embezzle funds.


There is a budget preferred every year.

Many borrowed by a county government must be guaranteed by the National government and approved by the county assembly.

Parliament passes legislation to ensure expenditure control and transparency in the county government.

Many can be stopped by C.S. for finance to prevent mismanagement.

There is open tendering of procurement and disposal of public goods and services.

Implementation of the county budget is supervised by controller of budget.

The revenue and expenditure of county government is audited by the Auditor general.

The governor is accountable to the county Assembly for financial management.

The KACC investigate and recommends for profession f public offices who misappropriate funds.

Functions of the Commission on Revenue Allocation

  • Make recommendations on equitable sharing of revenue.
  • Revenue sharing between National and county government.
  • Sharing revenue among the county government.
  • Making recommendations on other matters concerning financing and financial management by county government.
  • Define enhance the revenue sources of the county and national government.
  • Encourage fiscal repsonbility.
  • Determine, publish and regularly review the criteria by which to identify the marginalized area.
  • Submit recommendations to the senate, the national assembly, the national executive, county assembly and county executive.












It began n 1770 when it government its independence.

In 1787, therefore, a convention of delegation from the seeral states met in Philadelphia and drew up a constitution.

The constitution was ratified in 1783 and George Washington took office as the first president of the U.S.A in 1789.

The Constitution had the following Features.

It was federal

It was written

The constitution was the supreme law of land.

The bills of rights with rights and freedoms.

The constitution was to be interpreted by the Supreme Court.

The legislature was bicameral.(representative and house of congress).

The processes of constitutional amendments were clearly spelt out.

There was independent executives Judiciary and legislation.

The Federal Process in the U.S.A

There were two types of elections in U.S.A

general elections.

By- election.

General Elections: it’s conducted every years at the end of presidential term and following dissolution of the house of representatives like president


State government

By – Elections it’s conducted when a seat falls vacant.

Presidential elections. Held after four years.

Political parties rank and nomination of its candidates there is pre-elections nomination known as primary election.

The political parties were democrats and republicans.

Republicans: traditionally draw support from the North particularly among businessman and industrial its conservative.

They had two principals.

Maintaining high tariffs (impart duties, safeguard American Industry)

A Laissez-faire approach to government.

Democrats’ bedrock.Support lies in this south and from immigrants in the large cities of the North. They are more progressive.

They are also independent candidates who run sponsorship primary elections are held between March and May of the election year.

Party conventions. Are held before July to confirm the winner of the primary elections as part candidate. In case the seating president is eligible to contest the election his party also holds a connection to endorse him and map out campaign strategies. After party conventions, the campaign period formerly states.

The presidential candidate picks a running mate who if they win the election will become the vice-president.

The mass media plays a crucial role like salling the polices and values of the candidates and the party and also hold three debates which are broadcasted live.

To finance the campaigns parties hold fund raisings, party members gives the candidates money to meet their travel and advertisements.

Public opinion polls are surveys conducted by newspaper and leading television network. They assess the performance of the candidates in the public opinion.

Presidential elections are held on 2nd November of the election year. Americans both at home and abroad vote before or on that day and counted on 22nd.

The winner of the presidential poll takes office in January of the following year. He appoints senior civil servants, ambassadors, cabinet but confirmed by the senate.

The election for senators held after every two years, they saver for a period of six years. They can be re-elected as many times as possible.

The election of the members of the House of Representatives is held after two years. Every member must belong to a political party.

Election for state governors and legislative bodies are held after every four years.


Qualifications for presidential candidate

A U.S.A citizen by birth

Must be 35 years and above.

Must have lived in USA for at least 14years.

Qualification for a senator

Must be U.S.A citizen for at least 9 years

Must be 3 years and above.

Must be a readent of the state.

Qualification for a member of the House of Representatives

Must be a U.S.A citizen for not less than seventy years.

Must be at least twenty five years old.

Must be a resident of the state.


The Legislative (congress)

Conists of the senate and the House of Representatives. Its functions include

  • It examines the actitivies of the executive
  • It approves the biggest and ensures expenditure is accounted.
  • It makes and amends laws.
  • It rectifies treaties
  • It reflects the aspiration and interests of the American people.

The Executive

Consists of the president, the vice president, the cabinet and the civil services.

The president is the chief executive, chief translator, chief diplomat, and commander in –chief of the armed forces.

The cabinet functions include

  • Advising the president
  • Formulating government policies
  • Supervising the ministers
  • The civil service does the following
  • Explains and interprets government policies
  • Implements government policies
  • Maintains government records
  • Advises politicians on matter of policy
  • Helps in collection of government
  • Draws up development plans and the government budget.

The vice – president

He/she is allowed to succeed the president in the absent of death, resignation or impeachment. Vice president chairs senate meetings and votes in event of a tie over an issue.


It’s divided into federal and state courts.


Resettle disputes between the president and congress, federal government and the states interpreting the constitution.

Handling cases involving the U.S.A and other states.


This means that namely the three arms of the U.S.A government is the powerful to interfere with the function of the other.

There is charts and balances with the three arms.

The president is not as powerful as it might appear. This is because elections to the house are held after losing two years, and a third of the senate is elected after every two years.

If the president can veto laws congress can overturn this veto.

The congress cannot remove a president unless it prove that a serious crime.

The Supreme Court keenly monitors both the president and congress.

Relationship between states and the Federal Government.

The U.S.A give operates on division of powers between the central and state government.

State legislatures are empowered to pass laws on purely state matters.

States are empowered to run their own affairs in areas of provision of social services like healthier duration and welfare.

Advantages of a Federal system of government

  • The rights of smaller states are safeguarded against bigger states.
  • It enables different states live together but with separate identifies smaller states have the advantage of benefiting from a common force hence enjoy greater security than when left on their own. When several state some together, they bring along rich pool of resources which are beneficial to the member states.
  • It enhances trade among the states by eliminating tarrifs and other barriers.
  • It enhances the political influence of the states as they come together and speak with one voice.


  • Secessionist threats may breakdown and weaken its stability
  • Diverse backgrounds and intervals of the various states call for more irreverence from the leaders.
  • Inequitable utilization and allocating of resources may lead to disparities in states development.



It began long as a struggle between parliament and the kings and in some instances, civil wars emptied. By the, there was transfer of power from the king to parliament.

Parliament pasted the bill of rights which established a constitutional monarchy this meant that the monarch was to rule under guidance from parliament

It has unwritten constitution however, here are various documents

Acts of parliament e.g magna cartel of

Legal publication by reputable authorities such as scholars, lawyers, political thinkers and statesman.

The Hansard which is the official verbatim reports of parliament.

Decisions made by the British law courts from time to time.

Royal prerogatives e.g deaclaring war.

Conventions and practices which have become respected are regarded as part of British constitution.

The Electoral process in Britain

  • General elections
  • By Election

Electives are hold within five years, with three political parties

The liberal party, which draws its member from the rich.

The labour party, which is a party of the middle class especially workers.

The conservative party which is backed by nobles and the clergy.

Anyone above 18years can vote.

Elections are secret ballot.

Candidates are sponsored by political parties.

The party with the majority of seats forms the government upon invitational by king or queen.

The leader of the party majority of seats in parliament becomes prime minister.

The prime minister forms the girl by making appointments to the cabinet senior civil service and foreign affairs.

Functions of government in Britain

Monarch, house of loads, house of command and the prime minister.


Its Head By queen or king

After election the queen invites the leader of party majority in the house of common to form a government answerable to parliament.

The queen summons the new parliament and both the houses together in the house oif lords.

Functions of the Monarch

  • The monarch appoints the Archbishop of the Church of England.
  • The Monarch is the symbolic head of commonwealth.
  • The Monarch is the commander in –chief of the armed forces.
  • The monarch represents Britain in international forces.

The House of Lords

Its function is legislative.

It also examines bills as they pass through parliament.

It keeps cheeks and balance of the power of the executives.

Ways to become a member of House of Lords.

Appointed by the Monarch

Through inheritance

Appointment to certain offices like judges and Archbishop

Functions of the House of Lords

  • Sits as a court of appeal to listen to criminal cases.
  • Assists the house of common in legislations of laws.
  • Debate non-controversial bills.
  • Holds bills from the house of comers for certain paid to seek publication.
  • Scrutinizes activities of the government in various ministries
  • Debates general issues of national importance.

The House of Commons.

It’s a legislative aim of government

It controls the recons and expenditure and also directs government pulley members are elected by people.

Qualification for Candidates

  • Must be a citizen of Britain
  • Must be twenty one years and above.
  • Be nominated by a political party or independent candidate

Functions of the House of Commer

  • It’s a major legislative arm of girl
  • It approves government revenue and expenditure.
  • Has power to pass a voting no confidence in the executive.
  • Debates in matters of national interest.
  • It directs government policy and keeps development purge on track.

The Executive

The Prime Minister

He/she is ruminated by directly by doctorate, through parties

Its servers for 5 years

After election leaders of the party with the highest number of M.P.S becomes the prime minister and thus forms the government.

Functions of the prime Minister

  • Appoints and dismisses cabinet ministries with the consent of the monarch chairs cabinet meetings.
  • Is the leader of the house of commons
  • Is the chief executive of the British government
  • Initiates both domestic and foreign policies.
  • Represents Britain in international fora.
  • Recommends to the sovereign the appointment of senior civil servants like and high commissioners.

The Cabinet

They are appointed by the Prime Minster from the legislative which has to be approved by sovereign/


  • It initiates, controls and implements political policy of the government
  • It is the highest decision making body in the county.
  • It initiates government legislation.
  • It coordinates implementation of government programmes.

Doctrine of Parliamentary supremacy

This means that parliament is the supreme and highest authority.

Parliament is the only organ allowed to make and amend laws.

All other organs of government operate under laws enacted by the parliament.

Parliament is empowered to pass a vote of no confidence in the executive

Parliament must approve all government recon and expenditure.

Limitations of the parliamentary supremacy

  • Decision can be nullified by any court of law.
  • Parliament is a representative institution complied of peoples representative local authorities make and pass by laws without consulting parliament legislation made by parliament may be altered by a future parliament.
  • It also takes into consideration the moral values of the society.
  • The actions of parliament are heavily influenced by public opinion.
  • There is need to look at interest of the affected instutions are taken into account.




India attained independence form Britain in 1947.

India house of people is equivalent into single member districts

It has a number of political parties; such as the congress party had the communist parties’ candidates for the districts have to fulfill the set requirements.

Electoral process.

  • General elections
  • By – elections.

During the general elections, presidential, parliamentary and regional governments elections are held.

Elections are held after every five years.

Elections for the legislative.

The parliament of the union is a bicameral house

It consists of two houses namely council of state and the house of the people.

Qualifications for the House of the People.

  • Must be a citizen of India
  • For a seal in the council of state, one should not be less than twenty years.
  • The council of states is composed of 12 members nominated by the president.
  • There are 238 representatives of the states elected by members of the state.
  • The house of people is composed of 530 members elected.
  • There are twenty members representing the union territories.
  • The voter of the party with the majority of state in parliament becomes Prime Minister Palace then appoints cabinet that for government.

Elections for the Presidency

  • It is elected to save for at term of five years.
  • The election is held in accordance with the system with vote and by secret ballot.
  • For one to be elected president following conditions must be fulfilled.
  • He/she must be a citizen of India
  • He/she must be above the age of 3years.
  • He/she must be a nullified for election as a member of house of the people
  • He/she should not had any office of profit under the government of India

Function of Government of India

  • It has federal system of government.
  • The state government is headed by governors
  • It has total control over the state government.

State governments are responsible for

  • Enacting laws for the state.
  • Construction and maintenance of transport and communication.
  • Maintenance of security or law and order.
  • Supervision of education
  • Regulation of commerce in state.

Functions of the president.

  • Has powers to make regulations for certain union territories
  • Appoints the chief minister and lieutenant governor of the National capital territory of Ddhi and the governors of this states or union territories.
  • Establishes special councils to arbitrate on inter-state disputes.
  • Nominates the twelve members of the council of states.
  • Member of the legislative.
  • Calls upon the leaders of the winning party after elections to form government.

The functions of the Prime Minister

  • Heads the council of ministers and government.
  • Advises the president in the exercise of his/her functions.
  • Represents India international functions.
  • Communicates to the president all decisions of the council of ministers, relating to administration of the affairs of the union and proposal for legislation.

Functions of the Parliament

Enacting and amending the laws of the union.

  • Prefers changes for impartment against the president in case he/she violates the constitution.
  • Has powers to declare lightings or watching to be national highways or national waterways.
  • It is charged with the security of the union.