A list of all the approved grade 4 CBC course materials, textbooks: KICD News
New CBC training manual and guidelines for teachers.

Looking for the Competency Based Curriculum (CBC) training manual for teachers? You can now get it here.

NEW CBC TRAINING MANUAL FOR TEACHERS

SESSION 1: OVERVIEW OF BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK

Session Outcomes
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) demonstrate an understanding of Competence Based Curriculum for effective
implementation of curriculum in the Early years of Education.
b) discuss the Basic Education Curriculum Framework to professionally implement the
curriculum.
c) appreciate the Basic Education Curriculum Framework for effective implementation of
curriculum.
Key Areas to be covered
1. Competence Based Curriculum
2. Basic Education Curriculum Framework
3. Mission and Vision statements
4. National Goals of Education
5. Pillars of the BECF
6. Core competencies
7. Organisation of Basic Education
8. Learning areas for Early Years Education (EYE)
Suggested Learning Experiences
• In pairs, participants to buzz on the vision and mission statements
• Participants to state the national goals of education
• Brainstorm on the meaning of a competence and Competence Based Curriculum (CBC)
• In groups participants brainstorm on the meaning of each core competence and its
importance
• Participants to discuss the organisation structure of Basic Education and the learning areas
in EYE
Learning resources
1. Basic education curriculum Framework
2. EYE Curriculum Designs
3. Flip charts
4. Mark pens
SESSION 1: OVERVIEW OF BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM
FRAMEWORK
1
Facilitators Notes
Meaning of Competency Based Curriculum
The Competency Based Curriculum focuses on acquisition of competences to enable the
learner to cope with life challenges.
Basic Education Curriculum Framework
Vision: The vision of the basic education curriculum reforms is to enable every Kenyan to become an
Engaged, Empowered, and Ethical Citizen.
Learners are facilitated to develop to be useful members of society.
Mission: Nurturing Every Learner’s Potential
All learners have abilities that can be nurtured for success. Identifying every learner’s
potential and nurturing the potential is central to CBC.
National Goals of Education
The Basic Education Curriculum Framework is anchored on the National Goals of Education.
National goals of education are statements that describe the aspirations of a country and the
needs of the society that are to be met through education. Kenya has eight (8) National goals
of education.
These are:
1) Foster nationalism, patriotism and promote national unity
2) Promote social, economic, technological and industrial needs for national development
3) Promote individual development and self-fulfilment
4) Promote sound moral and religious values
5) Promote social equity and responsibility
6) Promote respect for and development of Kenya’s rich and varied cultures
7) Promote international consciousness and foster positive attitudes towards other nations
8) Promote positive attitudes towards good health and environmental protection
Pillars of BECF
1. Value based education
• Love
• Responsibility
• Respect
• Unity
• Peace
• Patriotism
• Social Justice
• Integrity
• Inclusion
• Parental Empowerment and Engagement
• Community Service Learning
2
• Differentiated Curriculum and Learning
3. Theoretical Approaches
• The Instructional Design Theories
• Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory.
• Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory
• Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Note
The pillars for the CBC are explained in the Basic Education Curriculum Framework.
CORE COMPETENCIES
A competence is the ability to apply appropriate knowledge, skills, attitudes and values to
successfully perform a function.
The Competency Based Curriculum (CBC) focuses on acquisition of the desired knowledge,
skills, values and attitudes to enable the learner to cope with life challenges. It also focuses on
the achievement of learning outcomes in terms of the desired behavioural change.
There are seven (7) core competencies to be achieved by every learner in Basic Education
namely:
• Communication and Collaboration
• Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
• Creativity and Imagination
• Citizenship
• Digital Literacy
• Learning to Learn
• Self-efficacy
The competencies will be mainstreamed in the appropriate strands and lessons.
Note
The competency descriptors are provided in the Basic Education Curriculum Framework.
3
4
Paradigm shifts in the reformed curriculum
FROM (less) TO (more)
Content Focus Focus on Competencies
Rigid and Prescriptive curriculum with
limited flexibility
Flexible with Opportunities for
specialization
Primarily focused on summative
assessment and competition
Balance between formative and
summative assessment and excellence
Emphasis on schooling Emphasis on Education
Teaching Learning
Learning areas for Early Years Education
Pre Primary Education
Lower Primary Education
Learning Area Lessons Per Week
1 Literacy Activities and Indigenous Languages
/Braille
5
2 Kiswahili Language Activities/Kenya Sign Language
for learners who are deaf
3
3 English Language Activities 3
Learning Area Lessons Per Week
1 Mathematical Activities 5
2 Language Activities/Kenya Sign language/Pre
Braille Activities
5
3 Environmental Activities 5
4 Psychomotor and Creative Activities 8 (5 lessons for Psychomotor and
3 lessons for Creative activities)
5 Religious Education(CRE,IRE,HRE) and PPI 2 (1 PPI)
Total No of lessons per week 25
5
4 Mathematics Activities 5
5 Environmental Activities 5
6 Hygiene and Nutrition Activities 2
7 Religious Activities (CRE/IRE/HRE) 3
8 Movement and Creative Activities 8(5 for Movement 2 for Art
&Craft, 1 for music)
9 Pastoral Programme of Instruction 1
Total Lesson Per Week 35
CURRICULUM FOR LEARNERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
The following learning areas have been adapted for learners who follow the regular curriculum:
Category of learners Pre-primary Lower primary
1.Visual impairment Mathematical Activities Mathematics Activities
Environmental Activities Environmental Activities
Psychomotor Activities Movement and creative
Activities
Pre braille Activities Braille literacy
2. Hearing impairment Environmental Activities Environmental Activities
Psychomotor Activities Movement and creative
Activities
Kenya Sign language Kenya Sign Language
English Language Activities
3.Physical impairment Mathematics Activities Mathematics Activities
Environmental Activities Environmental Activities
Psychomotor Activities Movement and creative
Activities
Learners will take the other learning areas as they are because they do not require adaptations.
Learners who may not follow the regular curriculum will take specialist curriculum areas.
These include learners with intellectual disabilities, deaf blindness, autism, cerebral palsy and
multiple disabilities.
This category of learners will begin at foundation level with the following learning areas:
1. Communication, social and pre-literacy skills
2. Sensory integration and creative activities
3. Activities of daily living skills and Religious Education
6
4. Pre numeracy skills
5. Orientation and mobility skills
Assessment
• Observation
• Written assignment
• Oral questions
Facilitators Reflection
The facilitator may be guided by the questions below to reflect on the presentation
1. What went on well?
2. What did not go on well?
3. Why did it not work well?
4. What needs to be done to improve?
7
SESSION 2: INTERPRETATION OF THE CURRICULUM
DESIGNS
Time: 2 Hours
Session Outcomes
Facilitators Notes
Components of the curriculum design
● National Goals of Education
● Level learning outcomes
● Essence statement
● Learning area general outcomes
● Strands and Sub strands
● Specific learning outcomes
● Suggested learning experiences
● Key Inquiry Question(s)
● Core competences to be developed
● Pertinent and Contemporary issues developed
● Values
● Link to other learning areas
● Community Service Learning
● Non-formal activities to support learning
● Suggested learning and teaching resources
● Suggested Assessment methods
● Assessment rubric
ESSENCE STATEMENT
An essence statement gives a general overview of a learning area. It summarizes the
fundamental ideas of each learning area. It also explains the rationale of inclusion of the
learning area in the curriculum.
STRAND AND SUB-STRAND
A strand is a broad area of study within a specific learning area. A strand is a consistent idea,
that runs through the learning area. A sub-strand represents smaller concepts within the
strand.
LEARNING OUTCOMES IN COMPETENCY BASED CURRICULUM
Learning outcomes are the end result of what the learner is able to demonstrate upon
completion of a lesson, sub-strand, strand or level.
The Competency Based Curriculum has three categories of learning outcomes. These are:
a) Level learning outcomes
Level learning outcomes are for a given level of education, for example Early Years,
Middle School and Senior School Education. They are stated in general terms.
SESSION 2: INTERPRETATION OF THE CURRICULUM
DESIGNS
8
b) Learning Area General learning outcomes
These learning outcomes indicate what the learner is expected to achieve in a given
learning area.
c) Specific Learning Outcomes
Every strand/sub strand/theme in the curriculum designs has specific learning outcomes
which are geared towards achieving the general learning outcomes.
VALUES
Values are standards set by the society to regulate behaviour of people who live there in. They
guide an individual on how to respond or behave in given circumstances. Values influence
how people feel, act and make choices in life environment that enhances academic attainment
and develops learners’ values and social skills.
Nurturing of values will facilitate the achievement of the curriculum reforms’ vision,
particularly with respect to molding ethical citizens. Values are intended to address the
prevailing societal challenges and usher in a desirable future.
In the CBC, eight core values have been mainstreamed as follows:
• Love
• Responsibility
• Respect
• Unity
• Peace
• Patriotism
• Social Justice
• Integrity
Mainstreaming values in the curriculum designs
Mainstreaming is the process of identifying suitable opportunities in specific learning areas,
where values can be incorporated in the learning experiences.
PERTINENT AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES
Pertinent and Contemporary Issues are those that affect people in their everyday life such as,
lifestyle diseases, HIV and AIDS. In the previous curriculum, PCIs were known as emerging
issues and trends. The CBC designs have Pertinent and Contemporary Issues (PCIs) that have
been identified as significant in the life of an individual and the society.
COMMUNITY SERVICE LEARNING
Community Service Learning (CSL) is an experiential learning approach that provides
opportunity to practice knowledge and skills learnt in the school to out of school environment.
It reinforces what is learnt in the classroom through interaction with activities that address
community needs. It promotes the learner’s growth in social skills by building strong and
productive relationships with the community.
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LINK TO OTHER LEARNING AREAS
Link to other learning areas in CBC refers to transfer of knowledge, skills and attitudes learnt
in one learning area to another. the teacher is expected to make a conscious effort to use
concepts in one learning area to relate knowledge, skills and attitudes to another learning area.
The linkages give learners a holistic perception of learning by allowing them to see interrelationships in different learning areas.
Inter-relationship of National Goals of Education to Learning Outcomes
From the national goals of education, level learning outcomes for different levels of
education are drawn. The level outcomes determine the desired general learning outcomes for
each learning area. The specific learning outcomes for each sub strand are derived from the
general learning outcomes for the learning area.
National Goal of Education Promote positive attitudes towards good
health and environmental protection ( No.8)
Level Learning Outcome
Explore the immediate environment for
learning and enjoyment (f)
Subject General Learning Outcome
Learning area: Environmental Activities
Develop appropriate organizational,
practical technological skills for problem
solving in conserving the environment
Specific Learning Outcome
Learning area: Environmental Activities
Dispose of waste responsibly to limit risks to
self, others and environment
Assessment
• Observation
• Written assignment
Facilitators Reflection
10
The facilitators to be guided by the questions below to reflect on the presentation
1. What went on well?
2. What did not go on well?
3. Why did it not go well?
4. What needs to be done differently to improve?
SESSION 3: INTERPRETATION OF THE CURRICULUM DESIGNS

Time: 2 Hours.
Session Outcomes
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) discuss the meaning of a learning outcome.
b) develop specific learning outcomes for a lesson.
c) mainstream PCI’s and values in a learning outcome.
d) identify C.S.L. activities, learners can be engaged in learning areas.
e) discuss linkages across learning areas.
Key areas to be covered
1. Learning outcomes
2. Components of a Learning Outcome
3. Developing a specific learning outcome
4. Mainstreaming PCIs and Values in the learning outcomes
Learning experiences
• In groups participants discuss participants to be guided to discuss components of a
learning outcome.
• Participants to develop learning outcomes for a lesson in different learning areas and
report in plenary.
• In groups participants to discuss how to mainstream PCIs and values in sub strands in
different learning areas and report at plenary.
• In groups participants to solicit a sub strand and discuss Community Service learning
activities that the leaners can be engaged in a learning area.
• Participants to identify knowledge, skills and values which are learnt in one learning
area and can be linked to another learning area.
SESSION 3: INTERPRETATION OF THE CURRICULUM DESIGNS
LINK TO OTHER LEARNING AREAS
Link to other learning areas in CBC refers to transfer of knowledge, skills and attitudes learnt
in one learning area to another. the teacher is expected to make a conscious effort to use
concepts in one learning area to relate knowledge, skills and attitudes to another learning area.
The linkages give learners a holistic perception of learning by allowing them to see interrelationships in different learning areas.
Inter-relationship of National Goals of Education to Learning Outcomes
From the national goals of education, level learning outcomes for different levels of
education are drawn. The level outcomes determine the desired general learning outcomes for
each learning area. The specific learning outcomes for each sub strand are derived from the
general learning outcomes for the learning area.
National Goal of Education Promote positive attitudes towards good
health and environmental protection ( No.8)
Level Learning Outcome
Explore the immediate environment for
learning and enjoyment (f)
Subject General Learning Outcome
Learning area: Environmental Activities
Develop appropriate organizational,
practical technological skills for problem
solving in conserving the environment
Specific Learning Outcome
Learning area: Environmental Activities
Dispose of waste responsibly to limit risks to
self, others and environment
Assessment
• Observation
• Written assignment
Facilitators Reflection
11
Facilitator’s notes
Learning Resources
• Curriculum designs
• Flip charts
• Felt pens
Learning outcomes
Learning outcomes indicate the expected observable behavioural changes in the learner after a
learning experience. Outcomes are usually expressed through the application of knowledge,
skills and attitudes. Specific learning outcome should begin with an action verb followed by
the object of a verb followed by a phrase that gives the context.
A learning outcome should be observable and can be assessed.
Guide participants in analysing different learning outcomes from different learning areas.
Assessment
• Observation
• Written assignment
• Group presentations
Facilitators Reflection
The facilitators to be guided by the questions below to reflect on the presentation
1. What went on well?
2. What did not go on well?
3. Why did it not go well?
4. What needs to be done differently to improve?
SESSION 4: INTERPRETATION OF THE CURRICULUM DESIGNS –
LEARNING EXPERIENCES AND RESOURCES
Session Outcomes
Time: 2 hours
Session Outcomes
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) identify appropriate learning experiences to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes.
b) use learning experiences to enable achievement of intended learning outcomes.
c) develop relevant resources to enhance learning.
d) integrate ICT in learning resources.
SESSION 4: INTERPRETATION OF THE CURRICULUM DESIGNS –
LEARNING EXPERIENCES AND RESOURCES
12
Key Areas to Be Covered
1. Learning experiences
2. Learning resources
3. Pertinent and Contemporary Issues
4. Community Service Learning
5. Non-formal activities
6. Integrating ICT learning resources
7. Technologies used in teaching and learning
Learning Experiences
• In groups, participants to identify appropriate learning experience for learning
simulate and in plenary.
• In groups, participants prepare appropriate resources and present in plenary.
• In groups, participants integrate ICT in learning experience and present in plenary.
Learning Resources
• Flip chart
• Newsprint
• Felt pens
• Curriculum Designs (EYE)
• Power point
Facilitator’s Notes
Pertinent and Contemporary Issues (PCIs)
The facilitator to explain that PCIs are the prevailing phenonema related to the legal,
technological, social, cultural and economic dynamics in society. These phenomena were
formerly known as emerging and Cross-cutting issues. Pertinent and Contemporary Issues are
categorized as follows:
i. Health Related Issues: HIV and AIDS, alcohol and drug abuse prevention, life style
diseases, personal hygiene, common communicable and non-communicable diseases
and chronic diseases.
ii. Life Skills Issues: skills of knowing and living with self, knowing and living with
others, critical thinking and problem solving, etiquette, moral education and human
sexuality.
iii. Social Economic Issues: environmental issues, disaster risk reduction, safety and
security, financial literacy, poverty eradication, terrorism, violence and radicalization,
gender issues and animal welfare.
Community Service Learning (CSL)
Community Service Learning (CSL) is an experiential learning strategy that integrates
classroom and community learning to enable learners to reflect on their experiences. It is a
process where learners link personal and social development with academic and cognitive
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development. Community Service learning is meant to create opportunity for learners to apply
the knowledge and skills acquired through the formal dimension to provide service to the
community while at the same time learning from the community. Community Service Learning
covers aspects of Citizenship, Entrepreneurship, Financial Literacy, Life Skills,
Communication Skills and Research.
Non-formal Learning
Non-formal activities are structured learning activities that are geared towards development of
affective and psychomotor dimensions of learning. Some of the non-formal activities may
include: singing, dancing, reciting poems, club activities, games and debates
LEARNING EXPERIENCES
Learning experiences refer to activities the learner is exposed to so as to develop desired
knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. The experiences could be formal featuring the
classroom conditions and teaching methods; non-formal during which the learner is engaged
in clubs and societies, and informal which entails general school and home interactions.
Learners should be subjected to appropriate learning experiences for acquisition of desired
curriculum outcomes.
In the Competency Based Curriculum, the learner is expected to acquire knowledge, and
develop desired skills, values and attitudes through appropriate learning experiences.
Learning experiences enable the learner to:
a) acquire knowledge and develop skills, values and attitudes
b) acquire the intended core competences
c) learn from one another
d) self-regulate and evaluate
e) engage deeply in the learnt concepts
f) reflect on the learning process
g) interact with others during the learning process
Factors to consider when selecting learning experiences
1. Relevance to intended learning outcomes
2. Developmental age level
3. Learning resources
4. Safety
5. Size of the class
6. Time required for the experience
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SESSION 5: KEY INQUIRY QUESTIONS
Time: 2 hours
Session Outcome
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) develop key inquiry questions which guide the learning process.
b) discuss the characteristics of a good inquiry question.
c) develop key inquiry questions that will guide facilitation of learning.
d) appreciate the importance of key inquiry questions in learning.
Key Areas to Be Covered
1. Meaning of Key Inquiry Questions
2. Characteristics of good key inquiry questions
3. Development of Key inquiry questions
Suggested learning Experiences
The facilitator may apply the following during the session;
i. Group discussions
ii. Plenary sessions
iii. Buzz
iv. Presentations
v. Brainstorming sessions
Learning Resources
• Flipchart
• Newsprint
• Felt pens
• Curriculum Designs (EYE)
Facilitator’s notes
Facilitator shall explain the importance of key inquiry questions. It should be emphasized that
they are questions developed to help to the learning process. They are used to probe for deeper
meaning and set stage for further questioning. They also foster development of digital thinking
skills and higher order capabilities such as problem solving. It makes learning authentic by
enabling learners to make connections between their realistic counters and learning. They are
asked before, during and after the classroom practice as the teacher reflects on the lesson.
Participants should be informed that key inquiry questions should start with words such as:
Who? What? Where? When? Why? Which? and How? However, the context within which the
questions are asked takes precedence in the questioning process.
SESSION 5: KEY INQUIRY QUESTIONS
15
A key inquiry question is not a question that can be answered with a” yes” or a “no”. However,
it should be time, grade, context, strand and sub strand bound.
TASK
Participants select a learning area of their choice and construct key inquiry questions for
specific sub-strands (refer to the designs).
(Note: facilitator to ensure that all learning areas are covered during this activity)
a. Meaning of Key Inquiry Questions
These are questions that are thought provoking and set a stage for further questioning. They
connect the learner with learning peers, teacher and promotes critical thinking and problem
solving skills.
Characteristics of Key Inquiry Questions
Good key Inquiry Questions are:
a) Focus on the learning outcome put learning in context open ended, non-judgmental,
meaningful and purposeful with an aim to allow the learner to explore ideas
b) Help learners construct knowledge by themselves
c) Encourage collaboration amongst learners
d) Develop learners interest and use of technology in the learning process
e) Ill thought provoking and intellectually engaging, often sparking discussion and debate
among learners
f) Call for higher-order thinking, such as comprehension, analysis, inference evaluation,
prediction and critique
g) Raise additional questions and provoke further inquiry.
h) Support and justify an idea, not just giving an answer
i) Address an authentic problem or issue
j) Stimulate curiosity and interest
Assessment
The facilitator may use the following methods to assess effectiveness of the session:
• Observation during plenary
• Question and answer
• Peer assessment
Reflection
Facilitator to evaluate the session’s proceedings by finding out what worked well and what did
not work and reasons why. Facilitator to find out ways of improvement on the next session.
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SESSION 6: PROFESSIONAL DOCUMENTS
SCHEME OF WORK
Time Frame: 2 Hours
Session Outcomes
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) identify different professional documents used by the teacher;
b) develop schemes of work as a professional document to implement CBC;
c) develop an Individualized Education Programme (IEP) as a professional document to
implement CBC;
d) appreciate use of schemes of work and Individualised Education Programme (IEP) in
the implementation of CBC.
Key areas to be covered
1. Scheme of work
2. Individualised Education Programme (IEP)
Suggested Learning Experiences
• Take participants through the different components of the scheme of work.
• Using the curriculum designs ask participants in groups to develop a sample scheme of
work for two weeks and present in plenary.
• Take participants through the different components of an IEP.
• Ask participants in groups to prepare an IEP and present in plenary.
Learning Resources
• Copies of curriculum designs
• Flip Charts
• Marker pens
• Masking tapes
• Pointers

SESSION 6: PROFESSIONAL DOCUMENTS
17
Facilitators Notes
Professional Documents
Professional documents are official documents developed to make learning efficient and
effective as the teacher implements the Curriculum. The development of these documents is
guided by the curriculum designs and this enhances the teacher’s understanding of the designs.
It is important for teachers to prepare and use the professional documents in their day to day
teaching, since they lay the foundation for sound administration, planning, evaluation and
monitoring of curriculum delivery. The professional documents include;
• Scheme of work
• Lesson plan
• Record of work
• Progress record
• Individualised Education Programme (IEP)
Scheme of Work
A scheme of work is a document that a teacher develops from the curriculum design. A scheme
of work shows how the planned curriculum content shall be distributed within the time
allocated for the learning area.
A scheme of work helps the teacher to:
• Plan on what resources will be required.
• Decide on the methodology to be used.
• Plan for assessment.
Components of a Scheme of Work
In the Competency Based Curriculum, the scheme of work format has various components. It
has a title (Scheme of Work) at the top, followed by a section that has administrative details,
namely the name of the school, the grade, the learning area, the term and the year.
After the administrative details, it has columns for:
1. Week
2. Lesson
3. Strand
4. Sub strand
5. Specific Learning Outcomes
6. Learning Experiences
7. Key Inquiry Questions
8. Learning Resources
9. Assessment
10. Reflection
These details should be presented in a tabular format as shown in the sample Scheme of
Work.
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Sample Scheme of Work
SCHEME OF WORK
Week Lesson Strand Sub strand Specific
Learning
Outcomes
Learning Experiences Key Inquiry
Question (s)
Learning
Resources
Assessment Reflectio
n
1 1 Listening and
Speaking
(Welcome
and
Greetings)
Language
structuresverb ‘to be’
By the end of the
sub strand, the
learner should be
able to:
a) Recognize
the present
tense forms
of the verb to
be in
sentence.
b) Pronounce
sounds and
vocabulary
related to the
theme.
c) Appreciate
the use of the
verb ‘to be’
in oral
communicati
on.
• Teacher models the
use of the verb ‘to
be’ in sentences.
• Learners introduce
themselves politely
and ask others their
names using the
verb ‘to be’ after
teacher models.
i) I am Mota, My
name is Mota,
ii) Who are you?
iii) What is your
name?
• Learners describe
themselves using
short sentences
with the verb ‘to
be’ I am a boy, I
am a girl.
1. How do we
greet people in
the
morning/aftern
oon/ evening?
2. How do you
use these
words in
sentences?
• Recommended
Course Book
• Realia
• Photos Pictures
• Audio Visual
• Charts
• Flash Cards
• Observation
• Portfolio
• Oral questions
SCHOOL GRADE LEARNING AREA TERM YEAR
Bidii Primary School 1 English Language Activities 1 2019
19
Week Lesson Strand Sub strand Specific
Learning
Outcomes
Learning Experiences Key Inquiry
Question (s)
Learning
Resources
Assessment Reflectio
n
• In groups, learners
identify words
which have the
taught sounds.
• Learners
pronounce the
sounds by taking
turns as modeled
by the teacher or
audio record.
• Learners Listen
attentively during
conversations
2 Reading
(Welcome
and
Greetings)
Phonics By the end of the
sub strand, the
learner should be
able to:
a) Demonstrate
appropriate
posture in
preparation for
reading,
b) Match familiar
letter shapes to
letter sounds for
reading
preparedness in
English.
c) Appreciate the
difference
between letters
and sounds in
the first
language and
English, for
• Learners recognise
familiar letter
shapes and match
them with their
sounds.
• Learners recognise
and name letters
and their sounds by
reading from flash
cards in printed or
digital format.
• In pairs, learners
engage in sound
matching activities
using pocket
charts, digital flash
cards, charts and
flash cards on a
word tree.
• Learners sing
rhyming songs and
1) Can you match
letters of the
alphabet and their
sounds?
• Flashcards
• Realia
• Chart
• Pictures
• Photographs
and models
of letters
audio-visual
recordings
• Oral
question
• Portfolio
• Observation
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Week Lesson Strand Sub strand Specific
Learning
Outcomes
Learning Experiences Key Inquiry
Question (s)
Learning
Resources
Assessment Reflectio
n
reading
preparedness.
recite rhymes
related to phonics.
• Learners play a
fishing game by
identifying specific
sounds.
3 Writing
(Welcome
and
Greetings)
Handwriting By the end of the
sub strand, the
learner should be
able to:
a)Form letters
correctly in
terms of shape
and size for
effective
communication,
b)Draw letter
patterns
correctly for
neat
handwriting
c)Demonstrate
appropriate
posture in
preparation for
writing with
ease,
• Learners
demonstrate
appropriate sitting
position in small
groups and in pairs.
• Learners are
guided to sit
appropriately, in
preparation for
writing.
• Learners are shown
the appropriate
writing materials.
• Learners are shown
how to position the
exercise book
correctly.
• Learners copy
letter patterns.
• Learners practice
correct letter
formation from
models in on the
board, chart, and
pattern books.
• Learners draw and
label objects
1) How do you sit
when writing?
2) How do you
write these
letters?
• Realia
• Charts,
pictures/
photographs
• models of
good sitting
postures
• Oral
questions
• Portfolio
• Observation
21
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INDIVIDUALISED EDUCATION PROGRAMME
An Individualized Educational Programme (IEP) is a written plan that describes what the teacher
and other professionals will do to meet special needs of a learner. Ideally an IEP should be
developed by a multidisciplinary team which may consist of the learner, a regular teacher, a special
education teacher, assessment teacher, (Curriculum Support Officer –CSO- SNE and other
professionals such as psychologists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, physiotherapists,
social workers and the parents. An IEP focuses on an individual learner’s needs and allows each
learner to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes and values at his/her own pace
Components of Individualized Education Programme (IEP)
An individualized education programme has the following core components:
a) The learner’s present level of performance.
The current level of performance of the learner is assessed to identify those skills the learner
has strengths in and those that he or she has weaknesses or challenges. This can be done through
observation, tests and interviews. For learning purposes, assessment should take place during
the lesson. Assessment results may then be used in deciding what to teach and how to teach it.
b) Long term and short-term learning outcomes
After collecting information on the learner’s strengths and weaknesses, a statement describing
what is expected in each area of special learning needs is made. This statement is referred to as
a long-term learning outcome. This is the overall aim of the IEP. Long term learning outcomes
in an IEP state what is expected to be achieved within a specified period for example one month.
The long-term outcome is then broken down into short term learning outcome. These are
competencies that should be developed to achieve the long-term learning outcome.
c) Evaluation procedure and criteria
This step describes how progress will be assessed and specifies how well the learner is expected
to perform. Evaluation criteria must define the standards that are to be used to assess the
learner’s progress or success. It is always good to evaluate progress after a specific short-term
learning outcome.
d) Special educational needs and related services
The IEP must be clear in listing special challenges the learner may be experiencing that call for
an IEP. The identified challenges may be addressed by a special needs education teacher in the
resource room. If the learner requires other related services in addition to the educational
intervention, this should be specified as to whom, when and where these may be provided.
Related services may include physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, guidance
and counseling among others.
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e) Implementation strategy
The IEP statement must give the date when the programme will start and the duration of time it
should take. It can be one year, a term or a month, depending on the skill area and the learner’s
level of ability. The review date should also be stated.
Sample Individualized Education Programme (IEPs) report
BIO DATA
Name of child _________________________________
Date of birth _____________________________Age___________
Grade____________________
Admission Number________________
Parent /Guardian
Name____________________________
Parent /Guardian Occupation _____________________________
Parent/ Guardian contact _____________________________
IEP area of focus _____________________________
Present level of performance
Summary of strengths weaknesses and initial recommendations
Strength
1….
2….
3….
Weaknesses
1….
2….
3…..
Initial recommendation(s): ……………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
Learning area/
/skill assessed
Present level of performance
Strengths Weaknesses Initial
recommendation
Observation The learner can
observe the sky
The learner is not able
to draw the sky (sun,
moon, clouds and
stars).
The learner should be
guided further to
observe and draw sun,
moon, clouds and
stars.
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After establishing the present level of performance of the learner, develop some long term and
short-term learning outcomes.
Long term learning outcomes
There is usually one long term learning outcome. It describes what the learner is expected to
achieve or learn by the end of the term. More specifically, it should reflect all the areas in which
the learner is experiencing difficulties. They should be in line with the learner’s present level of
performance or functioning.
Short term learning outcomes
1…
2….
3…
These describe what the learner is expected to achieve or learn by the end of the lesson.
Learning experiences/activities———————————————–
Evaluation Modalities————————————————————-
Evaluation tool————————————————————————————————
Interpretation (Analysis of the results)
By who——————————————————————————————-
Other professionals to involve:——————————————————–
IEP Implementation
Time frame: Start date—————————— End date————————–
Review Date —————————————
Evaluation Report
Conclusion and final recommendation
This comes at the end of the program implementation.
ASSESSMENT
This may be through;
• Written exercises
• Oral questions
• Observation
• Plenary presentations
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Suggested Learning Experiences
• Take participants through the different components of a lesson plan.
• Participants in groups develop a lesson plan from the schemes of work developed
earlier and present in plenary.
• Participants discuss the components of a record of work
• Participants in groups prepare a record of work and report in plenary
• Participants in groups, to discuss the components of a progress of work record as an
extended activity.
REFLECTION
The facilitator reflects on:
• The successes and short comings of the session
• How well the participants developed the scheme of work, lesson plan and record of work
• What the participants did well/ did not do well
• Why the participants were not able to do well in some
• What improvements should be put in place next time
SESSION 7: PROFESSIONAL DOCUMENTS
LESSON PLAN
Time Frame: 2 Hours
Session Outcomes
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) develop a lesson plan as a professional document to implement CBC
b) use a lesson plan in teaching and learning,
c) prepare a Record of work as a professional document to implement CBC
d) prepare a Progress record document for monitoring learner’s progress in the implementation
CBC
e) appreciate use of a lesson plan, Record of work and Progress record in the implementation of
CBC
Key areas to be covered
1. Lesson plan
2. Record of work
3. Progress records
SESSION 7: PROFESSIONAL DOCUMENTS
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Suggested Learning Experiences
• Take participants through the different components of a lesson plan.
• Participants in groups develop a lesson plan from the schemes of work developed earlier
and present in plenary.
• Participants discuss the components of a record of work
• Participants in groups prepare a record of work and report in plenary
• Participants in groups, to discuss the components of a progress of work record as an
extended activity.
Learning Resources
• Copies of curriculum designs
• Flip Charts
• Marker pens
• Masking tapes
• Pointers

Facilitators Notes
LESSON PLAN
A lesson plan is a breakdown of the scheme of work that shows what needs to be accomplished
and how effective learning will take place within the time allocated for the lesson. It also enables
the teacher to contextualize the lesson activities at a glance. The teacher is advised to adopt inquirybased learning techniques when planning, since they are learner centered and key to success in
implementing the competency-based learning. In preparing the lesson plan, the teacher should
consider the following:
1) The specific learning outcome(s)
2) Learning experiences: how the specific learning outcome(s) will be achieved
3) Key Inquiry Question(s)
4) Integration of ICT in the lesson plan
5) Learning Resources
6) Core competences
7) Values
8) PCIs
9) Links to other subjects
10)Community Service Learning
11) Non Formal Activities
12) Assessment: a way of measuring how well the outcome was attained; test, worksheet and
homework among others
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Factors to consider when developing a lesson plan
When developing a lesson plan the teacher should:
1) establish the learning outcomes to be achieved: Identify the outcomes to be achieved through
the lesson you plan to teach
2) consider the learners’ ability, background and learning approach to use among others
3) ensure the availabilty of relevant and appropriate materials for the lesson
4) determine appropriate assessment methods to use.
Suggested Learning Experiences
• Take participants through the different components of a lesson plan.
• Participants in groups develop a lesson plan from the schemes of work developed earlier
and present in plenary.
• Participants discuss the components of a record of work
• Participants in groups prepare a record of work and report in plenary
• Participants in groups, to discuss the components of a progress of work record as an
extended activity.
Components of a lesson plan
Administrative details
The lesson plan format has various components. It has a title (Lesson Plan) at the top,
followed by a section that has administrative details, namely the name of the school, the grade,
the learning area, date, time and roll. These details should be presented in a tabular format as
shown in the sample lesson plan.
Fig. …..
Lesson Plan
SCHOOL GRADE LEARNING
AREA
DATE TIME ROLL
Zawadi Primary School 1 Yellow Music Activities 19/01/2019 11.00-11.30 30
Strand: Performing
Sub strand: Musical instruments-body percussions
Specific Learning Outcomes
By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to improvise body percussions to accompany
song and dance
Key Inquiry Question
In what ways would one accompany a song without using instruments?
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Core competences
Communication and collaboration: learners enhance their communicative and collaborative
abilities as they perform body percussions to accompany singing and dancing.
a) Life skills: singing, dancing and performing body percussions builds the learner’s self-esteem
and self-awareness.
b) Citizenship: patriotism is promoted as learners sing patriotic songs to the accompaniment of
body percussions.
Learning Resources
• Teachers handbook
• Videos
• Pictures
• Songs
• Internet resources
Organization of learning
Learning will take place in the classroom. Learners will participate in individual and group
activities.
Introduction
The learners to sing a familiar song (learner’s choice) to establish a pulse
Lesson development
Step 1: In groups and individually learners are guided in improvising body percussions by tapping,
clapping, stamping and vocalization to accompany song.
Step 2: Learner views performances of body percussions on video, tablet, or computer and imitate
the performance.
Step 3: Learner creates own body percussions to accompany familiar songs. In pairs or groups,
learners observe and then imitate one another’s performance.
Extended Activity
Learners sing patriotic songs and perform body percussions with peers.
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Conclusion
The teacher to summarize the lesson by; singing or playing a song and ask some learners to perform
body percussions. Lesson ends with learners singing a familiar song as they accompany it with
body percussions.
Reflection on the lesson
Teacher considers the successes and short comings of the lesson.
How well did the learner improvise body percussions to accompany song and dance?
Was the learner able to accompany song and dance using body percussions?
What did the learner do well/did not do well?
What should the teacher do differently next time?
Record of Work Covered
This is a document that the teacher is required to prepare daily to provide evidence of tasks
undertaken in the course of curriculum delivery. It is a description of how the tasks in a lesson,
strand or sub-strand were undertaken. The teacher should document what has been accomplished
over a given time, and any challenges encountered in the course of implementation. The Record
of Work therefore provides a mirror against which the teacher can evaluate performance over a
period of time in relation to the scheme of work.
Components of Record of Work
The Record of Work Covered comprises various components as follows:
1. Administrative details which include:
a. School
b. Learning Area
c. Name of Teacher
d. Grade
2. Time Frame: The time frame indicates the date when the lesson was covered
3. Lesson: Order of the Lesson in the week when the work was covered
4. Work Done: This part accounts for sub strands in accordance to the learning outcomes
5. Reflection: This is a statement expressing the teacher’s experiences in relation to
components of the entire lesson, successes and failures of the lesson as well as future
suggestions for improvement.
6. Signature: This is the identity of the teacher who taught the lesson. It helps in
accountability and transparency.
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Fig ……..Sample Record of Work
Administrative Details
School: Ndambini Primary School
Learning Area: Environmental Activities
Name of Teacher: Fatuma
Grade: 1
DATE LESSON WORK DONE REFLECTION SIGN
8/1/2018
9/1/2018
10/1/2018
11/1/2018
12/1/18
ENVIRONMENT
AND ITS
RESOURCES
WEATHER
WEATHER
WEATHER
WEATHER
WEATHER
Introduction to
weather conditions.
Unfavorable weather
conditions.
Floods
Drought.
Effects of
unfavorable weather
conditions.
Stories on
unfavorable weather.
Weather conditions
for safety.
Effects of weather
conditions in the
environment.
Learner Progress Record
A Learner Progress Record is made up of a learner’s academic achievements, skills and abilities
and school reports. Any other relevant information could also be included. The Progress record
documents the learner’s academic performance on a weekly, monthly or on termly basis. It helps
to monitor learners’ academic progress and performance.
In addition to providing teachers with a tool to record learner assessment data or observations,
the Learner Progress Record may be used to form groups for differentiated small group
instruction, and other Instructional Plans.
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Accurate, factual, up to date Record keeping is a very important part of a teacher’s role. The
teacher needs to keep effective records of every learner’s performance. Progress records allow
both the teacher and the learner to reassess the teaching-learning relationship by helping them
to understand what they need to do to improve their work. The progress record further enables
the teacher to base their lesson plans on a detailed knowledge and understanding of each learner.
Records of school report cards and/or end of term results should be kept by schools should
parents wish to review or discuss past student performance.
Importance of progress records
Importance of Learners Progress Records includes:
• helping teachers to plan appropriate learning experiences that will meet their learner’s
needs;
• identifying learners who are progressing slowly, so that action may be taken to support
them;
• providing the school leadership team with information about the progress learners are
making across the school
• providing information about whether learners are meeting age-related expectations and
are ‘on track’ to meet expected outcomes used for accountability in schools and national
assessment institutions
• being a source of information for parental engagement with schools on how their children
perform.
• enables teachers to track the continuous learning progress of a learner;
• provides information on accurate production of enriched certificates.
Qualities of effective Progress record
A good and effective Progress Record should:
• Be simple and easily understood by internal and external users
• Relate to key indicators about attainment and progress
• Use language that is sensitive to those whose attainment is currently below the age-related
expectation.
How to develop learner’s progress records
Many teachers would think of awarding a grade to a learner to show their progress in learning,
however, it is important to first answer the following Question, What’s in a grade? This is a
question with a simple answer -nothing. It’s meaningless. Grades don’t tell a student anything.
Here’s a logical example:
Student Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average
Peter 8 8 8 8
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Student Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average
James 6 8 10 8
Here you can see that both learners have an average grade of 8. But what does it really say? If
you just show your learner this grade, it means nothing. If you dig deeper and take a look at the
process, you can see that one learner actually did better than the other. James shows progress and
improvement in the learning material. Peter has the same average grade as James, but he’s stuck.
He doesn’t get a complete grip on the learning material, and only masters some parts of it. This
proves that a grade doesn’t show the real value: the process of improvement or the learning
progress.
Competency based learning utilizes more of formative assessment as opposed to summative
assessment. A teacher uses different ways to record information about learner performance in
various concepts that they teach. These tools have been explained under Assessment Tools. They
include:
Ø Anecdotal Records
Ø Profiling
Ø Checklists
Ø Rating Scales
Ø Journaling
Ø Portfolio
Progress records are then developed using information from these tools, and such a record would
show progress with standards in a detailed manner and ensure that grading is fair and consistent
for all learners.
Sample progress record
Name: Maria Katana
School: Mambao primary
Grade: 2
Learning area: Environmental Activities
Ratings: Exceeds expectation (4); Meets expectation (3); approaches expectations (2); below
expectations (1)
Performance
indicators Ratings of learner’s performance
Exceeds
expectations
Meets
expectations
Approaching
expectations
Below
expectations
Remarks
1.1.1 Responds to
different √
Consistently
responds to
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weather
conditions
different weather
conditions.
1.1.2 Records
different
weather
conditions

Is able to record
different weather
conditions most
of the time.
1.1.3 Interprets
weather
messages

Is able to
Interpret weather
messages most of
the time.
1.2.1 Able to store
water
√ Is able to store
water sometimes.
1.2.2 Able to
transport
water

Not able to
identify
appropriate
container for her
water.
ASSESSMENT
This may be through:
• Written exercises
• Oral questions
• Observation
• Plenary presentations
REFLECTION
The facilitator reflects on:
• The successes and short comings of the session
• How well the participants prepared lesson plan and record of work
• What the participants did well/ did not do well
• Why the participants were not able to do well in some
• What improvements should be put in place next time
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SESSION 8: ICT INTEGRATION IN COMPETENCE BASED CURRICULUM
Overview of ICT Integration
Time Frame: 1hr
Session Outcomes
By the end of this session the participant should be able to;
a) state the meaning of ICT integration in the teaching and learning process;
b) identify ICT resources that can be used during an ICT integrated lesson;
c) identify factors that influence integration of ICT in a lesson.
Key areas to be covered
1. Meaning of ICT integration
2. ICT resources
3. Factors influencing ICT integration
4. TPACK
Suggested Learning Experiences
● Brainstorming the meaning of ICT integration
● Brainstorming the different types of ICT resources
● Group discussion on the different components of TPACK
Learning Resources
● Flip charts
● Marker pens
● Masking tape
● Sticky notes
● Laptop
● Projector
SESSION 8: ICT INTEGRATION IN COMPETENCE BASED CURRICULUM
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Facilitator’s notes
Overview of ICT Integration
Information Communication Technology (ICT) integration in curriculum implementation
involves the use of both current and emerging technologies to support and enhance the
curriculum delivery.
ICT integration can be referred to as “the seamless infusion of information communication
technologies to support and enhance the attainment of curriculum objectives, to enhance the
appropriate competencies including skills, knowledge, attitudes and values” (Basic Education
Act, Kenya, 2013).
Integration of ICT in teaching and learning goes beyond the use of computers in a classroom. It
utilizes other resources such as Television programmes, Radio programmes, e-learning
programmes, DVDs and CDs. The integration of ICT into education provides opportunities for
teachers and learners to work better in the current digital age.
ICT Competences to consider when developing an ICT integrated lesson
Knowledge of:
● Internet search engines, like google
● Presentation softwares such as Powerpoint
● Word processing softwares like Microsoft word
● Multimedia elements such as, videos, photographs, audio, animations, text, illustrations,
quizzes and exercises.
Globally, educational systems are adopting new technologies to integrate ICT in the teaching and
learning process, so as to prepare learners with the knowledge and skills they need in their
learning areas.
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Factors that Influence Integration of ICT in a Lesson
Some of the factors which have a great impact on effectiveness of ICT integration include,
school leadership, capacity building of teachers, time, availability and access to ICTs , attitude
towards ICTs , flexibility in adopting ICTs and follow up on ICT programmes.
ICTs can be used in various education activities, including teaching and learning, assessment,
administration and teacher professional development. In the learning environment one can
integrate ICTs in content creation, content delivery and collaborative learning.
Resources that can be used in an ICT integrated lesson
● Phone
● Camera/digital imaging
● Desktop Computer
● Projector
● DVDs/CDs
● Radio
● Laptops
● Tablets
● Television
● Internet
● Wiki blogs
● Projectors
Points to note
● One can support the use of ICT resources in the classroom by developing their skills in a
range of ICT resources available by considering how and why they can be used to support
learning.
● One also needs to effectively select software and devices to use and consider what learning
outcomes will be achieved and how the technology may enhance learning.
● ICT facilitates not only the delivery of lessons but also the learning process itself.
● In order to realize the full potential of ICT for teaching and learning, it is important to consider
how ICT adds value to the learning process.
● ICT resources can be useful at different times and for different purposes throughout the
teaching-learning process.
● Learning outcomes of the lesson will determine what resource to use, when to use them, and
how to use them. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the factors listed when selecting
relevant digital resources for teaching and learning.
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Factors that need to be considered when selecting ICT resources to use in a lesson
The following are the factors to consider when using ICT resources in a lesson:
i. Ease of use
ii. Does it fit within your learning area?
iii. Must be relevant to the strand, learning outcomes and learning experiences.
iv. Appropriate for the learners’ age.
v. Cater for different learning styles and abilities.
vi. Should cater for learner diversity in gender, values and culture.
vii. The language level should be suitable for the learners.
viii. Is it in a culturally and socially appropriate context for learners?
ix. What adaptations would need to be made to the resources to make them suitable for learners
with special needs?
x. Promotes learner-centred education.
xi. Encourages problem-solving skills and/or cooperative learning.
xii. The resource should be easily available and accessible.
xiii. Are there requirements for ICT equipment, other resources, space, that might limit how and
where the lesson is taught?
Assessment
● Oral questions
● Feedback from the participants
● Self-assessment
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Reflection
The facilitator reflects on:
● The successes and short comings of the session
● What the participants did well/did not do well
● What improvements should be put in place next time
PART A: ICT INTEGRATION IN COMPETENCE BASED CURRICULUM
Development and Presentation of an ICT Integrated Lesson Plan and Lesson
Time Frame: 4hrs
Session Outcomes
By the end of this session the participant should be able to:
a) develop an ICT integrated lesson plan in his/her learning area;
b) convert the ICT integrated lesson plan into an ICT integrated lesson;
c) appreciate the use of ICT in the teaching and learning process.
Key areas to be covered
1. ICT integrated lesson plan
2. ICT integrated lesson
Suggested Learning Experiences
● Participants work in groups to identify plug in points for ICT integration in a lesson plan
● In groups, the participants convert the lesson plan into an ICT integrated lesson
● A few groups are selected to present some of the lessons.
Learning Resources
● Illustrations
● Video clip
● Phone
● Camera
● Laptop
● Projector
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Facilitator’s notes
ICT assists the teacher by complementing what the teacher is teaching, motivates learning and
enhances concept acquisition. The teacher is able to engage learners in meaningful learning
that translates into improved achievement of the learning outcomes.
How one develops an integrated lesson will be largely influenced by how knowledgeable they
are in their learning area, and how they can utilize ICT resources in their lesson.
The main difference between components of an ordinary CBC lesson plan and ICT integrated
lesson plan is the ICT resource(s) being used and the plug- in point(s) of the ICT resource(s)
during the lesson.
Effective ICT use in the teaching and learning process should aim at engaging the learners and
thus make learning more meaningful, interesting and sustainable. ICTs provides learners with
the opportunity to actively explore concepts in a hands-on activity. This establishes a
commonly shared classroom experience and allows learners to share about the concept.
When considering the latest ICT resources to use, identify what quick gains might be made by
utilizing technologies which already exist (and are being used, and sustained).
Sample Lesson Plan with ICT Integration
SCHOOL CLASS DATE TIME ROLL
Bidii
School
Primary Grade 1 11/3/2019 8.10-8.40 am 30
Strand: Environment and its Resources
Sub-Strand: Exploring Weather Conditions
Learning Outcomes
By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:
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a) identify the weather conditions for environmental awareness;
b) sing a weather song provided for learning and enjoyment;
c) develop curiosity in observing the sky for enjoyment;
Core Competencies: creativity, critical thinking and digital literacy.
Links to PCIs: Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) – Environmental Education
Value: Responsibility and respect for one another
Learning Resources: Laptop, projector, video clips, pictures, flashcards and appropriate text
book(s) in use.
Link to other learning areas: Religious Education on God’s creation; Movement and Creative
Activities: drawing and coloring clouds, sun, moon and tree on a windy day; singing the
‘Weather song’.
Suggested Non-Formal activity: learners to develop and color a poster on weather
KIQ: What is the weather like today?
Organization of learning; outside and in class (or computer classroom)
Introduction: while outside, ask learners to look outside and observe the weather of the day.
(back to class) Play a song on “what is the weather today?” learners to sing along.
Lesson development
Step 1: Learners are guided to view the video clip again to identify various weather changes.
Step 2: Learners in groups identify and name the weather changes; rainy, windy, cloudy,
calm and sunny as provided in the flash cards/chart.
Step 3: Learners draw and name pictures of what they have observed in the sky in their exercise
books
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Conclusion
Teacher will emphasize on keeping warm when it’s cold and rainy, and have light clothing when
its sunny and hot. When learners wake up every morning, they should observe the weather so
that they can dress appropriately
Learners are guided to observe the sky in the evening by their parents/guardian
Summary
This lesson covered different types of weather; sunny, windy, cloudy and rainy weather.
Emphasis was on critical thinking, creativity and digital literacy as well as responsibility.
Reflection on the lesson
How successful was the lesson? What could I have done to make it better?
Points to Note
● Using video in learning provides a sensory experience that allows concepts and ideas to actually
become an experience and come to life as learners are guided through the video.
● To ensure that learners remain fully engaged in the lesson, it is important to give them an
opportunity to interact and apply ICT skills, and use appropriate ICT tools that support learning
outcomes.
● There are many benefits that come from using videos during any learning session. Videos
promote critical thinking and active learning.
● Whatever ICT resource one uses in their lesson, they should always ensure that the
specific learning outcome(s) is achieved.
● An ICT integrated lesson should be as participatory/interactive as possible through the use of
multimedia elements such as audio, videos, photographs, illustrations, animations and quizzes/
exercises.
Assessment
● Plenary presentations
● Observation
● Feedback from the participants
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Reflection
The facilitator reflects on:
● The successes and short comings of the session
● How well the participants prepared the lesson plan and lesson
● What the participants did well/did not do well
● What improvements should be put in place next time
PART B: ICT INTEGRATION IN COMPETENCE BASED CURRICULUM
Introduction to CBC and ICT Integration Online Courses
Time Frame: 2hrs
Session Outcomes
By the end of this session the participant should be able to:
a) navigate through the courses on the online platform;
b) register for the courses on the online platform;
c) appreciate the continuous training on an online platform
d) appreciate the use of DLP devices in implementing CBC
Key areas to be covered
● Introduction to Kenya Education Cloud (KEC) and Digital Literacy Program (DLP)
● Navigation through the online platform
● Registration on the online platform
Suggested Learning Experiences
● Participants navigate through the online platform to access the Courses
● Participants register for the courses on the online platform
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● Learning Resources
● Online platform
● Phone
● Laptop
● Projector
Facilitator’s notes
Once the teachers have gone through the 5 days face to face training, they will be expected to
transit to the online phase for continuous practice and better understanding of the learnt
concepts.
KICD has developed two Online Orientation Courses that are hosted on Kenya Education
Cloud (KEC). KEC is a blend of several systems integrated to bring out a robust, efficient and
effective user platform that provides unlimited user experiences. It does this through an
integrated program for all quality education content for the Kenyan Education curriculum.
This includes the online public portal, content curation process for quality assurance of
content, student performance analytics as well as teacher orientation through the Elimika
program where the online courses are found. There are two courses that have been developed
to support CBC namely:
1. CBC Online Orientation Course
This will complement the already existing face to face trainings. The online training will
equip the teachers with the required relevant competences for effective and efficient
implementation of CBC. It will also provide opportunities for continuous practice of the learnt
knowledge and skills. This will run for a maximum of 5 weeks.
2. Online ICT Integration Course
This Course will equip the teachers with the required relevant competences to enable them
integrate ICT in the teaching and learning process in line with the Digital Literacy Cocompetence in CBC. It will also encourage and enable the teachers and learners to make use
of the DLP devices in the schools. This will run for a maximum of 6 weeks.
The online Courses are modular and will be self-paced with very minimal tutor support
(responding to queries). The participants will have to meet certain requirements in each module
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in order to move to the next one. There will be discussion forums, a project and an exam. All
activities will be carried out online, including certification. The participants will receive an
online certificate (generated by the system) on completion of each Course.
The Online Orientation Courses will enable the Institute reach out to large numbers of teachers at
the same time, hence saving on time and costs. The online experience also gives the teachers an
opportunity to interact with their counterparts across the country, exchange ideas and learn from
each other.
Assessment
● Oral questions
● Observation
● Correct registration on the online platform
Reflection
The facilitator reflects on:
● The successes and short comings of the session
● How well the participants were able to register on the online platform
● What the participants did well/did not do well
● What improvements should be put in place next time
SESSION 9: ACTION RESEARCH
Time: (1 hr)
Action research can either be described as activities initiated by an individual or group of teachers
to collaboratively solve an immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem
solving done by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a “community of practice”.
This is done with an aim of improving the way they address issues and solve problems that arise
as they facilitate learning.
It involves collecting information regarding their encounters in the classroom and achievement of
learning outcomes, analyzing the information, developing a plan to improve it, collecting changes
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after a new plan is implemented and developing conclusions regarding the improvements. This
can be done individually or collaboratively with other teachers in the school or neighboring schools
Session Outcomes
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) acquire skills to identify their own problems based on everyday experiences;
b) create practical solutions to problems identified;
c) be guided in coming up with the strategies to tackle their problems in a participatory and
collaborative manner.
Key Issues to be covered
Emphasis should be on the following elements
• Identify problems that teachers are experiencing
• Find out it’s probable causes
• Develop a solution to the problem that they can implement
• Implement the proposed solution
• Observe the implementation of the solution
• Reflect on the results (and start over, if necessary
Suggested Learning Experiences
• Participants in groups identify the various challenges that they have so far encountered in
teaching and learning and how they can solve the issues.
• Participants to observe the sequence chart provided.
45
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• Participants are guided in applying this chart in their school situations.
Facilitators Notes
Participants will be assisted with ability to identify their own problems based on everyday issues,
and concern themselves with the creation of practical solutions to these problems. Guide them in
coming up with the strategies to tackle own problems in a participatory and collaborative manner.
The cyclical way of this action research will make them creatively come up with their own ‘home
grown’ solutions instead of waiting for assistance from elsewhere.
This evaluative, investigative, and analytical research method will enable schools, to diagnose
problems or weaknesses in curriculum develop practical solutions to address them quickly and
efficiently. This is guidance for the teacher on how to identify own specific problems and solve
those issues using practical solutions that they can come up with. It provides skills to teachers to
actively find out their everyday classroom concerns and create practical solutions to them. This is
a sustainable way of improving how the teachers implement CBC.
46
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Published in 2019 by the
TRAINING MANUAL FOR
COMPETENCY BASED ASSESSMENT
TRAINING MANUAL FOR
COMPETENCY BASED ASSESSMENT
47
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The Kenya National Examinations Council
Vision, Mission and Core Values
Vision
To be a world class leader in educational assessment and certification
Mission
To assess abilities and certify learner achievements in conformity with global standards
Core Values
• Accountability – Responsible for decisions and actions, including stewardship of public
resources and performance through clarity of responsibilities and roles;
• Integrity – Committed to acting in an honest, fair, accountable and transparent manner in all our
operations;
• Team spirit – Embrace collaboration both within the Council and with all partners in the
provision of services;
• Professionalism – Committed to the highest levels of achievement obtainable through
competence and critical skills;
• Inclusiveness – committed to embrace equity in relevant KNEC operations;
• Quality customer service – Putting the Customer first and offering services that exceed customer
expectations;
• Innovativeness – Committed to creativity in delivering on the core mandate and responding to
changing market demands.
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OBJECTIVES OF THE TRAINING ON COMPETENCY BASED ASSESSMENT
The objectives of this training are to equip the teachers with skills to:
1. understand formative assessment within the Competency Based Assessment Framework;
2. formulate authentic assessment tasks;
3. integrate formative assessment for enhancing the learning process;
4. design assessment rubrics;
5. develop and use various assessment tools;
6. develop and adapt assessment tools for learners with special needs;
7. report assessment results.
OBJECTIVES OF THE TRAINING ON COMPETENCY BASED ASSESSMENT
49
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INTRODUCTION
The reforms in Kenya education curriculum were informed by the Kenya Institute of Curriculum
Development (KICD) needs assessment study of 2016 and the Task Force Report of 2012 on the
Re-alignment of the Education Sector to the Constitution of Kenya, 2010. In addition, the change
was motivated by the need to align the curriculum to international best practices in education
systems, East African Community Treaty, and the desire to make learning more meaningful. The
curriculum reform was also aimed at addressing the aspirations of the Vision 2030, 21st Century
Skills and the Sustainable Development Goals. This informed the development of Basic Education
Curriculum Framework. The framework outlined changes which culminated in a shift from the
objective based curriculum to a Competency Based Curriculum.
The paradigm shift in the education curriculum called for a new mode of assessment. On this basis,
the Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC) purposed to develop a Competency Based
Assessment Framework (CBAF). The framework defined the roadmap to Competency Based
Assessment with focus on formative assessment, assessment of higher order skills, self and peer
assessment by learners, authentic assessment and assessment of values. Authentic assessment
seeks to determine whether the learner can do a task or group of tasks and how well the tasks are
done. It emphasizes more on what the learner is able to do than on what the learner knows.
In order to equip teachers with the skills and knowledge required to implement Competency Based
Assessment (CBA), KNEC organized an elaborate training workshop for teachers. To facilitate
the training, this manual was developed to enable teachers to conceptualize CBA, which entails
development of standards, authentic tasks, assessment tools and reporting instruments. The
training sessions will involve simulations and practical activities.
Teachers should use this training manual as a guide and a reference tool to implement CBA at
school level. The manual focuses on training teachers on CBA for Grades 1, 2, and 3. Assessment
will be developed in all the nine learning areas. The Training Manual has also catered for a SNE
pathway and adaptations of content and delivery methods to meet the needs of learners with special
needs. In this regard, the CBA training manual aims at equipping the teachers with suitable skills
on development, adaptation and use of assessment tools for all learners with respect to their special
needs. Specifically, teachers will be trained on how to develop assessment tools in the five learning
areas in the SNE stage-based pathway.
INTRODUCTION
50
xi
At the end of the training, it is hoped that the assessment techniques and modules presented in this
manual will facilitate the implementation of the Competency Based Assessment, because teachers
will have familiarized themselves with CBA and its procedures, and will be able to undertake
formative assessments at early years.
51
SESSION ONE
THE COMPETENCY BASED ASSESSMENT DRAFT FRAMEWORK
Overview of CBC and CBA
By the end of the session, the participant should able to:
a) explain the meaning of CBC and CBA;
b) explain the purpose of assessment;
c) highlight the linkage between CBC and CBA.
1) Meaning of CBC and CBA, linkage between CBC and CBA;
2) Purpose of assessment
• Biro pens
• Writing pads
• Masking tape
• Chalk
• Stick notes
• Curriculum Designs
• Flip Charts
• Manilla papers
• Marker pens
Session Outcomes
Areas to be Covered
Resources
SESSION ONE
52
• Facilitator to explain the meaning of CBC and CBA.
• In pairs, participants brainstorm and write down the following:
i. purpose of assessment;
ii. their understanding of by competency based assessment
iii. linkage between CBC and CBA.
• A few selected pairs to read out their answers at plenary.
• The facilitator to summarize the discussion by giving the correct purpose of assessment
and linkage between CBC and CBA.
Meaning of CBC and CBA, linkage
between CBC and CBA
What is Competency Based Curriculum
(CBC)?
Competency Based Curriculum refers to an
education programme that is based on
demonstration of learners’ ability to apply the
knowledge, skills, attitudes and values they
are expected to acquire as they progress
through their education.
What is Competency Based Assessment?
This is a process of determining the
capability of a learner to apply a set of related
knowledge, skills, values and attitudes
required to successfully perform tasks. CBA
can further be described as a systematic
process of gathering and interpreting
information from multiple sources about
what a learner knows, understands and can
do, with reference to the specific curriculum
learning outcomes.
Competency Based Assessment is based on
the principles of assessing learners as they
use acquired knowledge and skills in a given
situation. The strategy aims at providing a
way of building the skills and knowledge that
learners require to perform identified tasks
after going through a learning experience.
Purpose of Assessment
The main purpose of assessment is to inform
and improve the quality of education and
support long term learning achievement of
learners.
The overall aim of Competency Based
Assessment Framework (CBAF) is to
provide a basis to create a sound and
sustainable assessment system that includes
the principles and professional standards of
assessment.
The CBAF will facilitate creation of a system
that will provide sufficient information to the
various education stakeholders to guide in:
• improving learning and instruction;
• identifying and nurturing every
learner’s potential;
• selection of pathways and tracks in
senior secondary school;
Facilitator’s Notes
53
• measuring learners’ achievement and
certification at the end of basic
education in Grade 12;
• Establishing a means of measuring
learners’ participation in Community
Service Learning and acquisition of
values as a mandatory part of the
Learner Exit Profile at the end of
Basic Education in Grade 12;
• Providing assessment feedback to
learners, schools, parents and other
stakeholders in basic education;
• Providing evidence as a basis for
accountability of teachers, school
administrators and other stakeholders
in basic education.
The Linkage between Competency Based
Curriculum (CBC) and Competency
Based Assessment (CBA)
The Competence Based Assessment
Framework (CBAF) provides
conceptualization and organization of
assessment based on the Basic Education
Curriculum Framework (BECF), which is
the blueprint for the curriculum reforms.
The CBAF will be supported by the Basic
Education Curriculum Framework’s vision
and mission stated as:
• VISION: An engaged, empowered and
ethical citizen;
• MISSION: Nurturing every learner’s
potential.
The Basic Education Curriculum Framework (BECF) aims at developing the following core
competencies and values.
Table 1: Core Competencies and Core Values
Core Competencies Core Values
• Communication and
Collaboration
• Critical Thinking and
Problem Solving
• Imagination and
Creativity
• Citizenship
• Digital Literacy
• Learning to Learn
• Self-Efficacy
• Love
• Responsibility
• Respect
• Unity
• Peace
• Patriotism
• Social Justice
• Integrity
Acquisition of specific core competencies and values by learners should be continuously assessed
as the learner interacts with curriculum content at all levels.
Interrelationship Between Components of CBC and those of CBA
Various components of CBC and CBA are interrelated as shown in the following diagram:
54

 

Figure 1: The Interrelationship of Elements of CBC and CBA
The Paradigm Shift in Assessment
By the end of the session the participant should be able to:
a) state the main paradigm shifts in CBA;
b) explain the CBA draft framework for the Early Years Education ( EYE);
c) describe the foundation level of the SNE Stage Based Pathway;
d) explain the various types of assessment for Early Years Education
BECF CBAF
LEARNING OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT STANDARDS
LEARNING EXPERIENCES ASSESSMENT TASKS
ASSESSMENT RUBRIC
for substrands
ASSESSMENT RUBRIC
for tasks
Session Outcomes
55
1) Paradigm shift in assessment
2) Assessment of learners in the SNE Pathway
3) Types of assessment in Early Years Education
• Participants to identify the changes in assessment as proposed in the Competency Based
Curriculum.
• The Facilitator to guide participants in discussing the paradigm shifts in Competency Based
Assessment.
• The participants compare Competency-Based Assessment Framework for the Early Years
Education and the Basic Education Curriculum Framework and identify the common
features.
• The facilitator takes the participants through the features of the two frameworks and
discusses the types of assessment appropriate for Early Years Education level.
• Participants familiarize themselves with assessment of the SNE stage based pathway as
indicated in the CBAF.
Paradigm Shifts in Assessment
The major shifts from the objective-based assessment to the competency-based assessment are as
illustrated in Table 2.
Suggested Learning Activity
Areas to be Covered
Facilitator’s Notes
56
Table 2: Shifts from the Objective-Based Assessment to the Competency-Based Assessment
Less of … More of …
Assessment of learning (summative
assessment)
Assessment for and as learning (formative
assessment)
Assessment of knowledge acquired through
rote learning Assessment of competencies developed
Norm-referenced assessment Criterion – referenced assessment
Competition Collaboration and Cooperation
Rigidity (assessment based on a prescribed
duration)
Flexibility ( assessment based on the pace of the
learner)
Assessment of lower order skills Assessment of higher order skills
Teacher and national assessment Learner and peer assessment
Arbitrary and imaginary assessment tasks Authentic assessment tasks
Quantitative reporting of performance Qualitative reporting of performance
Reproduction of knowledge Demonstration of creativity and talents
Draft Competency-Based Assessment Framework (CBAF) for the Early Years Education
Figure 3 indicates a section of the draft Competency Based Assessment Framework. It indicates
assessment at the Early Years Education and at the Foundation Level of the SNE Stage Based
Pathway.
Figure 2: Draft
Competency Based Assessment Framework for Early Years
57
Figure 3 shows the CBC Early Years Education Framework.
Figure 3: CBC
Early Years
Education
Framework
Types of Assessment Applicable in CBA
at the Early Years Education (EYE)
Competency Based Assessment for the
Early Years Education should be carried out
continuously during the learning process as
classroom assessment.
Formative Assessment (Classroom
Assessment-CA)
Formative assessment is should be carried
out by the teacher throughout the learning
process as classroom assessment. Classroom
Assessment provides regular feedback and
allows teachers and learners to reflect on
progress and adjust learning accordingly. In
the classroom, teachers are the primary
assessors of learners. They design assessment
tools with two broad purposes:
1. to collect information that will
inform learning,
2. to monitor students’ progress towards
achieving year-end outcomes.
Classroom assessment may involve both
assessment for learning and assessment as
learning.
Assessment for Learning
Assessment for learning is the process of
seeking and interpreting evidence for use by
teachers and learners. It uses both formal and
informal methods to check whether learners
are achieving the desired learning outcomes.
This is carried out on a continuous basis to
monitor the learner’s progress and to collect
information on learners’ ability to
demonstrate the required competencies.
Assessment for learning involves gathering
data during the learning process, and
provides feedback to the teacher learner and
parents to improve learning. The overall
assessment should be followed by descriptive
58
remarks by the class teacher about positive
and significant achievements of the intended
competences.
Assessment as Learning
Assessment as Learning occurs when a
learner is assisted to develop a capacity to be
independent, self-directed to set individual
goals, monitor own progress or self-assess,
and reflect on his/her learning. The learner is
provided with a clear roadmap to reach
proficiency and to set criteria that have a
variety of examples or models of good work
for comparison
The emphasis and focus of this type of
assessment is to foster skills and habits such
as self-assessment, self-monitoring, and selfcorrection among learners. It fosters self and
peer assessment among learners and
promotes self-awareness of strengths and
weaknesses in learning.
Assessment of Learners in the SNE
Pathway
The CBA provides for assessment
opportunity to all categories of learners with
special needs (SNE).
Assessment of learners with special needs
will be stage based (at foundation,
intermediate, pre-vocational and vocational
levels) and not grade or age based. Each
learner will only be assessed when he/she is
ready regardless of his/her age. The
assessment will be individualized.
Competency Based Assessment Tools
By the end of the session the participants should be able to:
a) describe competency based assessment tools;
b) explain adaptations of CBA tools to suit learners with special needs;
c) develop competency assessment reporting tools.
1) Competency based assessment tools;
2) Adaptations of CBA tools to suit learners with special needs;
3) Competency assessment reporting tools.
Session Outcomes
Areas to be Covered
59
• Participants discuss in groups the various tools they use in assessing learners during the
learning process.
• The group leaders present the summary of their discussions.
• The facilitator guides participants in discussing Competency Based Assessment tools.
• Participants to develop assessment tools and adapt them for learners with special needs.
Competency Based Assessment Tools
The following assessment tools can be used
in CBA.
a) Observation schedules
This is a schedule outlining characteristics
and behaviour that learners manifest during
the performance of specific tasks individually
or as a group. The teacher records
observations made on the behaviour of the
learner.
b) Checklists
Checklists contain a list of attributes of an
individual’s behaviour and require the
teacher to carefully observe and tick
whatever behaviour is portrayed. At the end
of the lesson the teacher makes a summary
and draws a conclusion. The learners too can
be helped to develop and use their own tools
to monitor their progress especially on selfefficacy (such as personal, social and
decision making) skills.
c) Rating Scales
Rating scales allow teachers to indicate the
degree or frequency of the behaviours, skills
and strategies displayed by the learner.
Rating scales state the criteria and provide
three or four response selections to describe
the quality or frequency of learner’s work.
The use of descriptive words, such
as always, usually, sometimes and never
helps to pinpoint specific strengths and
needs. In a rating scale, the descriptive word
is more important than the related number.
The more precise and descriptive the words
for each scale point, the more reliable the
tool.
d) Rubrics
Rubrics use a set of criteria to evaluate a
learner’s performance. They consist of a fixed
measurement scale and detailed description
of the characteristics for each level of
performance. These descriptions focus on
the quality of the performance and not
the quantity. Rubrics are commonly used to
evaluate learner performance with the
Suggested Learning Activity
Facilitator’s Notes
• Participants discuss in groups the various tools they use in assessing learners during the
learning process.
• The group leaders present the summary of their discussions.
• The facilitator guides participants in discussing Competency Based Assessment tools.
• Participants to develop assessment tools and adapt them for learners with special needs.
Competency Based Assessment Tools
The following assessment tools can be used
in CBA.
a) Observation schedules
This is a schedule outlining characteristics
and behaviour that learners manifest during
the performance of specific tasks individually
or as a group. The teacher records
observations made on the behaviour of the
learner.
b) Checklists
Checklists contain a list of attributes of an
individual’s behaviour and require the
teacher to carefully observe and tick
whatever behaviour is portrayed. At the end
of the lesson the teacher makes a summary
and draws a conclusion. The learners too can
be helped to develop and use their own tools
to monitor their progress especially on selfefficacy (such as personal, social and
decision making) skills.
c) Rating Scales
Rating scales allow teachers to indicate the
degree or frequency of the behaviours, skills
and strategies displayed by the learner.
Rating scales state the criteria and provide
three or four response selections to describe
the quality or frequency of learner’s work.
The use of descriptive words, such
as always, usually, sometimes and never
helps to pinpoint specific strengths and
needs. In a rating scale, the descriptive word
is more important than the related number.
The more precise and descriptive the words
for each scale point, the more reliable the
tool.
d) Rubrics
Rubrics use a set of criteria to evaluate a
learner’s performance. They consist of a fixed
measurement scale and detailed description
of the characteristics for each level of
performance. These descriptions focus on
the quality of the performance and not
the quantity. Rubrics are commonly used to
evaluate learner performance with the
Suggested Learning Activity
Facilitator’s Notes
c) Rating Scales
60
intention of including the result in a grade for
reporting purposes and teacher accountability
measures.
e) Questionnaires
A questionnaire is a list of questions on
various aspects of a person’s situation or
issue. It requires the respondent to give
honest opinions or views. Questionnaires can
be used before teaching to find out the needs,
characteristics, experiences and knowledge
levels of learners (entry behaviour). During
teaching, questionnaires enable the teacher to
find out how various learners are progressing
and responding to the learning activities.
Questionnaires can be given to learners to
gather feedback on how they are applying
their learned competencies to challenging or
difficult situations they are encountering in
and out of school. This helps the teacher take
appropriate action.
f) Project
A project is a set of activities implemented
within a set timeframe with a clear start and
end time. It should have a clearly stated
purpose and set of objectives. Learners will
be encouraged to initiate individual or group
projects that may earn them income. The
project gives an opportunity to learners to
apply their acquired knowledge and
transferable skills to a real life situation.
Learners could be challenged to identify a
need in their community where they can
provide services based on what they have
learned. The project will encourage learners
to learn through their own investigations
rather than through passive absorption of the
teacher’s words.
g) Journals
This entails the learner keeping a record of
their personal feelings, thoughts and
experiences on a daily basis. A journal also
shows the activities carried out in a day by a
learner. Assessing the learner through
journals and diaries should be a joint venture
between the learner and the teacher. Based on
the learner’s performance, the teacher can
provide either support or challenge or both.
h) Portfolio
A portfolio is a purposeful collection of
student work samples, student selfassessments and goal statements that reflect a
student’s progress. It is a collection of
evidence assembled by learners to
demonstrate competency. The portfolio file
contains all the major learning activities,
assessment projects and documents. Students
generally choose the work samples to place
in the portfolio, but the teacher may also
recommend that specific work samples be
included. The teacher should from time to
time review how learners are organizing and
maintaining their portfolios.
i) Oral or Aural Questions
Oral or aural questioning is used to establish
what a learner knows and can do. While oral
questions are posed by the teacher verbally,
aural questions are usually pre-recorded and
played to the learner. Strategies for effective
question and answer assessment include:
i. Applying a wait time or ‘no hands-up
rule’ to provide students with time to
think after a question before they are
called upon randomly to respond.
ii. Asking a variety of questions,
including open-ended questions and
those that require more than a right or
wrong answer.
g) Journals
61
iii. Including questions that promote
higher-order thinking.
j) Learner’s Profile
A learner’s profile is a summary of the
teacher’s opinion on mastery of
competencies acquired in a level. The teacher
constructs a learner’s profile using
information obtained from observation
schedule, learner’s journal, checklist,
portfolio and involvement in projects. The
learner’s profile enables the teacher to gain a
better understanding of which aspects of the
topics are well understood and which ones
require attention. The knowledge, attitude,
skill levels and values can be assessed by
peers, other learners, teachers, parents, and
other community members.
k) Anecdotal Records
An anecdote is an account of an event in a
child’s day. Reports, photos and drawings
may be used to describe, in a factual way, the
incident, its context, and what was said or
done by the participant(s). Anecdotal notes
may also be used to record specific
observations of individual learner’s
behaviours, skills and attitudes as they relate
to their learning and the environment. In most
cases, anecdotes focus on very simple,
everyday interactions among learners,
learners and adults as well as learners and
materials in the environment.
l) Written Tests
These are tests that are designed according to
pre-determined criteria to measure
competencies in specific learning areas. The
tasks should be designed to elicit evidence
from the learner on their acquisition of
learning outcomes and competencies such as
creative thinking, problem solving, and
communication.
Adaptation of Assessment Tools for
Learners with Special Needs
Assessment adaptations involve modification
of assessment methods and tools to suit
learners with special educational needs.
Modifications may be in terms of
presentation of assessment task, duration of
tackling the task, ways of responding to the
task and scheduling.
Competency Based Assessment Reporting Tools
Participants suggest various ways of assessment reporting in CBA
The facilitator to guide the participants in discussing:
• School Readiness Report
• School Year Report
• Participants to develop School
Readiness Report and School Year
Report.
Suggested Learning Activity
Facilitator’s Notes
62
The following are among the various tools/instruments that are to be used to report assessment
results to stakeholders.
a) School Readiness Report
This is a report to be issued by the school at
the end of pre-primary years PP2 for
informing learners and other stakeholders on
learning achievement and areas requiring
improvement. The report can also be used to
initiate dialogue on teacher training needs at
the lower levels.
b) School Year Report
This is a report to be issued by the school to
every learner in each grade for informing the
learner and parents/guardians on the child’s
learning progress as well as areas requiring
improvement. The report should contain both
qualitative and quantitative grades for each
learning area undertaken by the learner.
Participants to reflect on the following:
a) Effects of the shift from objective based to Competency Based Assessment (CBA) on
learners, teachers and parents.
b) Effective ways of carrying out classroom assessment
c) Use of various assessment tools in reporting classroom assessment feedback.
a) What went on well?
b) What did not go on well?
c) Why did it not work well?
d) What needs to be improved?
Participant’s Reflections
Facilitator’s Reflections
iii. Including questions that promote
higher-order thinking.
j) Learner’s Profile
A learner’s profile is a summary of the
teacher’s opinion on mastery of
competencies acquired in a level. The teacher
constructs a learner’s profile using
information obtained from observation
schedule, learner’s journal, checklist,
portfolio and involvement in projects. The
learner’s profile enables the teacher to gain a
better understanding of which aspects of the
topics are well understood and which ones
require attention. The knowledge, attitude,
skill levels and values can be assessed by
peers, other learners, teachers, parents, and
other community members.
k) Anecdotal Records
An anecdote is an account of an event in a
child’s day. Reports, photos and drawings
may be used to describe, in a factual way, the
incident, its context, and what was said or
done by the participant(s). Anecdotal notes
may also be used to record specific
observations of individual learner’s
behaviours, skills and attitudes as they relate
to their learning and the environment. In most
cases, anecdotes focus on very simple,
everyday interactions among learners,
learners and adults as well as learners and
materials in the environment.
l) Written Tests
These are tests that are designed according to
pre-determined criteria to measure
competencies in specific learning areas. The
tasks should be designed to elicit evidence
from the learner on their acquisition of
learning outcomes and competencies such as
creative thinking, problem solving, and
communication.
Adaptation of Assessment Tools for
Learners with Special Needs
Assessment adaptations involve modification
of assessment methods and tools to suit
learners with special educational needs.
Modifications may be in terms of
presentation of assessment task, duration of
tackling the task, ways of responding to the
task and scheduling.
Competency Based Assessment Reporting Tools
Participants suggest various ways of assessment reporting in CBA
The facilitator to guide the participants in discussing:
• School Readiness Report
• School Year Report
• Participants to develop School
Readiness Report and School Year
Report.
Suggested Learning Activity
Facilitator’s Notes
63
SESSION TWO
AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
Overview of Authentic Assessment
By the end of the session, the participants should be able to:
a) show understanding of authentic assessment
1) Meaning of Authentic Assessment
2) Differentiating between authentic and traditional assessment
3) Tools for authentic assessment
4) Benefits of authentic assessment
5) Steps of creating authentic assessment
• Text Books
• Curriculum
Designs
• Flip Charts
• Manilla papers
• Marker pens
• Samples of
Authentic tasks in
all learning areas
• Biro pens
• Writing pads
• Masking tape
• Chalk
• Stick notes
• In pairs, participants discuss the meaning of authentic assessment.
• In pairs participants discuss and share on how they assess learners in the CBC and in the
8.4.4 system to identify differences between authentic and traditional assessment.
• In pairs, participants mention various tools of authentic assessment as discussed in the
previous presentation.
• In pairs, participants discuss benefits of authentic assessment.
Session Outcomes
Areas to be Covered
Suggested Learning Activity
Resources –authentic tasks
SESSION TWO
64
• In pairs, participants discuss steps of creating authentic assessment.
MEANING OF AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
Authentic Assessment is a quality assessment
in which a learner is assessed in a manner that
is consistent with the kinds of performances
on the task and a rubric by which their
performance will be evaluated.
In authentic assessment, learners are asked to
perform real-world tasks that demonstrate
meaningful application of essential
knowledge and skills, thus making it
interesting and meaningful, as it focuses on
the learner’s performance and the quality of
work.
Table 3 presents the differences between
authentic and traditional assessment.
Table 3: Differences between Authentic and Traditional Assessment
Traditional Assessment Authentic Assessment
Learners are required to demonstrate knowledge by
selecting a response (giving correct answers) through
written tests
Learners are required to demonstrate proficiency by
performing relevant tasks of showing application of
what has been learned
Standardized, valid and reliable Needs well defined criteria and standards to achieve
reliability and validity
Provides a teacher with a summary of what the
learners know (knowledge)
Provides teachers with a more complete picture of what
the learners know and what they can do with what they
know (apply knowledge)
Learners are required to recall knowledge that has
been taught
Learners can construct new knowledge out of what has
been taught
Focuses more on the product Focuses more on the process towards completing the
product
TOOLS FOR AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
The following are tools that you may use to conduct authentic assessment.
• Observation
schedules
• Checklists
• Rating scales
• Rubrics
• Questionnaires
Facilitator’s Notes
65
• Projects
• Journals or diaries
• Learner’s profiles
• Anecdotal records
• Written tests
BENEFITS OF AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
The following are the benefits of Authentic Assessment:
• Uses tasks that reflect real life
experiences;
• Focuses on high order thinking
skills;
• Requires active performance to
demonstrate understanding;
• Involve interesting and engaging
assessment tasks;
• Teacher and the learner collaborate
in determining the assessment;
• Ensures success for every child,
(focuses on progress rather than
identifying weakness);
• Encourages the integration of
learning and assessment.
STEPS FOR CREATING AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
The figure below presents the steps in the creation of authentic assessment.
Figure 4: Steps for Creating Authentic Assessment
Step 1 – Developing Standards
A standard is the level at which learners
should demonstrate achievement of the
learning outcome(s). When developing
standards, the teacher should analyse the
learning outcome from the curriculum
designs to establish the overall competency
to be demonstrated. Standards are developed
from specific learning outcomes in a learning
area. Examples of standards from different
learning areas are presented in Table 4.
Table 4: Standards from Different Learning Areas
66
• Projects
• Journals or diaries
• Learner’s profiles
• Anecdotal records
• Written tests
BENEFITS OF AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
The following are the benefits of Authentic Assessment:
• Uses tasks that reflect real life
experiences;
• Focuses on high order thinking
skills;
• Requires active performance to
demonstrate understanding;
• Involve interesting and engaging
assessment tasks;
• Teacher and the learner collaborate
in determining the assessment;
• Ensures success for every child,
(focuses on progress rather than
identifying weakness);
• Encourages the integration of
learning and assessment.
STEPS FOR CREATING AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
The figure below presents the steps in the creation of authentic assessment.
Figure 4: Steps for Creating Authentic Assessment
Step 1 – Developing Standards
A standard is the level at which learners
should demonstrate achievement of the
learning outcome(s). When developing
standards, the teacher should analyse the
learning outcome from the curriculum
designs to establish the overall competency
to be demonstrated. Standards are developed
from specific learning outcomes in a learning
area. Examples of standards from different
learning areas are presented in Table 4.
Table 4: Standards from Different Learning Areas
Learning Area Strand Sub-strand Specific Learning Outcome Standards
Environmental
Activities
1.0
Environment
and its
resources
1.1 Weather
1.1.1
Exploring
unfavourable
weather
conditions
a) describe unfavourable
weather conditions
b) observe the effects of
unfavourable weather
conditions for safety
c) develop curiosity in
identifying effects of
weather conditions in
the environment
The learner can.:
a) identify, observe and
describe unfavourable
weather conditions
b) identify ways of keeping
safe from unfavourable
weather conditions
Christian
Religious
Activities
Creation My Family a) recognise the head of the
family and respect them
b) name family members in
the nuclear and
extended family for
identification
c) draw the family tree to
understand
relationships in the
family
The learner can:
a) Recognize and name
members in the nuclear
and extended family and
draw their family tree
English
Language
Activities
Listening and
speaking
Attentive
listening
a) listen attentively during
a conversation,
b) respond to simple
specific threedirectional instructions
in oral communication,
c) Appreciate the
importance of listening
attentively for effective
communication.
The learner can:
a) Maintain eye contact
and correct sitting
posture, interpret and
use appropriate body
language during a
conversation
Kiswahili
Language
Activities
Kusoma Usafi wa
mazingira
a) kutambua msamiati
uliotumiwa katika
hadithi
b) kusikiliza mwalimu kwa
makini anaposoma
hadithi kuhusu usafi wa
mazingira
c) kusoma hadithi kuhusu
mazingira safi
d) kufahamu hadithi
aliyosoma na
aliyosomewa kuhusu
usafi wa mazingira
e) kuthamini mazingira safi.
Mwanafunzi aweza:
a) kusoma kwa ufasaha
b) kuufahamu ujumbe
kuhusu usafi wa
mazingira
c) kuutambua na kutumia
msamiati wa mazingira
ipasvyo
STEP 2 – Developing Authentic Tasks
From the curriculum design the teacher
should identify the strand and sub strand from
which the task will be developed. The
standard will then be formulated from the
specific learning outcomes of that sub strand.
The task will then be formulated and it should
be appropriate for multiple contexts (rural,
urban environment); should not depend
heavily on access to technology; should be
integrative (focus on many skills and other
learning areas); include opportunities for peer
collaboration; encourage self-assessment and
deep reflection.
STEP 3 – Determining Criteria
67
Identifying the characteristics or dimension
to be measured, include a definition and an
example to clarify the meaning of each trait
being assessed.
STEP 4 – Creating Rubrics
Rubrics are scoring guides that use a set of
criteria rather than a single score to evaluate
a learner’s performance. They consist of a
fixed measurement scale or specific criteria
and detailed description of the characteristics
for each level of performance. An example of
performance level is given in Table 5.
Table 5: Examples of Performance levels
Level 4
Exceeding Expectation
Level 3
Meeting Expectation
Level 2
Approaching Expectation
Level 1
Below Expectation
Development of Authentic Tasks
By the end of the session, the participants should be able to:
a) Explain authentic tasks
b) Explain the characteristics of authentic tasks
c) Develop authentic tasks
1) Description of authentic tasks
2) Characteristics of authentic tasks
3) How to create authentic tasks
• In groups, participants to discuss the meaning of authentic tasks.
• In groups, participants discuss the characteristics of authentic tasks.
• In groups, study and evaluate the samples of authentic tasks provided.
Suggested Learning Activity
Learning Area Strand Sub-strand Specific Learning Outcome Standards
Environmental
Activities
1.0
Environment
and its
resources
1.1 Weather
1.1.1
Exploring
unfavourable
weather
conditions
a) describe unfavourable
weather conditions
b) observe the effects of
unfavourable weather
conditions for safety
c) develop curiosity in
identifying effects of
weather conditions in
the environment
The learner can.:
a) identify, observe and
describe unfavourable
weather conditions
b) identify ways of keeping
safe from unfavourable
weather conditions
Christian
Religious
Activities
Creation My Family a) recognise the head of the
family and respect them
b) name family members in
the nuclear and
extended family for
identification
c) draw the family tree to
understand
relationships in the
family
The learner can:
a) Recognize and name
members in the nuclear
and extended family and
draw their family tree
English
Language
Activities
Listening and
speaking
Attentive
listening
a) listen attentively during
a conversation,
b) respond to simple
specific threedirectional instructions
in oral communication,
c) Appreciate the
importance of listening
attentively for effective
communication.
The learner can:
a) Maintain eye contact
and correct sitting
posture, interpret and
use appropriate body
language during a
conversation
Kiswahili
Language
Activities
Kusoma Usafi wa
mazingira
a) kutambua msamiati
uliotumiwa katika
hadithi
b) kusikiliza mwalimu kwa
makini anaposoma
hadithi kuhusu usafi wa
mazingira
c) kusoma hadithi kuhusu
mazingira safi
d) kufahamu hadithi
aliyosoma na
aliyosomewa kuhusu
usafi wa mazingira
e) kuthamini mazingira safi.
Mwanafunzi aweza:
a) kusoma kwa ufasaha
b) kuufahamu ujumbe
kuhusu usafi wa
mazingira
c) kuutambua na kutumia
msamiati wa mazingira
ipasvyo
STEP 2 – Developing Authentic Tasks
From the curriculum design the teacher
should identify the strand and sub strand from
which the task will be developed. The
standard will then be formulated from the
specific learning outcomes of that sub strand.
The task will then be formulated and it should
be appropriate for multiple contexts (rural,
urban environment); should not depend
heavily on access to technology; should be
integrative (focus on many skills and other
learning areas); include opportunities for peer
collaboration; encourage self-assessment and
deep reflection.
STEP 3 – Determining Criteria
68
Description of Authentic Tasks
An authentic task is an assignment given to learners to assess their ability to apply knowledge
and skills to real world challenges.
Characteristics of Authentic Tasks
Authentic tasks:
• Have varied responses
• Are deeply integrative-require many
skills
• Promote critical thinking and
problem solving
• Allow for differentiated learning
• Involve planning, doing, revising and
reflecting
• Include opportunity for peer
collaboration
• Encourage self-assessment and deep
reflection
• Require time to complete
Development and Review of Authentic Tasks (cont’d)
By the end of the session, the participants should be able to:
a) Develop authentic tasks
Description of Authentic Tasks
An authentic task is an assignment given to learners to assess their ability to apply knowledge
and skills to real world challenges.
Characteristics of Authentic Tasks
Authentic tasks:
• Have varied responses
• Are deeply integrative-require many
skills
• Promote critical thinking and
problem solving
• Allow for differentiated learning
• Involve planning, doing, revising and
reflecting
• Include opportunity for peer
collaboration
• Encourage self-assessment and deep
reflection
• Require time to complete
Development and Review of Authentic Tasks (cont’d)
By the end of the session, the participants should be able to:
a) Develop authentic tasks
69
b) Review authentic tasks
1) Development of authentic tasks
2) Review of authentic tasks
In groups, participants will be given samples
of authentic tasks in all learning areas for
reference. Each group will take 40 minutes
to develop one authentic task and present for
10 minutes in plenary. They will be
expected to review the tasks based on the
comments from the plenary.
a) What do I feel most confident about
in the implementation of authentic
assessment (what am I doing right?)
b) What do I feel are the biggest
challenges to implementation of
authentic assessment? (What do I
need to improve or address?)
a) What went on well?
Suggested Learning Activity
70
b) What did not go on well? c) Why did it not work well?
d) What needs to be improved?
SAMPLE OF AUTHENTIC TASKS
1.0 PLANTS IN OUR ENVIRONMENT
(Ref: Vol 4, G1, Pg16, S1.0, SS 1.1)
1.1 Nature walk
Standard:
The learner can;
a) Walk in different directions to demonstrate strength, coordination, endurance, balance
and self-esteem.
b) Identify different types of plants in the immediate environment and categorize them
according to specified features
c) Demonstrate appreciation of the rich diversity in plants
d) Describe safe ways of handling different plants
Task: Project – Group work
Learners will be divided into groups of 4 to 6. Guided by the teacher, they will in their
groups be expected to:
71
a) Take a nature walk in the immediate environment;
b) Find, observe, discuss and orally present the
characteristics (flowers, leaves, shape, size and
texture) of four types of plants to the class;
c) Identify and categorize (Thorny/non-thorny,
edible/non-edible, and poisonous/non-poisonous)
four types of plants.
d) Individually draw, colour and label parts of a plant;

e) Mount samples/pictures of plants collected for
class display;
f) Critique/ comment on their work and that of the
other groups;
g) Comment on what they would do to improve work.
Mounted leaf prints
Note: Learners should be guided to collect safe plants. Unsafe plants (poisonous and thorny)
should only be handled by the teacher.
Targeted Learning areas;
(i) Environmental activities,
(ii) Movement and Creative activities,
(iii) Religious activities,
(iv) Language activities.
Core Competences Targeted
Communication and collaboration as they work in groups, critical thinking and problem solving as
they categorize different plants, imagination and creativity as they draw, label and mount
samples/pictures of the plants collected, digital literacy as they search for different plants from the
web.
Link to values
Respect for rich diversity in plants, responsibility as they take care of plants and each other, unity
as they work together in groups.
72
1.2 Learn and Sing Songs on Plants
Standard:
The learner can sing different types of songs appropriately, individually and in groups
TASK: The learners will be expected to learn and sing the song below and other songs on
parts of plants.
(Ref: Vol 2 G 3 pg115, Vol 4 G 3 pg 295)
Use the tune from “The wheels of the bus”


PARTS OF A PLANT
The roots on a plant grow underground
Underground, underground.
The roots on a plant grow underground.
Roots are parts of a plant.
The stems on a plant hold up the leaves.
Up the leaves up the leaves.
The stems on a plant hold up the leaves.
Stems are parts of a plant.
The leaves on a plant are making food.
Making food making food.
The leaves on a plant are making food.
Leaves are part of a plant.
The flowers on a plant are growing
seeds. Growing seeds growing seeds.
The flowers on are plant are growing
seeds. Flowers are part of a plant.
Note: Learners should be encouraged to
compose simple songs on parts of plants.
Teachers should compose/adapt songs based on the same strand. Learners should be
encouraged to creatively display respective parts of plants as they sing.
Targeted learning areas;
(i) Environmental Activities,
(ii) Religious Activities,
(iii) Language Activities,
73
(iv) Movement and Creative Activities.
Core Competencies targeted;
Communication and collaboration is achieved when they sing together; critical thinking and
problem solving, imagination and creativity are achieved when they compose their own songs,
self-efficacy as they perform to others and digital literacy as they search for tunes and dance
moves online.
Link to values
Appreciating rich diversity of plants, responsibility, care for plants etc.
74
1.3 Leaf Printing
Standard
The learner can;
a) create prints in alternating colours using different leaves.
b) display and talk about their own and others work.

Task
Learners will be divided into groups of 4 to
6. Guided by the teacher, they will in their
groups be expected to:
a) Select four leaves of
different shapes and press
them to make them flat in
readiness for leaf
printing.
b) Create repeat patterns in
two different colours to
produce varied textural
effects.
c) Discuss similarities and
differences between the
different art works.
d) Work with the class and the
teacher to display the leaf print to
the class/school.
e) Identify, discuss and
comment on the unique
pattern elements in their leaf
prints and those of other
groups.
Targeted learning areas;
(i) Movement and creative
activities.
(ii) Language activities
75
Core Competencies Targeted
Communication and collaboration through interaction during group work, imagination and
creativity when printing coloured patterns using leaves, digital literacy as they use technology to
observe varied types of leaves.
Link to values
Emphasis on practice of respect for each other’s work, responsibility for ensuring that materials
and tools are properly handled.
1.5 Kutunga sentensi
Wanafunzi watunge sentensi wakitumia maneno yafuatayo:
a) jani
b) tunda
c) tawi
d) mizizi
Targeted learning areas
Language activities
Environmental activities
Core Competencies targeted
Communication and collaboration, learning to learn, critical thinking and problem solving,
imagination and creativity.
Link to values
Appreciating rich diversity of plants
76
SESSION THREE
ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
Assessment Rubrics
Competence Based Assessment emphasizes
on formative assessment. Teachers are
encouraged to embrace classroom
assessment especially the assessment of
competencies. Rubrics enable the teacher to
apply a multi-assessment approach of a
competence where the focus goes beyond
assessment of academics to include
assessment of such aspects as values and
community service learning.
The aim of the session is to equip the
participant with knowledge and skills on
rubrics and how to use them effectively when
assessing learners.
By the end of the session, the participant
should be able to:
a) describe an assessment rubric;
b) identify the core components of
rubrics;
c) describe analytic and holistic rubric;
d) state the benefits of rubrics.
1. Description of an Assessment Rubric
2. Components of a Rubric
3. Types of Rubrics
4. Benefits of Rubrics
• Curriculum
designs;
• Flip charts;
• Masking tapes;
• Sticky notes;
• Felt pens;
• Folder with
samples of rubrics;
Session Outcomes
Areas to be Covered
Suggested Learning Activity
Resources -rubrics
SESSION THREE
77
In groups, participants:
a) state their understanding of the term
rubric
b) share experience on their use of
rubrics in pairs/small groups
c) discuss the benefits of rubrics to:
Learners; Teachers; Parents; policy
makers and other interested parties
d) identify various parts of a rubric
e) describe the core parts of the rubric
Meaning of Assessment Rubric
A set of criteria used for assessing a particular type of work or performance and provides more details than a
single grade or mark
Components of a rubric
The following are the Components of a rubric.
1. Descriptors; these precisely articulate what is expected of the individual learner or group in a given
task and describes the differences between performances at each level.
The following are examples of descriptors for low and high performance levels
Descriptors for Low Performance Levels Descriptors for High Performance Levels
• omits important details, facts, and/or
concepts
• thorough presentation of important details,
facts, and concepts
• with some errors • thorough solution without errors
• without complete understanding • thorough, extensive understanding
• generally explains • thorough mastery of extensive knowledge
• uses a single method • uses multiple methods
• represents a single perspective • represents a variety of perspectives
• identifies few connections • draws complex connections
Facilitator’s Notes
SESSION THREE
ASSESSMENT RUBRICS
Assessment Rubrics
Competence Based Assessment emphasizes
on formative assessment. Teachers are
encouraged to embrace classroom
assessment especially the assessment of
competencies. Rubrics enable the teacher to
apply a multi-assessment approach of a
competence where the focus goes beyond
assessment of academics to include
assessment of such aspects as values and
community service learning.
The aim of the session is to equip the
participant with knowledge and skills on
rubrics and how to use them effectively when
assessing learners.
By the end of the session, the participant
should be able to:
a) describe an assessment rubric;
b) identify the core components of
rubrics;
c) describe analytic and holistic rubric;
d) state the benefits of rubrics.
1. Description of an Assessment Rubric
2. Components of a Rubric
3. Types of Rubrics
4. Benefits of Rubrics
• Curriculum
designs;
• Flip charts;
• Masking tapes;
• Sticky notes;
• Felt pens;
• Folder with
samples of rubrics;
Session Outcomes
Areas to be Covered
Suggested Learning Activity
Resources -rubrics
78
• without drawing accurate conclusions • draws logical conclusions which are not
immediately obvious
• without explaining the reason • clearly explains the reasoning
• presents confusing statements and facts • provides clear, thorough support
• without demonstrating complete
understanding of the
characteristics
• demonstrates complete understanding of all
the characteristics in elaborate detail
• with limited details • in elaborate detail
• with inaccuracies • with precision and accuracy
• relies on single source • uses multiple sources
• unable to apply information in problem
• solving
• solves problem by effective application of
• information
2. Levels of performance determine the degree of performance which has been met
and will provide for consistent and objective assessment and better feedback to
learners. These levels inform the learners what they are expected to do.
3. Criteria identify the trait, feature or dimension which is to be measured and include a
definition and example to clarify the meaning of each attribute being assessed. Each
assignment or performance will determine the number of criteria to be scored.
4. Scores make up the system of numbers or values used to rate each criterion and often are
combined with levels of performance. Score example: 4, 3, 2, 1
EXCEEDING
EXPECTATION (4)
MEETING
EXPECTATION (3)
APPROACHING
EXPECTATION (2)
BELOW
EXPECTATION (1)
Identify and
Categorize
plants
Consistently and
correctly identifies
and categorizes
plants according to
specified features
Correctly identifies
and categorizes
plants according to
specified features
Sometimes identifies
and categorizes
plants according to
specified features.
Rarely identifies or
categorizes plants
according to
specified features.
Figure 5: Components of a Rubric (Source: KICD design Vol 2 G3.S. Environment and its Resources. SS.
Categorizing plants)
DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE CRITERION
SCORE
79
Table 6: Sample Assessment Sheet
Types of Rubrics
There are two types of rubrics.
Analytic Rubrics
It is a type of rubric that breaks down content or task being assessed into parts and assesses each
part separately. Due to its nature of breaking the content, it provides clear and detailed feedback.
Table 7: A Sample of Analytic Rubric
CRITERIA
Exceeds
expectation
4
Meets
expectation
3
Approaches
expectation
2
Below
expectation
1
1.4 Plants
1.4.1 Identifying
and Categorizing
plants
Consistently and
correctly identifies
and categorizes
plants according to
specified features.
Correctly identifies
and categorizes
plants according to
specified features.
Sometimes
identifies and
categorizes plants
according to
specified features.
Rarely identifies and
categorizes plants
according to
specified features.
1.4.2 Observing
Safety when
handling plants
Consistently and
correctly describes
and observes safety
when handling
plants
Correctly describes
and observes safety
when handling
plants.
Sometimes
describes and
observes safety
when handling
plants.
Rarely describes or
observes safety
when handling
plants.
Holistic Rubrics
It is a rubric that assesses overall performance on a task as a single entity. It scores the overall
competencies of the learner without assessing each criterion separately.
Table 8: A Sample Holistic Rubric
S/No Categorization of
plants
Safety when
handling plants
Fill in
additional
criteria
Comments on Level of
Performance
Learner’s Name 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
1. John Kimbo √ √ John can categorize
plants. Encourage him to
observe safety in
handling plants.
2. Gloria Weru
3. Henry Matasia
4. Rukia Neema
80
In groups, participants to brainstorm on various types of rubrics.
v Analytic
v Holistic
In pairs, participants to:
v identify various parts of a an analytic rubric individually;
v describe the core parts of the aanalytic rubric.
Participants to:
v individually identify various parts of a rubric individually;
v describe the core parts of the Holistic rubric in pairs and small groups.
Benefits of Rubrics
i. Provide an overview of learners’
achievements;
ii. Motivate learners to reach the
standard specified;
iii. Give learners control of their own
learning process;
iv. Give formative feedback;
v. Easier for the teacher to share with
learners and parents about certain
strengths and weaknesses;
vi. Guide learners on areas that requires
improvement;
vii. Make scoring easy and faster.
Development of Anlytic Rubrics
CRITERIA
Exceeds
expectation
4
Meets
expectation
3
Approaches
expectation
2
Below
expectation
1
1.3 Soil
1.3.1 Exploring
soil
characteristics
Consistently and
correctly differentiates
soil textures, size of
particles and deduces
name of soil based on
their characteristics.
Correctly differentiates
soil textures, size of
particles and deduces
name of soil based on
their characteristics.
Sometimes
differentiates soil
textures, size of
particles and deduces
name of soil based on
their characteristics.
Rarely
differentiates soil
textures, size of
particles or
deduces name of
soil based on their
characteristics.
Suggested Learning Activity
Facilitator’s Notes
Session Outcomes
Table 6: Sample Assessment Sheet
Types of Rubrics
There are two types of rubrics.
Analytic Rubrics
It is a type of rubric that breaks down content or task being assessed into parts and assesses each
part separately. Due to its nature of breaking the content, it provides clear and detailed feedback.
Table 7: A Sample of Analytic Rubric
CRITERIA
Exceeds
expectation
4
Meets
expectation
3
Approaches
expectation
2
Below
expectation
1
1.4 Plants
1.4.1 Identifying
and Categorizing
plants
Consistently and
correctly identifies
and categorizes
plants according to
specified features.
Correctly identifies
and categorizes
plants according to
specified features.
Sometimes
identifies and
categorizes plants
according to
specified features.
Rarely identifies and
categorizes plants
according to
specified features.
1.4.2 Observing
Safety when
handling plants
Consistently and
correctly describes
and observes safety
when handling
plants
Correctly describes
and observes safety
when handling
plants.
Sometimes
describes and
observes safety
when handling
plants.
Rarely describes or
observes safety
when handling
plants.
Holistic Rubrics
It is a rubric that assesses overall performance on a task as a single entity. It scores the overall
competencies of the learner without assessing each criterion separately.
Table 8: A Sample Holistic Rubric
S/No Categorization of
plants
Safety when
handling plants
Fill in
additional
criteria
Comments on Level of
Performance
Learner’s Name 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
1. John Kimbo √ √ John can categorize
plants. Encourage him to
observe safety in
handling plants.
2. Gloria Weru
3. Henry Matasia
4. Rukia Neema
81
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) develop sample analytic rubrics
b) demonstrate how to incorporate rubrics in classroom assessment
c) use rubrics effectively
In groups, participants to:
• develop an Analytic Rubric and an
assessment sheet;
• Present and analyze the rubric(s)
they have developed;
• Identify what they like or dislike
about the rubrics developed;
• Suggest ways of improving the
rubrics;
• Present their findings to the plenary.
Development of Holistic Rubrics
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) develop sample holistic rubrics
b) demonstrate how to incorporate holistic rubrics in classroom assessment
c) use rubrics effectively
In groups, participants to:
• develop a holistic rubric and an
assessment sheet;
• Present and analyze the rubric(s)
they developed;
• Identify what they like or dislike of
the rubrics developed;
• Suggest ways of improving the
rubric;
• Present their findings to the plenary
Suggested Learning Activity
Session Outcomes
Suggested Learning Activity
In groups, participants to brainstorm on various types of rubrics.
v Analytic
v Holistic
In pairs, participants to:
v identify various parts of a an analytic rubric individually;
v describe the core parts of the aanalytic rubric.
Participants to:
v individually identify various parts of a rubric individually;
v describe the core parts of the Holistic rubric in pairs and small groups.
Benefits of Rubrics
i. Provide an overview of learners’
achievements;
ii. Motivate learners to reach the
standard specified;
iii. Give learners control of their own
learning process;
iv. Give formative feedback;
v. Easier for the teacher to share with
learners and parents about certain
strengths and weaknesses;
vi. Guide learners on areas that requires
improvement;
vii. Make scoring easy and faster.
Development of Anlytic Rubrics
CRITERIA
Exceeds
expectation
4
Meets
expectation
3
Approaches
expectation
2
Below
expectation
1
1.3 Soil
1.3.1 Exploring
soil
characteristics
Consistently and
correctly differentiates
soil textures, size of
particles and deduces
name of soil based on
their characteristics.
Correctly differentiates
soil textures, size of
particles and deduces
name of soil based on
their characteristics.
Sometimes
differentiates soil
textures, size of
particles and deduces
name of soil based on
their characteristics.
Rarely
differentiates soil
textures, size of
particles or
deduces name of
soil based on their
characteristics.
Suggested Learning Activity
Facilitator’s Notes
Session Outcomes
82
Using Rubrics Effectively
Rubrics can be used effectively in the following ways:
a) Share rubrics with learner before giving the task;
b) Have learners evaluate their own work using the rubrics;
c) Have learners evaluate each other’s work using the rubrics;
d) Use the rubrics as the basis for feedback discussions with learner(s) while their work is
developing and when their work is completed;
e) Involve learners in revising and improving the rubrics;
f) Grade learners based on the rubrics.
For effective use of the rubric one needs to internalize and interpret the various descriptors and
criteria to place the learner in the respective competence levels.
a) What did I like about the presentation?
b) What did I find challenging in the presentation?
c) What improvements would I recommend on the presentations?
d) How will I apply the knowledge and skills acquired in your teaching
Facilitator’s Notes
Participant’s Reflections
83
TASK
4
EXCEEDING EXPECTATION
3
MEETING
EXPECTATION
2
APPROACHING
EXPECTATION
1
BELOW EXPECTATION
1.1 Nature Walk
a) Walking skill
Demonstrates wellcoordinated walking
movements in the right
direction.
Demonstrates
coordinated walking
movements in the
right direction .
Demonstrated
uncoordinated walking
movements sometimes in
the right direction
Demonstrates
uncoordinated
movements and
rarely walks in the
right direction.
b) Identification and
Categorization of
plants
Consistently and
accurately identifies the
plants in the immediate
environment.
Accurately identifies
plants in the
immediate
environment.
Identifies some plants in
the immediate
environment.
Rarely identifies
plants in the
immediate
environment.
Consistently and
accurately identifies the
characteristics of plants
Accurately identifies
characteristics of
plants.
Sometimes identifies the
characteristics of plants.
Rarely identifies
characteristics of
plants
Consistently and
accurately identifies and
categorizes plants
Accurately identifies
and categorizes
plants.
Sometimes identifies and
categorizes plants
Rarely identifies and
categorizes plants.
c) Drawing,
Colouring and
Labelling
Drawing is complete with
all the parts of a plant
correctly labelled
Uses appropriate colour
within confines of the
lines with even strokes in
one direction
Drawing is complete
with most the parts of
a plant correctly
labelled.
Uses appropriate
colour within confines
of the lines with most
strokes in one
direction
Drawing is incomplete
with some of the parts of a
plant correctly labelled
Sometimes uses
appropriate colour, but
not within confines of the
lines with some uneven
strokes
Stick figure drawing
with most parts not
drawn in position
and some incorrectly
labelled.
Attempts to use
appropriate colour,
but not within
confines of the lines
with uneven strokes
d) Mounting
technique
Makes smooth cuts
accurately along the
picture and firmly glues
all pieces flat and neatly
Makes smooth cuts
using small snips and
firmly glues the
picture flat.
Makes inconsistent cuts
on either side of the
chosen picture and
sometimes uses excess
glue that causes the
picture to fall off.
Has difficulties
cutting and gluing
properly without
assistance, the
picture falls off
because of too much
or too little glue.
84
e) Presentation Holds attention of
audience through direct
eye contact.
Speaks with excellent
voice variation to
emphasize key points.
Demonstrates knowledge
by explaining and
elaborating on responses.
Has direct eye contact
with audience.
Speaks with
satisfactory voice
variation.
Answers all questions
with ease.
Displays minimal eye
contact with the audience.
Speaks with uneven voice
with no variation.
Answers some of the
questions.
Has no eye contact
with the audience.
Speaks in low volume
and monotonous
tone.
Has limited grasp of
content and struggles
to answer questions.
1.2 Singing Confidently and
accurately sings a wide
range of simple songs in
unison, executing all the
elements of music and
expressing feelings, ideas
and emotions.
Accurately sings a
wide range of simple
songs in unison,
executing the
elements of music and
expressing feelings,
ideas and emotions.
Sings some simple songs
in unison, executing
elements of music and
expressing feelings, ideas
and emotions.
Exhibits difficulty
singing a wide range
of simple songs in
unison executing
elements of music
and expressing
feelings, ideas and
emotions.
1.3 Leaf Printing Consistently creates clear
repeat patterns in two
colours with varied
texture
Creates clear repeat
patterns in two
colours with varied
texture
Creates jumbled prints in
two colours with some
varied texture
Has difficulty in
producing prints
Working with others consistently works with
others to accomplish
tasks,
carefully listens to the
group members.
often works with
others to accomplish
tasks, carefully listens
to the
group members
sometimes works with
others to accomplish
tasks, and rarely listens to
the group members
Rarely works with
others to accomplish
tasks, and hardly
listens to the group
members.
85
SESSION FOUR
PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT
Session I: 8.00 a.m. – 10.30 a.m.
Overview of Portfolio
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to
a) Explain the meaning of portfolio as used in educational assessment
b) Identify various types of Portfolios used in educational assessment
1) Meaning of portfolio as used in educational assessment
2) Types of portfolios used in educational assessment: showcase, assessment and working
portfolio
a) http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/toolbox/index.htm
Porfolio
• Storage holders
• Display books
• Ring binders
• Drawing books
• Pieces of fabric
• Cartons or files
• Colour codes to
distinguish the
learning areas
• Flip charts
• Sticky notes
In groups, participants discuss and present:
v The meaning of portfolio as used in educational assessment
Session Outcomes
Areas to be Covered
Suggested Learning Activity
Resources-portfolio
SESSION FOUR
86
v Types of portfolios used in educational assessment
Meaning of Portfolio
Portfolio is a purposeful collection of learner’s work that shows their effort, progress and mastery
of a specified learning outcome or competency. It provides the evidence of learning progress and
achievement or mastery. A portfolio is one of the assessment tools used in educational assessment.
Figures 6 present different ways of keeping portfolios.
Storage box Box files Baskets
Folders Ring binders
Figure 6: Different Ways of Keeping Portfolios
Facilitator’s Notes
87
Types of Portfolios
Figure 7 presents types of portfolio.
Figure 7: Types of Portfolio
Working Portfolio
This is a collection of work in progress as
well as finished samples of work (product). It
contains work that can be later selected for
showcase and assessment portfolios. It
contains collection of work guided by
learning areas, learning outcomes and core
competences to be developed. It also contains
learner’s work that reflects his/her area of
interest. Figure 9 summarizes some functions
of working portfolio.
It shows:
a) development of one or more
products/performances (tracking);
b) goal-setting;
c) growth or change over time – earlier
and later work samples;
d) reflection of progress on set goals;
e) strengths and weaknesses
88
Figure 8: Functions of Work Portfolio
Showcase Portfolio
It shows/displays the best work of
the learner. It is created by a learner
to showcase their best qualities to an
audience (teacher, peers, parents
etc.). The content that goes into this type of portfolio is purely selected by a learner in line with
their interests. Figure 10 shows functions of showcase portfolio as follows:
a) accomplishments;
b) samples of best work for employment or college admission;
c) Learner’s perceptions of favourite, best or most important work.
Figure 9: Examples of Entries in a Showcase Portfolio
Assessment Portfolio
This type of portfolio is used to document mastery of skills or competences in a particular learning
area. The content in this type of portfolio is guided by the competences specified in the curricular.
It is used to:
a) show achievement for grading purposes;
b) document progress towards standards;
c) place learners appropriately
Showcase Portfolio
It shows/displays the best work of the learner. It is created by a learner to showcase
their best qualities to an audience (teacher, peers, parents etc.). The content that goes
into this type of portfolio is purely selected by a learner in line with their interests.
Figure 10 shows functions of showcase portfolio as follows:
a) accomplishments;
b) samples of best work for employment or college admission;
c) Learner’s perceptions of favourite, best or most important work.
Figure 8: Functions of Work Portfolio
Showcase Portfolio
It shows/displays the best work of
the learner. It is created by a learner
to showcase their best qualities to an
audience (teacher, peers, parents
etc.). The content that goes into this type of portfolio is purely selected by a learner in line with
their interests. Figure 10 shows functions of showcase portfolio as follows:
a) accomplishments;
b) samples of best work for employment or college admission;
c) Learner’s perceptions of favourite, best or most important work.
Figure 9: Examples of Entries in a Showcase Portfolio
Assessment Portfolio
This type of portfolio is used to document mastery of skills or competences in a particular learning
area. The content in this type of portfolio is guided by the competences specified in the curricular.
It is used to:
a) show achievement for grading purposes;
b) document progress towards standards;
c) place learners appropriately
89
Figure 10: Examples of Entries in an Assessment Portfolio
Development of Portfolio
By the end of the session the participants should be able to:
a) Describe the stages of developing a portfolio;
b) Identify features of a good portfolio;
c) Manage a portfolio in classroom assessment;
d) Engage parents in portfolio assessment;
e) Explain the importance of portfolio assessment.
1) Stages of developing a portfolio
2) Management of portfolio in classroom assessment
3) Parental involvement in portfolio assessment
4) Importance of portfolio assessment
Session Outcomes
Areas to be Covered
90
In groups, participants discuss and make presentations on the stages of developing a portfolio
STAGES OF DEVELOPING A PORTFOLIO
Stage 1: Planning
The purpose is to show learners progress, achievement or mastery of competencies and
learner interest or talents.
Factors to consider when planning
• Types of portfolio – working, show case, or assessment
• Audience – the consumers of the portfolio (teachers, parents, school administration,
KNEC, MoE).
• Design of the storage – Storage box , Box files, Baskets, digital devices (E- Portfolio),
Manila envelopes, folders, display books, Ring binders, drawing books, pieces of
fabric, cartons or files
Stage 2: Communication
The teacher should communicate to the learners, head-teacher, other teachers and parents on their
roles in the development of a portfolio.
Stage 3: Collection of Work Samples
Learners should be guided by the teacher on how to assemble meaningful work that reflects their
own progress and mastery of competencies.
The collection should be guided by:
Suggested Learning Activity
Facilitator’s Notes
91
ü Purpose of the portfolio
ü Specified learning outcomes and
competencies
ü Evaluation criteria
ü Personal goals and interests
Stage 4: Selection of Work Samples
This is the decision-making stage where the learner selects the work to be added to the portfolio
and how it should be arranged. The selection is guided by the type and purpose of portfolio.
Learners should be guided and encouraged to select the best of their own work.
Stage 5: Reflection
Every learner should make a self-assessment comment on the work selected for addition to a
portfolio. The reflection statements can be:
ü Learners thoughts on their own learning
ü Strengths and weaknesses identified
ü Progress on the specified competency
Some of the questions that guide learners to reflect on their work include:
(a) What did I learn from it?
(b) What did I do well?
(c) Why did I choose this item? (Based on the assessment criteria)
(d) What do I do to improve on the item?
(e) How do I feel about my performance?
(f) What are the problem areas?
Stage 6: Feedback
The work selected for addition into a portfolio should contain feedback from peers,
parents and/or teachers.
In groups, participants discuss and make presentations on the features of a good portfolio,
management of a portfolio and parental engagement in portfolio assessment
Suggested Learning Activity
Facilitator’s Notes
In groups, participants discuss and make presentations on the stages of developing a portfolio
STAGES OF DEVELOPING A PORTFOLIO
Stage 1: Planning
The purpose is to show learners progress, achievement or mastery of competencies and
learner interest or talents.
Factors to consider when planning
• Types of portfolio – working, show case, or assessment
• Audience – the consumers of the portfolio (teachers, parents, school administration,
KNEC, MoE).
• Design of the storage – Storage box , Box files, Baskets, digital devices (E- Portfolio),
Manila envelopes, folders, display books, Ring binders, drawing books, pieces of
fabric, cartons or files
Stage 2: Communication
The teacher should communicate to the learners, head-teacher, other teachers and parents on their
roles in the development of a portfolio.
Stage 3: Collection of Work Samples
Learners should be guided by the teacher on how to assemble meaningful work that reflects their
own progress and mastery of competencies.
The collection should be guided by:
Suggested Learning Activity
Facilitator’s Notes
92
Features of a Good Portfolio
Cover Page
This includes one or two paragraphs that show personal goals and experiences of the learner. It
also includes the learner’s personal details such as Name, Grade, School, Gender and Age.

Figure 11: Example of Portfolio Cover Page
Table of contents
This shows what is contained in the portfolio. The contents can be organized based on learning
areas, tasks or core competencies.
Entries
This includes core and optional items. Core items are required for each learner to facilitate
decision making during assessment. Core items provide evidence of performance on the
specified learning outcomes or competencies.
Optional items on the other hand are the items of the learner’s choice.
Dates
All entries must have a date(s) to provide proof of growth over time.
Drafts
These include initial and revised/corrected version of learner’s aural/oral and
written/constructed products.
Reflections
This could be on the level of performance, progress and feelings about learner’s own work.
Management of Portfolios in Classroom Assessment
The teacher should:
In groups, participants discuss and make presentations on the stages of developing a portfolio
STAGES OF DEVELOPING A PORTFOLIO
Stage 1: Planning
The purpose is to show learners progress, achievement or mastery of competencies and
learner interest or talents.
Factors to consider when planning
• Types of portfolio – working, show case, or assessment
• Audience – the consumers of the portfolio (teachers, parents, school administration,
KNEC, MoE).
• Design of the storage – Storage box , Box files, Baskets, digital devices (E- Portfolio),
Manila envelopes, folders, display books, Ring binders, drawing books, pieces of
fabric, cartons or files
Stage 2: Communication
The teacher should communicate to the learners, head-teacher, other teachers and parents on their
roles in the development of a portfolio.
Stage 3: Collection of Work Samples
Learners should be guided by the teacher on how to assemble meaningful work that reflects their
own progress and mastery of competencies.
The collection should be guided by:
Suggested Learning Activity
Facilitator’s Notes
93
1. Go over the portfolio with learners at regular intervals to ensure that the selected
pieces address the learning outcomes.
2. Ensure limited number of entries for practical reasons. Focus should be on Quality and
not Quantity.
3. Involve the learners in organizing the portfolio by completing checklists of the
assignments done and including the dates on all entries.
4. Organize for the storage of the learners’ portfolios which should be easily accessible.
5. Colour code portfolios for each class to facilitate their retrieval.
6. Ensure that storage holders for the portfolio are made from locally available and
accessible materials such as manila envelopes, folders, files, baskets, or Cartons.
Parental Engagement In Portfolio Assessment
There should be a planned program for parental engagement in portfolio assessment.
The parents should be informed about:
i. Portfolio assessment,
ii. Participation in about portfolios open day meetings,
iii. Provision of feedback to their child,
iv. Provision of support for their child’s effort and interest.
Features of a Good Portfolio
Cover Page
This includes one or two paragraphs that show personal goals and experiences of the learner. It
also includes the learner’s personal details such as Name, Grade, School, Gender and Age.

Figure 11: Example of Portfolio Cover Page
Table of contents
This shows what is contained in the portfolio. The contents can be organized based on learning
areas, tasks or core competencies.
Entries
This includes core and optional items. Core items are required for each learner to facilitate
decision making during assessment. Core items provide evidence of performance on the
specified learning outcomes or competencies.
Optional items on the other hand are the items of the learner’s choice.
Dates
All entries must have a date(s) to provide proof of growth over time.
Drafts
These include initial and revised/corrected version of learner’s aural/oral and
written/constructed products.
Reflections
This could be on the level of performance, progress and feelings about learner’s own work.
Management of Portfolios in Classroom Assessment
The teacher should:
94
Importance of Portfolio Assessment
ü Assessment is integrated in teaching and learning process.
ü Instructional goals are set at the beginning and are both clear to the teacher and
the learner.
ü Provides a clear profile of learners in terms of abilities and interest.
ü Enables learners to show quality work which is done without pressure and
constraints of time in collaboration with others.
ü It allows demonstration of a wide range of competencies.
ü It shows the learners effort to improve and develop i.e. it demonstrates progress
over time.
ü It gives learners opportunity to reflect on their work.
Development of Portfolio
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to develop a portfolio.
In groups, participants to develop the three types of portfolio using the task and evidences
provided. The portfolio should aim at demonstrating the learners’ progress, achievement and
interest in the areas outlined in the rubrics and the core competencies.
Session Outcomes
Suggested Learning Activity
95
SESSION FIVE
REPORTING OF ASSESSMENT FEEDBACK
Assessment Reporting Tools
By the end of the session, participants should be able to develop tools for reporting feedback
on classroom assessment.
1) School Readiness Report for Early Years Education tier
2) School Year Report for Early Years Education tier
3) School Year Report for SNE Foundation Pathway
1) In groups, participants brainstorm on the components of assessment feedback
reporting tools.
2) In groups, participants develop assessment feedback reporting tools.
Session Outcomes
Suggested Learning Activity
Areas to be Covered
SESSION FIVE
96
6
MINISTRY OF
EDUCATION
SCHOOL YEAR REPORT
EARLY YEARS OF EDUCATION
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
YEAR:
NAME OF SCHOOL:
LEARNER’S GRADE:
DATE OF
BIRTH:
LEARNER’S NAME: ATTENDANCE
ADMISSION NUMBER: TERMS T1 T2 T3
NEMIS NUMBER:
No. of
Days
Absent
The teacher should record the learner’s achievement level for each learning area using
the rating in the table.
Performance Level Rating
Exceeding Expectation 4
Meeting Expectation 3
Approaching Expectation 2
Below Expectation 1
2. LEARNER’S ACHIEVEMENT
LEARNING AREAS TERM
Mathematics Activities 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Numbers
Measurement
Geometry
AFFIX
LEARNER’S
PHOTO
HERE
49
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EARLY LEARNING AND BASIC EDUCATION
SCHOOL YEAR REPORT FOR EARLY YEARS OF EDUCATION
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
YEAR:
NAME OF SCHOOL: MOE SCHOOL CODE:
LEARNER’S NAME: DATE OF BIRTH:
ADMISSION NUMBER: ATTENDANCE
NEMIS NUMBER: TERMS T1 T2 T3
LEARNER’S GRADE:
No. of Days
Absent
The teacher should record the learner’s achievement level for each learning area using the rating in the table.
Performance Level Rating
Exceeding Expectation 4
Meeting Expectation 3
Approaching Expectation 2
Below Expectation 1
2. LEARNER’S ACHIEVEMENT
LEARNING AREAS TERM
Mathematics Activities 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Numbers
Measurement
Geometry
Language Activities T1 T2 T3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
English Activities
Listening and Speaking
AFFIX
LEARNER’S
PHOTO
HERE
97
7
LEARNING AREAS TERM
Language Activities
T1 T2 T3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance English Activities
Listening and Speaking
Reading
Writing
Kiswahili Activities 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Kusikiliza na
kuzungumuza
Kusoma
Kuandika
Environmental
Activities 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Environment and its
resources
Social Environment
Caring for the
environment
Hygiene and Nutrition
Activities 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Health Practices
Personal Hygiene
Food and Nutrition
Safety Education
Consumer Education
Religious Activities
1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance Christian Religious
Activities
Creation
The Holy Bible
98
8
The Early life of Jesus
Christ
Christian Values
Hindu Religious
Activities 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Creation
Worship
Manifestations
Scriptures
Yoga
Sadachaar
Ustav
Islamic Religious
Activities 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Quran
Pillars of Iman
Siirah (Life of the
prophet SAW)
Hadith
Devotional Acts
Moral Teachings
Islamic Festivals
Movement and
Creative Activities 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Movement
Basic Motor Skills
Swimming
Gymnastics
99
9
Art and Craft 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Drawing
Paint and Colour
Pattern Making
Paper Craft
Weaving
Mounting Technique
Decoration Forms
Ornaments
Fabric Decoration
Modelling
Sculpture
Music 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Performing
Creating/Composing
Music
Listening and
Responding
100
10
Learner’s Conduct and Behaviour
Attributes/Area Teacher’s Comments
Classroom conduct
Work completion
Working with others
Class Teacher’s Feedback on Learner’s acquisition of Core Competencies
(Communication and Collaboration, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Imagination and
Creativity, Citizenship, Digital Literacy, Learning to Learn, Self-Efficacy)
Class Teacher’s Feedback on Learner’s acquisition of Values
(Responsibility, Respect, Excellence, Care and Compassion, Understanding and Tolerance,
Honesty and Trustworthy, Trust and Being Ethical)
Evidence of Participation in Community Service Learning
Head Teacher’s Details
Name: Sign: Date:
Parents/Guardian Details
Name: Sign: Date:
101
11

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
THE SCHOOL YEAR REPORT
SNE STAGE-BASED PATHWAY –FOUNDATION LEVEL
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
YEAR:
NAME OF SCHOOL:
LEARNER’S GRADE:

DATE
OF
BIRTH:
LEARNER’S NAME: ATTENDANCE
ADMISSION NUMBER:
TERMS T1 T2 T
3
NEMIS NUMBER:
NO. OF DAYS
ABSENT
The teacher should record the learner’s achievement level for each learning area using the
rating in the table.
Performance Level Rating
Exceeding Expectation 4
Meeting Expectation 3
Approaching Expectation 2
Below Expectation 1
2. LEARNER’S ACHIEVEMENT
LEARNING AREAS TERM
Communication, Social and PreLiteracy Skills 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Communication Readiness
Recognizing Multi-Sensory Stimuli
within the Environment
Verbal Expressive or Non-Verbal
Expressive Communication Skills
Argumentative and Alternative Aided
Communication Skills
Social skills
AFFIX
LEARNER’S
PHOTO HERE
54
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EARLY LEARNING AND BASIC EDUCATION
SCHOOL YEAR REPORT FOR SNE STAGE BASED PATHWAY–FOUNDATION LEVEL
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
YEAR:
NAME OF SCHOOL: MOE SCHOOL CODE:
LEARNER’S NAME: DATE OF BIRTH:
ADMISSION NUMBER: ATTENDANCE
NEMIS NUMBER: TERMS T1 T2 T3
LEARNER’S GRADE:
NO. OF DAYS
ABSENT
The teacher should record the learner’s achievement level for each learning area using the rating in the table.
Performance Level Rating
Exceeding Expectation 4
Meeting Expectation 3
Approaching Expectation 2
Below Expectation 1
2. LEARNER’S ACHIEVEMENT
LEARNING AREAS TERM
Communication, Social and PreLiteracy Skills 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Communication Readiness
Recognizing Multi-Sensory Stimuli
within the Environment
Verbal Expressive or Non-Verbal
Expressive Communication Skills
Argumentative and Alternative Aided
Communication Skills
Social skills
Interpersonal Relationships
Pre-reading and Pre writing Skills
AFFIX
LEARNER’S
PHOTO HERE
102
12
LEARNING AREAS TERM
Interpersonal Relationships
Pre-reading and Pre writing Skills
Daily Living Skills and Religious
Education 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Personal Items
Toileting
Prayer
Feeding
Dressing and Undressing
Our environment
Sensory-Motor and Creative
Activities 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Sensory Perception
Sensory Integration
Psychomotor Activities
Creative Activities
Music and Movement
Orientation and Mobility 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Body awareness
Use of body parts in Orientation and
Mobility
Body Posture
Position in space and direction of
movement
Movement in the environment
103
13
Mobility Techniques
Use of devices
Information & Communication
Technology
Pre-Numeracy Activities 1 2 3 Teacher’s Statement on Learner’s Performance
Gross and Fine Motor Skills
Classification
Pre- number Activities
Measurement
Learner’s Conduct and Behaviour
Teacher’s Comments
Classroom conduct
Work completion
Working with others
Class Teacher’s Feedback on Learner’s acquisition of Values and Core Competencies
(Communication and Collaboration, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Imagination and
Creativity, Citizenship, Digital Literacy, Learning to Learn, Self-Efficacy)
Class Teacher’s Feedback on Learner’s acquisition of Values
(Responsibility, Respect, Excellence, Care and Compassion, Understanding and Tolerance, Honesty
and Trustworthy, Trust and Being Ethical)
Evidence of Participation in Community Service Learning
Head Teacher’s Details
Name: Sign: Date:
104
14
Parents/Guardian Details
Name: Sign: Date:
105
106
BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM
FRAMEWORK
Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development
Figure 1: Curriculum Development Cycle
Rationale for Curriculum Reforms
Constitution of Kenya, 2010
• Article 53 (1) (b) states, that every child has a right to
free and compulsory basic education
• Article 10, National Values and Principles of
Governance
• Chapters 6, Leadership and Integrity
• Promoting Kiswahili as a national and official
language and English as official languages.
• Encouraging teaching and learning of KSL and
Braille.
• Developing and promoting the use of indigenous
languages.
• Emphasis on communication formats and
technologies accessible to persons with disabilities.
Rationale Cont:
The Kenya Vision 2030
• Integrating early childhood into primary
education
• Reforming secondary curricula
• modernizing teacher training
• developing programmes for learners with
special needs among others
Rationale Cont:
Task Force Report chaired by Professor
Odhiambo, 2012
• major curriculum reform to align it with the
Constitution, 2010 and to address the dictates
of Vision 2030
• inclusion of community service programmes
in the school curriculum
Rationale Cont:
Draft Sessional Paper on ‘Reforming Education
and Training in Kenya’
• reforming the education sector to provide for the
holistic development of learners
• recommends a competency based curriculum
• early Identification and nurturing of talents
• introduction of values
• introduction of three learning pathways at
Senior Secondary School level.
Rationale Cont:
Summative evaluation of the 8-4-4 system of education, 2009
• more academic and examination oriented. Teachers hardly use
formative assessment (assessment for learning). Assessment was
limited to summative assessment (assessment of learning).
• graduates at secondary school level also did not acquire adequate
entrepreneurial skills for self-reliance.
• did not provide flexible education pathways for identifying and
nurturing aptitudes, talents and interests of learners early enough in
order to prepare them for the world of work, career progression and
sustainable development.
• skills gaps identified – agricultural, entrepreneurial, vocational and
technical skills, innovation and creativity and ICT .
• recommended a needs assessment survey
Rationale Cont:
KICD Needs Assessment Survey 2016
• a curriculum reform
• a wide curriculum to cater for various talent areas to
enable learners achieve their potential and be better
equipped to develop themselves and the nation.
• a functional holistic curriculum that would produce an
individual with spiritual, moral and social aspects with
ability to live amicably with others.
• development and acquisition competencies at every
level of learning
• a flexible and comprehensive educational structure and
system
Rationale Cont:
East African Community Protocol
Recommendations on:
• National Goals of Education
• Structure for Basic Education
• Key Competences
• Learning areas/subjects
• Learning outcomes for ECD, Primary and
Secondary
• Guidelines on assessment
Rationale cont:
Global Standards
• UNESCO IBE – review every 5 years
• Sustainable Development Goal No 4
(ensuring quality education)
• 21st Learning (Skills and Approaches)

Table 1: Comparative Overview of the East African Region
12
Country Pre-primary Primary Secondary Total
Burundi 3 6 7-8 16-17
Uganda 3 7 6 16
Rwanda 3 6 6 15
Tanzania
mainland 2 7 6 15
Kenya 2 8 4 14
Tanzania
Zanzibar 2 6 6 14
Table 2: Global Comparative of Basic Education
Country Pre-primary Primary Junior Secondary Senior Secondary Total years
Canada (2) 6 2 4 14
South Korea (3) 6 3 3 15
Kenya (2) 8 – 4 14
Ghana – 6 3 3 12
South Africa (1) 6 3 3 13
Singapore (3) 6 2 3 14
England – 6 3 3 12
Malaysia (2) 6 3 2 13
China (2) 6 3 3 14
Finland (1) 6 3 3 13
Paradigm shift
FROM (less)
Content Focus
Rigid and Prescriptive curriculum with
limited flexibility
Focus on summative assessment and
competition (High stakes exams)
Emphasis on Schooling
Teaching
TO (more)
Focus on Competencies
Flexible with Opportunities for
specialisation – pathways
Balance between formative and
summative assessment, and excellence
Emphasis on Education
Learning
BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK

NATIONAL GOALS OF EDUCATION
1. Foster nationalism, patriotism and promote national
unity
2. Promote social, economic, technological and industrial
needs for national development
3. Promote individual development and self-fulfillment
4. Promote sound moral and religious values
5. Promote social equity and responsibility
6. Promote respect for and development of Kenya’s rich
and varied cultures
7. Promote international consciousness and foster
positive attitude towards other nations
8. Promote positive attitude towards good health and
environmental protection

Values
• Love
• Responsibility
• Respect
• Unity
• Peace
• Patriotism
• Social Justice
• Integrity
Guiding Principles
• Opportunity
• Excellence
• Diversity and Inclusion
• Parental Empowerment
and Engagement
• Community Service
Learning
• Differentiated
Curriculum & Learning
Theoretical Approaches
• The Instructional
Design Theory
• Vygotsky’s SocialCultural Theory
• Gardner’s Multiple
Intelligences Theory
• Piaget’s Theory of
Cognitive
Development
Core Competencies for Basic Education
1. Communication and Collaboration
2. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
3. Imagination and Creativity
4. Citizenship
5. Digital Literacy
6. Learning to Learn
7. Self -Efficacy Next topic
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Pertinent and Contemporary Issues
No. Broad area Pertinent and Contemporary Issues
1. Health Related Issues HIV and AIDS, alcohol and drug abuse
prevention and lifestyle diseases
2. Life Skills and values
Issues
Life skills, Values and human sexuality
3. Social Economic
Issues
Environmental, disaster risk reduction,
safety and security, countering
terrorism, violent extremism and
radicalization, poverty eradication,
gender and animal welfare
Other programs to support CBC
•Values based Education (VbE)
•Citizenship
•Community Service Learning (CSL)
•Non-Formal Programmes – clubs and societies,
sports and games.
•Guidance services, career guidance,
counselling services, peer education,
mentorship, learning to live
•Parental empowerment and engagement.
Learning Areas for Early Years Education
Pre Primary Education
Learning Area Lessons Per Week
1 Mathematical Activities 5
2 Language Activities/Kenya Sign
language/Pre Braille Activities
5
3 Environmental Activities 5
4 Psychomotor and Creative Activities 8 (5 lessons for
Psychomotor and 3
lessons for Creative
activities)
5 Religious Education(CRE,IRE,HRE)
and PPI
2 (1 PPI)
Total No of lessons per week 25
Lower Primary Education
Learning Area Lessons Per Week
1 Literacy Activities and Indigenous
Languages /Braille
5
2 Kiswahili Language Activities/Kenya Sign
Language for learners who are deaf
3
3 English Language Activities 3
4 Mathematics Activities 5
5 Environmental Activities 5
6 Hygiene and Nutrition Activities 2
7 Religious Activities (CRE/IRE/HRE) 3
8 Movement and Creative Activities 8 (5 for Movement 2 for Art
&Craft, 1 for music)
9 Pastoral Programme of Instruction 1
Total Lesson Per Week 35
PROPOSED UPPER PRIMARY & LOWER SECONDARY LEARNING AREAS
1. Kiswahili Language /KSL
for learners who are deaf
2. English language
3. Other Languages
4. Science and Technology
5. Social Studies (Citizenship,
Geography, History)
6. Mathematics
7. Home science
8. Agriculture
9. Religious Education
(CRE/IRE/ HRE/PPI)
10. Creative Arts (Art, Craft,
Music)
11. Physical and Health
Education
1. English
2. Kiswahili / KSL (for learners who
are deaf)
3. Mathematics
4. Integrated Science
5. Health Education
6. Pre technical and Pre Career
Education
7. Social Studies (Citizenship,
Geography, History)
8. Religious Education (CRE/IRE/
HRE/PPI)
9. Business Studies
10. Agriculture
11. Life Skills Education
12. Sports and Physical Education
• Option subject
• Option subject
LOWER SECONDARY
GRADE 7-9
UPPER PRIMARY
GRADE 4-6
CURRICULUM FOR LEARNERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
Category of
learners
Pre-primary Lower primary Grade 4
1.Visual
impairment
Mathematical Activities Mathematics Activities Mathematics
Environmental Activities Environmental
Activities
Science and Technology
Agriculture
Home Science
Braille
Psychomotor Activities Movement and
creative Activities
Social studies
PHE
Pre braille Activities Braille literacy Creative Arts
2.Hearing
impairment
Environmental Activities Environmental
Activities
English
Psychomotor Activities Movement and
creative Activities
Social studies
Creative Arts
Kenya Sign language Kenya Sign Language Science and technology
English Language
Activities
CURRICULUM FOR LEARNERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
Category of
learners
Pre-primary Lower primary Grade 4
3. Physical
impairment
Mathematics Activities Mathematics Activities Mathematics
Environmental Activities Environmental
Activities
Science and Technology
Agriculture
Home Science
Braille
Psychomotor Activities Movement and
creative Activities
Social studies
PHE
Mathematics Activities Creative Arts
SCIENCES
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Next topic
Select a maximum of two
from the options
BACK
Select one from the options
BACK
Select one from the options
BACK
Select a minimum of
3
subjects and a maximum of 5
from the options
BACK
Select a minimum of
3
subjects and a maximum of 5
from the options
BACK
The learner will select a minimum
of three from the options
BACK
The learner will select one of the optional subjects
BACK
The learner will select one
of the optional subjects
BACK
The learner will select one
of the optional subjects BACK
Table 12: CBC ROLL OUT PLAN
Grade 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028
PP1-
G1&2
G3 Std.3
G4 Std.4
G5 Std.5
G6 Std.6
G7 Std.7
G8 Std 8
G9 F.1
G10 F.2
G11 F.3
G12 F.4
Key:
National Pilot
CBC rollout
8-4-4
THANK YOU
WHAT IS MONITORING LEARNER PROGRESS
Monitoring Learner Progress [MLP]
is a process carried out throughout a learning programme to keep track of the
learning process in order to intervene, where necessary.
This includes finding out:
* If learning is taking place.
* How much have learners learnt.
* Whether the expected/intended competences/values/ skills are being
achieved.
* What interventions could help to improve learning.
WHAT MONITORING LEARNER PROGRESS IS NOT!
• Monitoring Learner Progress [MLP] is NOT an examination and will
NOT be administered like KCPE.
For example:
• No security officers in schools.
• No external examiners.
• No strict timing to do tests.
MLP does NOT:
• Rank learners’ performance.
• Compare learners’ or schools’ performance.
• MLP will NOT be used to determine who moves from Grade 3 to
Grade 4.
• This transition will be automatic for all learners.
1
The Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC)
P. O. Box 73598-00200, Nairobi, Kenya
COMPETENCY BASED ASSESSMENT
FRAMEWORK (CBAF)
2
Aspects of the Competency Based Assessment Draft
Framework (CBAF
)
 Introduction of CBA
 Linkage between CBC with CBA
 Types of Assessments
Overview of the Presentation
AIM
 To provide a basis for creating a sound and sustainable assessment system,
principles and professional standards of assessment.
 A means to improve education quality and learning outcomes for all
learners at basic education levels.
 Improving learning and instruction;
 Identifying and nurturing every learner’s potential;
 Selection of pathways and tracks in senior secondary school;
 Measuring student achievement and certification at the end of basic
education in Grade 12;
 Establishing a means of measuring learners’ participation in Community
Service Learning and acquisition of values as mandatory part of the
Learner Exit Profile at the end of Basic Education in Grade 12;
 Providing feedback to learners, schools, parents and other players in basic
education; and
 Providing a basis for accountability of teachers, school administrators
and other players in basic education
More on :
 formative and less summative assessments
 assessment of higher order skills than lower order skills
 self and peer assessments by the learners
 multiple than one off assessments
 authentic assessments
 performance assessments
 qualitative than quantitative feedback
 acquisition of values
 A process of determining the capability of a learner to apply a set of
related knowledge, skills, values and attitudes required to
successfully perform tasks.
 CBA is based on the principles of assessing learners as they use
acquired knowledge and skills in a given situation.
 Aims at providing a way of building the skills knowledge, attitudes
and values that learners require to perform identified tasks as they go
through learning experiences.
7
ACTIVITY 1: (03 Minutes)
 In pairs, brainstorm and write down the linkage between CBC
and CBA.
 Few selected pairs to read out their linkages.
8
 CBA is derived from the vision and mission of CBC
 Learning outcomes in CBC form the basis of all assessment
 Learning experiences in CBC determine the assessment tasks
 Focus is on assessment of the core competencies, values, PCIs,
Community service Learning
9
10
Intended learning
outcomes (CBC &
CBA)
Learning
Experiences
(CBC
&CBA)
Assessment
(CBC&CBA)
When designing assessment tasks the following questions may guide
the teacher:
 What learning outcomes should learners acquire and demonstrate?
 What learning experiences are appropriate for learners in order to
develop the desired competencies?
 What assessment tasks can be used to measure the learner’s
acquisition of the desired competencies?
11
12
13
Classroom Assessment- (CA)
 Formative assessment is to be carried out by the teacher
throughout the learning process
National Assessment
This will be carried out at the end of the Early Years
Education
 MONITORING LEARNER PROGRESS (MLP) at Grade 3
14
ACTIVITY 2 (03-Minutes)
 Participants to brainstorm on the different types of assessment used
during the learning process.
 Few participants to make presentations.
15
 Assessment for learning is the process of seeking and interpreting
evidence for use by teachers and learners.
 It uses both formal and informal methods to check whether learners
are achieving the desired learning outcomes.
 This is carried out on a continuous basis to monitor the learner’s
progress and to collect information on learners’ ability to demonstrate
the required competencies.
16
 Assessment as Learning occurs when a learner is assisted to develop
a capacity to be independent, self-directed to set individual goals,
monitor own progress or self-assess, and reflect on his/her learning.
 The learner is provided with a clear roadmap to reach proficiency.
Set criteria that have a variety of examples or models of good work
for comparison are also provided as benchmarks.
17
 Assessment of Learning is a comprehensive process used to
summarize and communicate what a learner knows and can do
with respect to curriculum learning outcomes and expectations at
the conclusion of a defined instructional period, time or tier.
 It includes tests, examinations, performances, presentations,
portfolio, and a variety of written, oral and visual methods.
18
19
1
The Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC)
P. O. Box 73598-00200, Nairobi, Kenya
THE KENYA NATIONAL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
COMPETENCY BASED ASSESSMENT
TOOLS
2
What is a classroom assessment tool?
This is an instrument that may be used by a teacher to
determine the extent to which a leaner has achieved
specified learning outcomes.
3
Competency Based Assessment Tools
❖Observation schedules
❖Checklists
❖Rating Scales
❖Rubrics
❖Questionnaires
❖Project
❖Journals
❖Portfolio
❖Oral or Aural Questions
❖Learner’s Profile
❖Written Tests
❖Anecdotal Records
4
OBSERVATION SCHEDULE
This is a schedule outlining characteristics and
behaviour that learners manifest during the
performance of specific tasks individually or as a
group. The teacher records observations made on
the behaviour of the learner.
5
6
CHECKLIST
❑ a list of attributes of an individual’s behaviour that
requires the teacher to carefully observe and tick
whatever behaviour is portrayed
❑ at the end of the lesson the teacher and the learner
make a summary and draw a conclusion.
❑ learners too can be guided to develop and use their
own tools to monitor their progress especially on selfefficacy (such as personal, social and decision
making) skills.
7
RATING SCALE
❑ rating scales state the criteria and provide three or
four response selections to describe the quality or
frequency of learner’s work.
❑ use of descriptive words such as always, usually,
sometimes and never helps to pinpoint specific
strengths and needs.
8
Skill /Behaviour Always Usually Sometimes Never
Locates own seat
independently
spontaneously
Settles on own seat
independently with
ease
Positions self on the
seat appropriately
9
RUBRICS
❑ consist of a fixed measurement scale and detailed
description of the characteristics for each level of
performance
❑ the descriptions focus on the quality of the
performance and not the quantity
❑ are commonly used to evaluate learner performance
with the intention of including the result in a grade for
reporting purposes and teacher accountability
measures
10
QUESTIONNAIRES
❑ a list of questions on various aspects of a person’s situation
or issue
❑ can be used before teaching to find out the needs,
characteristics, experiences and knowledge levels of
learners (entry behaviour)
❑ can be used by the teacher to find out how learners are
progressing and responding to the learning activities
❑ can be given to learners to gather feedback on how they are
applying their learned competencies in and out of school
11
PROJECT
❑ a set of activities implemented within a set timeframe with a
clear start and end time, with a clearly stated purpose and
set of objectives
❑ gives an opportunity to learners to apply their acquired
knowledge and transferable skills to a real life situation.
❑ learners could be challenged to identify a need in their
community where they can provide services based on what
they have learned
12
In groups, learners will be expected to:
❑identify forms of kitchen garden.
❑choose a suitable form of a kitchen garden.
❑name types of crops that can be grown in a
kitchen garden.
❑choose one crop that is suited to the environment.
❑create a kitchen garden
❑care for the crop in the kitchen garden
13
14
JOURNAL
❑ the learner keeps a record of their personal feelings,
thoughts and experiences on a daily basis
❑ shows the activities carried out in a day by a learner.
❑ assessment through journals and diaries should be a joint
venture between the learner and the teacher.
❑ based on the learner’s performance, the teacher can
provide either support or challenge or both.
15
PORTFOLIO
❑ a purposeful collection of learner work samples, learner selfassessments and goal statements that reflect a learner’s
progress i.e evidence assembled by learners to
demonstrate competency.
❑ learners choose the work samples to place in the portfolio,
but the teacher may also recommend that specific work
samples be included
16
ORAL /AURAL QUESTIONS
❑ are used to establish what a learner knows and can do.
❑ oral questions are posed by the teacher verbally
❑ aural questions are usually pre-recorded and played to the
learner
❑ allow the learner time to think then call randomly to respond
❑ use both closed-ended and open-ended questions
❑ include questions that promote higher order thinking
17
LEARNER’S PROFILE
❑ a summary of the teacher’s opinion on mastery of
competencies acquired in a level
❑ constructed using information obtained from observation
schedule, learner’s journal, checklist, portfolio and
involvement in projects
18
ANECDOTAL RECORDS
❑ an account of an event in a child’s day
❑ reports, photos and drawings may be used to describe, in a
factual way, the incident, its context, and what was said or
done by the participant(s)
❑ may also be used to record specific observations of
individual learner’s behaviours, skills and attitudes as they
relate to their learning and the environment
19
WRITTEN TESTS
❑ are designed according to pre-determined criteria that
measure competencies in specific learning areas
❑ designed to elicit evidence from the learner on their
acquisition of learning outcomes and competencies such as
creative thinking, problem solving, and communication
20
Adaptation of Assessment Tools
Modification of assessment methods and tools:
❑presentation of assessment task
❑duration of tackling the task
❑ways of responding to the task
❑scheduling
21
Participant’s Reflections
22
1
AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
2
1. Define authentic assessment
2. Differentiate between authentic and traditional
assessment
3. Characteristics of authentic assessments
4. Give benefits of authentic assessment
5. Develop authentic assessments (tasks)
AREAS TO BE COVERED
3
Is a form of Assessment in which learners are
asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate
meaningful application of essential knowledge and
skills.
Example
The actual driving test is authentic assessment
while a written test on driving is traditional
assessment.
WHAT IS AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT?
4
In Authentic assessment:
a) learners create a response to a question.
b) tests contain real-life tasks, performances or
challenges that replicate the problems faced by
an expert in a particular field.
c) learners are given up-front, the criteria on
which their work will be judged.
d) learners demonstrate their control over the
essential knowledge being taught by actually
using the information in a way that reveals their
level of understanding.
5
TRADITIONAL VERSUS AUTHENTIC
ASSESSMENT
Traditional Assessment Authentic Assessment
Requires learners to
demonstrate knowledge by
selecting a response to written
tests
Requires learners to demonstrate
proficiency by performing meaningful tasks
that require application of what was
learned.
Measures the learners
knowledge of the content
Measures the learners ability to apply
knowledge of the content in meaningful
ways (real life situations)
Provides a teacher with a
summary of what the learner
knows (knowledge)
Provides teachers with a more complete
picture of what the learners know and what
they can do with what they know (apply
knowledge)
Learners are required to recall
knowledge that has been taught
Learners can construct new knowledge out
of what has been taught
Provides limited ways for
learners to demonstrate what
they have learned
Provides multiple avenues for learners to
demonstrate what they have learned
6
Traditional Assessment Authentic Assessment
Focus is on the content Focus is on the competences
Teacher centred Learner centred.
Hides the test Task and scoring rubric are provided to
the learner in advance
Rigid and fixed Flexible and provides multiple
acceptable ways of constructing
products or performances as evidences
of learning
Standardized, valid and reliable Requires well defined criteria/rubrics
and standards to achieve reliability and
validity
Focuses more on the product Focuses on both the process and the
product
7
BENEFITS OF AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
1. Uses tasks that reflect real life experiences
2. Focuses on high order thinking skills
3. Requires active performance to demonstrate
understanding
4. Involve interesting and engaging assessment
tasks
5. Teacher and the learner collaborate in
determining the assessment
6. Ensures success for every child
7. Encourages the integration of learning and
assessment
8
 Is an assignment given to learners to assess
their ability to apply knowledge and skills to
solve real world problems or challenges.
WHAT IS AN AUTHENTIC TASK?
9
STEPS OF CREATING AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
Strand Sub- strand Specific Learning Outcomes (Standards)
Health
practices Healthy habits The leaner can.: a) mention healthy habits that promote our
well-being,
b) state the importance of practising health
habits for our well-being,
c) practice health habits that promote our
wellbeing,
d) appreciate the importance of observing
health habits for our well-being.
10
Strand
L
Sub-strand Learning Outcomes
(Standards)
Numbers Whole Numbers
The leaner can,
a) count numbers forward
and backward from 1-
1000
b) read numbers 1-1000
in symbols
c) read and write numbers
1-1000 in words
d) identify missing
numbers in number
patterns up to 1000
Measurement Capacity
The learner can,
a) measure capacity in litres
11
Strand Sub-strand Standards (specific
learning outcomes)
Environment and its resources Weather
Exploring unfavourable weather conditions
The leaner can,
a) describe unfavourable weather conditions
b) observe the effects of unfavourable weather conditions
for safety
c) develop curiosity in identifying effects of weather conditions in
the environment.
Keeping safe from unfavourable weather
conditions
The leaner can.
a) identify ways of keeping safe from unfavourable weather conditions
b) keep safe from unfavourable weather conditions
c) demonstrate knowledge of keeping safe from unfavourable weather condition.
12
13
CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTHENTIC
TASKS
1. Have varied responses
2. Are deeply integrative-require many skills
3. Promote critical thinking and problem solving
4. Allow for differentiated learning
5. Involve planning, doing, revising and
reflecting
6. Provide opportunity for peer collaboration
7. Encourage self-assessment and deep reflection
8. Require more time to complete
14
FORMAT OF AUTHENTIC TASK/PROBLEM/KIQ
1. Action verb: Addresses the Why and How
– Why leads to deeper learning.
2. Object: Should have an object
3. Context: Real world problem or challenge.
4. Does not have one correct answer.
5. Does not have a straight forward method
of working out the problem.
15
DEVELOPMENT OF AUTHENTIC TASKS
Authentic task/problem/KIQ
1. Action verb: Addresses the Why and How
– Why leads to deeper learning
2. Object: Should have an object
3. Context: Real world problem or challenge
4. Does not have one correct answer
5. Does not have a straight forward method
of working out the problem.
16
Target both the knowledge and the Core competence
(skills)
Core competences/21st Century Skills/skills are 7
1. critical thinking and problem solving
2. Communication and collaboration
3. Creativity and imagination
4. Digital literacy
5. Learning to learn
6. Citizenship
7. Self-efficacy
1. but the stem of the question should (for now) target
17
Target both the knowledge and the Core competence
(skills)
The stem of the question should target the critical
core competences. E.g.
a) critical thinking and problem solving
i. Information gathering
ii. Planning a solution
iii. Managing the information
b) Communication and collaboration
i. Communication iii. Negotiation
ii. Participation iv. Decision making
Note: The rest of the core should then be infused
into the task
18
Target ……………………..)
2. Knowledge: As presented by the learning
area(s)/subjects/strand/sub-strand
a) Integrate different strands in a learning area
b) Integrate different learning areas
19
GROUP ACTIVITIES
1. In pairs, use the checklist provided to validate
the task on nature walk (provided in the KNEC
Training Manual for CBA page 22) to determine
whether it qualifies to be an authentic task.
Quote evidence from the task to support your
decision and present to the other participants.
2. In groups of 4 participants, use the designs to
develop an authentic task from a learning area
of your choice. Exchange your with another
group for validation using the checklist
provided. After validation by the other group,
present your final task to the other participants
20
1
The Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC)
P. O. Box 73598-00200, Nairobi, Kenya
Email: info@knec.ac.ke
*
Session Aim
▶The aim of the session is to equip participants with knowledge
and skills on rubrics and how to use them effectively when
assessing learners.
Session Outcomes
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a)Describe a Rubric;
b)State the benefits of rubrics;
c)Identify the core components of rubrics;
d)Describe analytic and holistic rubrics
e)Demonstrate how to incorporate rubrics in classroom
assessment;
f)Develop sample rubrics;
g)Effectively use rubrics * 2
▶ An Assessment Rubric, usually in the form of a matrix or
grid, is a tool used to interpret and grade leaners’ work against
criteria and standards.
▶ Rubrics are sometimes called “criteria sheets”, “grading
schemes”, or “scoring guides”.
▶ A rubric makes explicit a range of assessment criteria and
expected performance standards. Assessors evaluate a
learner’s performance against all of these, rather than
assigning a single subjective score.
* 3
* 4
▶ Criteria: describes knowledge, skills and attitude that one is
looking for: e.g Exploring soil characteristics;
▶ Level of performance; determines the degree of performance
which has been met
▶ Presented as:
⚫Qualitative: Exceeding, Meeting, Approaching and Below
expectations;
⚫Quantitative: Numerical 4,3,2,1
⚫Both qualitative and quantitative:
Exceeding expectation(4); Meeting expectation(3);
Approaching expectation(2); Below expectation(1).
▶ Descriptors: explain what is expected of learners at each level
of performance for each criteria.
* 5
1. Analytic Rubric breaks down content or task being assessed
into parts and assesses each part separately.
* 6
Exceeding
Expectation
4
Meeting
Expectation
3
Approaching
Expectation
2
Below
Expectation
1
Categorizing
plants
Consistently and
correctly identify
and categorize
plants according to
specified features.
Correctly identify
and categorize
plants according to
specified features.
Sometimes
identify and
categorize plants
according to
specified features.
Rarely identify or
categorize plants
according to
specified features.
Safety when
handling
plants
Consistently and
correctly describes
and observe safety
when handling
plants
Correctly describes
and observe safety
when handling
plants.
Sometimes
describes and
observe safety
when handling
plants.
Rarely describes
or observes safety
when handling
plants.
Exceeding
expectation
4
Meeting
expectation
3
Approaching
expectation
2
Below
expectation
1
Soil
Explori
ng soil
charact
eristics
Consistently
and correctly
differentiates
soil textures,
size of particles
and deduces
name of soil
based on their
characteristics.
Correctly
differentiates
soil textures,
size of particles
and deduces
name of soil
based on their
characteristics.
Sometimes
differentiates
soil textures,
size of particles
and deduces
name of soil
based on their
characteristics.
Rarely
differentiates
soil textures,
size of particles
or deduces
name of soil
based on their
characteristics.
* 7
2. Holistic rubric assesses overall performance on a task as a single
entity. It scores the overall competencies of the learner without
assessing each criteria separately
S/No Criteria Categorization of
plants
Safety when
handling plants
Fill in additional
criteria
Teacher
Statement on
learner
Performance
Learner’s Name 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
1. John Kimbo
2. Gloria Weru
3. Henry Matasia
* 8
➢ Identify the criteria
➢ Develop the descriptors for the various levels
Using Rubrics Effectively
➢ Share rubrics with learner before giving the task;
➢ Have learners evaluate their own work using the rubrics;
➢ Have learners evaluate each other’s work using the rubrics;
➢ Use the rubrics as the basis for feedback discussions with learner(s)
while their work is developing and when their work is completed;
➢ Involve learners in revising and improving the rubrics;
➢ Grade learners based on the rubrics.
* 9
▶ Provide an overview of learners’ achievements;
▶ Motivate learners to reach the standard specified;
▶ Give learners control of their own learning process;
▶ Give formative feedback;
▶ Easier for the teacher to share with learners and
parents about certain strengths and weaknesses;
▶ Guide learners on areas that require improvement;
▶ Make scoring easy and faster
* 10
* 11
PORTFOLIO
ASSESSMENT
1
The Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC)
P. O. Box 73598-00200, Nairobi, Kenya
Email:info@knec.ac.ke
By the end of the session, the participant
should be able to;
 Define a portfolio
 Identify types of portfolios
 Describe the stages of portfolio
development
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8/19/2019 3
Definition:
It is a purposeful collection of learner’s
work that shows;
 learning progress,
 effort,
 achievement towards the attainment
of learning outcomes.
STEPS taken to get there
A portfolio is one of the assessment
tools used in educational assessment.
8/19/2019 4
Is an evaluation tool used to
document evidence of learning
through a series of LEARNERS
developed
Artifacts- drawings, mathematical
activities, environmental activities,
creative & movements activities
 write-ups; literacy,
8/19/2019 5
 Portfolios give learners the opportunity to
direct their own learning
 Portfolios can be used to determine Learners’
level of achievement
 Portfolios can be used to understand how
learners think, reason, organize, investigate,
and communicate
 Portfolios can be used to communicate
learners efforts, progress toward
accomplishing learning goals, and
 accomplishments.
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 Portfolios can be used to evaluate and
improve curriculum and instructions.
8/19/2019 7
 BASKETS
8/19/2019 8
 FILES
RING BINDERS CARTONS
8/19/2019 9
8/19/2019 10
TYPES OF
PORTFOLIOS
1. Working
Portfolio
2. Showcase
Portfolio
3. Assessment
Portfolio
 This is a collection of work in progress as
well as finished samples of work (products).
 It contains collection of work guided by
learning areas, learning outcomes and core
competencies to be developed or individual
learner’s areas of interests.
 It contains work that can be later selected
for showcase and assessment portfolios.
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8/19/2019 12
WORKING PORTFOLIO
SHOWS………
(a) Goals
set (b) Development
(Growth over
time)
(c)
Reflections
of progress
on set goals
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 It displays the best of the learners outputs
and products.
 The content that goes into this type of
portfolio is purely selected by a learner in
line with their interests and abilities.
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SHOWCASE PORTFOLIO
shows……
(a)
Accomplishments
(b) Samples of
work for
placement
(c) Learners
perception
of his/her
best or
interest
Functions of parts of a plant
 Photograph of a thorny
plant
 A PLANT
8/19/2019 18
 This type of portfolio is used to document
mastery of skills or competencies in a
particular learning area.
 The content in this type of portfolio is
guided by the competencies specified in the
curricular.
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8/19/2019 20
ASSESSMENT
PORTFOLIO
SHOWS……….
(a) Achievement for
grading
(b) Progress
towards
standards
(c) samples of
work for
learners
placement
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2.1 Planning
2.2 Communication
2.3 Collection of work
2.4 Selection of work samples
2.5 Reflection
2.6 Feedback
8/19/2019 25
2.1Planning
a) The function / purpose- To show learners
progress, achievement or mastery of
competencies , learner interest or talents.
b) Types e.g. working, show case, or assessment
c) Audience: the consumers of the portfolio e.g.
teachers, parents, school administration
d) Design of the portfolio:
 Storage holders.
 Colour codes.
8/19/2019 26
2.2 Communication
The teacher should communicate to the
learners, Headteacher, other teachers
and parents about the:
a) purpose of the portfolio
b) Assessment criteria
c) Requirements
8/19/2019 27
2.3 Collection of work samples
Learners are guided by the teacher to
assemble work that reflects their own
progress and mastery of competencies.
The collection should be guided by
a) Purpose of the portfolio
b) Specified learning outcomes and
competencies
c) Evaluation criteria
d) Personal goals, interests and abilities 8/19/2019 28
2.4 Selection of work samples
This is the decision-making stage where
the learner selects the work to be added to
the portfolio and how it should be
arranged.
The selection is guided by the type and
purpose of the portfolio.
Learners should be guided and encouraged
to select the best of their own work.
8/19/2019 29
2.5 Reflection
Learners should make a self assessment
comment on the work selected for addition to a
portfolio, and on their own work.
The reflection statements can be:
a) Learners thoughts on their own learning;
b) Strengths and weaknesses identified;
c) Progress on the specified competency.
8/19/2019 30
Questions that guide reflection include:
a) What did I learn from it?
b) What did I do well?
c) Why did I choose this item? (Based on the
assessment criteria or own interests)
d) What do I do to improve on the item?
e) How do I feel about my performance?
f) What are the problem areas?
g) What are others’ opinion about my work?
8/19/2019 31
2.6 Feedback
The work selected for addition into a portfolio
should contain feedback from peers, parents
and teachers.
Feedback should be positive and focus on the
work and not the individual learner
Feedback may be provided after the learners’
reflections on their own work
8/19/2019 32
By the end the session, the participants
should be able to
a) Identify features of a good portfolio
b) Manage portfolio assessment in the classroom
c) Engage parents in portfolio assessment
d) Explain the importance of portfolio assessment
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8/19/2019 34
Activity 3
In groups, participants Brainstorm and make
presentations on the features/elements of a good
portfolio.
 Cover
 Table of Contents
 Entries
 Dates
 Drafts
 Reflections
8/19/2019 35
Cover Page
 This includes the learner’s personal details;
◦ Name,
◦ Age
◦ Grade,
◦ Gender
◦ School.
It also includes one or two paragraphs that
show personal goals and experiences of the
learner.
8/19/2019 36
Samples of portfolio cover page
8/19/2019 37
Table of contents
 This shows what is contained in the
portfolio.
 The contents can be organized based on
◦ learning areas,
◦ tasks or
◦ core competencies.
8/19/2019 38
Entries
This includes core and optional items.
Core items are required for each learner to
facilitate decision making during
assessment.
Core items provide evidence of
performance on the specified learning
outcomes or competencies.
Optional items on the other hand are the
items of the learner’s choice
8/19/2019 39
Dates
All entries must be dated to provide proof
of growth over time.
Drafts
These include initial and revised/corrected/
improved versions of learner’s aural/oral
and written/constructed products.
Feedback
This could be on the level of
performance, progress and feelings
about their work.
8/19/2019 40
In groups, Participants to discuss and
make presentations on the following:
a) Management of portfolio in
classroom assessment
a) Parental engagement in portfolio assessment
b) Importance of portfolio assessment
8/19/2019 41
The teacher should:
4.1Go over the portfolio with the learners
at regular intervals to ensure that the
selected pieces address the learning
outcomes.
4.2 Ensure limited number of entries for
practical reasons. Focus should be on
Quality and not Quantity.
8/19/2019 42
4.3 Involve the learners in organizing the
portfolio by completing checklists of the
assignments done and include the dates on all
entries.
4.4 Organize for the storage of the learners’
portfolios which should be easily accessible.
4.5 Separate/Colour code portfolios for each class
to facilitate their retrieval.
4.6 Ensure that storage holders for the portfolio
are made from manila envelopes, folders, files, or
learners can improvise their own using locally
available materials
8/19/2019 43
5.1 There should be a planned program for
parental engagement in portfolio
assessment.
5.2 The parents should be informed about
a) Portfolio assessment;
b) Participation in learner-led portfolio
conferences/interactions;
c) Provision of feedback to their child;
d) Identifying and providing learning
opportunities and resources;
e) Provision of support for their child’s effort
and interest.
8/19/2019 44
6.1 Assessment is integrated in teaching
and learning process.
6.2 Instruction goal are set at the
beginning and are both clear to the
teacher and the learner.
6.3 Provides a clear profile of learners.
6.4 Enables learners to show quality work
which is done without pressure and
constrains of time in collaboration
with others.
8/19/2019 45
6.5 It allows demonstration of a wide
range of competencies.
6.6 It shows the learners effort to improve
and develop i.e. it demonstrates
progress over time.
6.7 It gives learners opportunity to reflect
on their work.
8/19/2019 46
In groups, participants to develop and
present an assessment portfolio using the
tasks and evidences developed.
The portfolios should aim at demonstrating
the learners progress, achievement and
interests in the areas outlined in the rubrics
and the core competencies.
8/19/2019 47
“Learning should not be all about the
end result, portfolio is one of those
assessment methods which allow
learners to demonstrate more than
the end result – a process orientated
method.”
Chan C.(2009) Assessment: Portfolio, Assessment Resources
8/19/2019 48
8/19/2019 49
“One big contribution of portfolio
is to give the learners the chance
to reflect and revisit on their
performances overtime”.
THANK YOU

 To distinguish between Summative and
Formative feedback
 To understand and be able to describe
qualities of good feedback
Feedback can be defined as a
report or information about a
learner’s performance on a task;
a continuous progress
report/response derived from the
outcome of a task/work given. In
giving Feedback, the learner is the
epicenter of interest.
Formative feedback

Given in the course of learning to monitor
learner learning
◦ Used by teachers to improve teaching (termly
reporting or during classroom assessment)
◦ Used by learners to improve learning
Summative feedback
 Administered at the end of a set criteria
(syllabus) to evaluate learner
learning against set benchmarks
◦ Primarily used for placement
 Informal feedback – Your uniform is very clean today
 Formal feedback – The learner is consistently able to
run for 100 meters in less than 20 seconds
 Learner-peer feedback – You were able to count up
to 100 without making any mistake
 Learner self-feedback – I am happy I finished all my
homework today
 Negative feed-forward – You have the potential to
do better than this
 Positive feed-forward – Keep up the good work and
you will be successful
 Constructive – Positive, optimistic, genuine
appreciation e.g. “Your drawings are very clear
because you did not shade outside the edges”
(Do not: “You are wrong”, ”You have no idea
what you are doing”)
 Meaningful – Linked to a specific observable
outcome. e.g. “I am happy you remembered the
colours of the rainbow”
 Smart (Specific, Measurable, Attainable/Achievable,
Realistic, Timely) – Explain expectations before the
task and then report back on the performance
based on the SMART attributes
 Give individual feedback
 Guide learners on the task/focus on the task
 Use simple and clear language
 Avoid bias
 Give prompt feedback
 Be kind/Give encouraging feedback
 Communicate the desired performace
 Provide written fedback
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BE DESCRIPTIVE:
-Describe the
task,
Expectations,
performance and
areas of
improvement
BE KIND: Use
encouraging
and motivating
language
Focus
on the task
and not
the learner
KEEP IT SHORT
Be simple, clear and
specific. Focus on the
gap and how to close it.
 Actively listens, demonstrates
understanding, and clarifies with questions
and paraphrasing.
 Reads varied material, understands the
meaning and is able to interpret.
 Writes words and sentences that pass a
message and has meaning.
 Classifies objects in class and counts the
number of objects in each category.
 Makes neat drawings and is able to colour
within the objects.
 Adds whole numbers between 1 and 50.
8/19/2019 11

 To distinguish between Summative and
Formative feedback
 To understand and be able to describe
qualities of good feedback
Feedback can be defined as a
report or information about a
learner’s performance on a task;
a continuous progress
report/response derived from the
outcome of a task/work given. In
giving Feedback, the learner is the
epicenter of interest.
Formative feedback

Given in the course of learning to monitor
learner learning
◦ Used by teachers to improve teaching (termly
reporting or during classroom assessment)
◦ Used by learners to improve learning
Summative feedback
 Administered at the end of a set criteria
(syllabus) to evaluate learner
learning against set benchmarks
◦ Primarily used for placement
 Informal feedback – Your uniform is very clean today
 Formal feedback – The learner is consistently able to
run for 100 meters in less than 20 seconds
 Learner-peer feedback – You were able to count up
to 100 without making any mistake
 Learner self-feedback – I am happy I finished all my
homework today
 Negative feed-forward – You have the potential to
do better than this
 Positive feed-forward – Keep up the good work and
you will be successful
 Constructive – Positive, optimistic, genuine
appreciation e.g. “Your drawings are very clear
because you did not shade outside the edges”
(Do not: “You are wrong”, ”You have no idea
what you are doing”)
 Meaningful – Linked to a specific observable
outcome. e.g. “I am happy you remembered the
colours of the rainbow”
 Smart (Specific, Measurable, Attainable/Achievable,
Realistic, Timely) – Explain expectations before the
task and then report back on the performance
based on the SMART attributes
 Give individual feedback
 Guide learners on the task/focus on the task
 Use simple and clear language
 Avoid bias
 Give prompt feedback
 Be kind/Give encouraging feedback
 Communicate the desired performace
 Provide written fedback
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8/19/2019 8
BE DESCRIPTIVE:
-Describe the
task,
Expectations,
performance and
areas of
improvement
BE KIND: Use
encouraging
and motivating
language
Focus
on the task
and not
the learner
KEEP IT SHORT
Be simple, clear and
specific. Focus on the
gap and how to close it.
 Actively listens, demonstrates
understanding, and clarifies with questions
and paraphrasing.
 Reads varied material, understands the
meaning and is able to interpret.
 Writes words and sentences that pass a
message and has meaning.
 Classifies objects in class and counts the
number of objects in each category.
 Makes neat drawings and is able to colour
within the objects.
 Adds whole numbers between 1 and 50.
8/19/2019 11
1
The Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC)
P. O. Box 73598-00200, Nairobi, Kenya
MONITORING LEARNERS PROGRESS AT
GRADE 3
KNEC intends to undertake Monitoring of Learner Progress
(MLP) in September, 2019 at Grade 3. In preparation for the
national roll-out of MLP, KNEC did the following:
i. Conducted a Pilot study in September, 2018 in 100 schools
across the country, out of the 235 schools which had been
identified by KICD for piloting of the CBC.
The outcome of the pilot report guided KNEC in preparing for the
Monitoring Learner Progress of the Early Years Learning in 2019.
ii. Identification of Learners at Grade 3
KNEC developed an online platform/portal for schools to identify the
learners in Grade 3 in their respective schools.
 The aim of collecting the data is to enable KNEC to prepare all the
logistics related to the exercise.
The identification of learners is on-going (1st July – 31st August 2019).
iii. Training of teachers (April 2019)
Coordinated by the TSC.
English Language Activities
Mathematical Activities
SKILL MODE OF MONITORING
Listening and speaking Individual, face to face
Reading aloud Individual, face to face
Reading comprehension Pen and paper
Writing Pen and paper
STRAND MODE OF MONITORING
Numbers Pen and paper
Measurement Pen and paper
Geometry Pen and paper
 Focuses on the assessment of the following skills
 Listening and speaking
 Reading Aloud
 Reading comprehension and Language structure
 Writing
 assesses the learners’ ability to think critically, solve
problems and their responsiveness to authentic tasks.
 The structure of the test will have some of the questions
requiring;
 factual knowledge;- either correct or incorrect
 critical thinking on the use of concepts and procedures to
address a problem accomplish a task, or analyse a
question.
 extending their thinking deeper within the subject they are
learning, across the curriculum, and even beyond the
classroom through the authentic tasks given.
 ILA in Grade 3 incorporates several learning areas
LEARNING AREAS COVERED MODE OF MONITORING
Environmental Activities
• KNEC will provide instructions on real
life tasks that learners will do over a
given period (i.e. two months).
• These tasks will be carried out as
individuals or in groups as the teacher
records their performance levels.
• The learner will use a portfolio as
evidence of their performance in the
given task that shows the process and
progress in the mastery of
competencies.
Hygiene and Nutrition Activities
Kiswahili Language Activities/
Kenyan Sign Language (KSL)
Movement & Creative Activities
( P.E, Art, Craft and Music)
Religious Activities
 This is based on interdisciplinary academic intelligence or
synoptic assessment;
 Ability to tie subjects together rather than studying them
in silos. It shows students to make connections between
Maths, Environmental, Art & craft, Hygiene & Nutrition,
Language, Music etc… under umbrella topics.
 For MLP, the Assessment of integrated learning areas will be assessed
through portfolio assessment. Performance tasks will be developed based
on a theme and will then require drawing experiences from other
learning areas.
 Adaptations and modifications will be made on the Tools to be
used for MLP learners in Regular schools to suit learners with
Special Needs who are learning in Integrated setting.
 For Learners with Special Needs following the Stage –Based
Pathway, learner competencies will be monitored in 3 areas:
Communication, social and Pre-Literacy Skills;
Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Religious Education;
Integrated Learning Areas (Orientation and Mobility Skills, Pre –
Numeracy skills and Sensory- Motor and Creative activities).
11
ACTION RESEARCH
Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development
SESSION OUTCOMES
 describe the role of action research in
the implementation of CBC
;
 demonstrate skills to identify problems
based on everyday experiences;
 appreciate the importance of creating
practical solutions to problems identified
What it is
 What -Activities
 Who – teachers
 Why – perform to solve immediate
problems
 Which – affect learning
 When – during implementation
 How –individually or collaboratively
ROLE OF ACTION RESEARCH
Reflective process of progressive
problem solving carried out by
individuals working with others in
teams or as part of a “community of
practice”.
Aim of improving the way teachers
addresses issues and solve problems
that arise as they facilitate learning.
Cont’
Objective during facilitation;
 Guidance for the teacher on how to
identify own specific problems and
coming up with practical solutions.
 Provide skills to teachers to actively
find out their everyday classroom
concerns and create practical solutions
‘homegrown’

5Ws and H
 What –is the problem?
 Who – individually or collaboratively
 Why – is there a problem(cause)
 Which – is the solution is best(plan)
 When – does it occur in implementation
 How –judging and action
Activity; Monitoring feedback
Identify problem-(what is see)
 Design interpretation?
Learning outcomes
Learning experiences
KIQs
Core-competencies?
PCIs?
Values?
ICT integration?
CSL
 Assessment?
 Resources ?
 Pedagogy
 Preparation of Professional documents?
Judgment situation; Device a plan
Problem Cause Solution Action by
Assigning
homework
Inadequate
workbooks
PE&E
CSL
Self and
Parent
Interpreting
designs
Inadequate
training
Peer teaching Teachers in
this grade
Class control Too many
activities
Remedial
lesson
self ——– ——— ——– ——-
Action/actualize the plan
 For each problem have a possible
solution
 Activate the solution and take
appropriate responsibility
 Collect data /feedback
Observe
 Collect appropriate feed back of what
you are doing
 Collecting information regarding your
encounters during teaching and
learning
 As the new idea is tried out, the
teacher makes observations and
records them.
Reflect
 Analyse and share whether it worked
and if there is something you could
do differently to improve learning
 Restart process
K E Y I N Q U I R Y Q U E S T I O N S
Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development
FROM ANSWER TO QUESTION……..
FOUNDATION FOR KEY INQUIRY QUESTION
The foundation for key inquiry question (KIQ) is Inquiry based learning.
• Inquiry Based learning involves experiences that enable learners to
develop understanding about aspects of the world around them through
the development and use of investigative skills.
It incorporates a process of exploring the world, which leads to:
a) Asking questions
b) Making discoveries
c) Conducting research/ experiments
• Its philosophy is based on constructivist learning theories (Dewey, Piaget,
Vygotsky) whereby humans construct knowledge and meaning from their
experiences.
WHY IBL?
Lecture – 5%
Reading – 10%
Audio visual – 20%
Demonstration – 30%
Discussion group – 50%
Practice by doing – 75%
Teach others/immediate use/ application – 90%
Learning pyramid
IMPORTANCE OF IBL
?
• Learning is about preparing learners for a world that is dynamic
not fixed and static.
• Education cannot give learners all the information that they need to
know, but rather it must provide the tools for continuation in
learning.
• Inquiry learning and active learner involvement lead to realization
of learning outcomes in the classroom/ learning environment.
• Learners who actively make observations, collect, analyse ,synthesise
information and draw conclusions develop problem-solving skills
that can be applied to future ‘need to know’ situations.
INQUIRY BASED INSTRUCTION
• More learner centred, with the teacher as a facilitator of learning.
• Emphasis on ‘how we come to know’ and less on ‘what we know’.
• Concerned with in-school success equally with preparation for life-long
learning.
• Open systems where learners are encouraged to search and make use of
resources beyond the classroom and the school.
• Assessment is focused on determining the progress of skills development in
addition to understanding content.
• Uses technology to connect learners appropriately with local and world
communities which are rich sources.
• Focus on the how instead of the what.
So…. What kind of questions do we ask to facilitate learning???
WHAT IS A QUESTION?
Activity
From your learning area for example Math or English, write some of the
questions you have asked learners in class?
Brainstorm on the nature of the questions : closed vs open-ended questions.
Brainstorm on inquiry type of questions.
WHAT KIND OF QUESTIONS???
• These are questions that help to focus learning.
• Questions that probe for deeper meaning and set the stage for
further questioning
• Foster the development of critical thinking skills and higher order
capabilities such as problem solving.
WHAT MAKES A GOOD KEY INQUIRY QUESTION
• It is open-ended, non-judgmental, meaningful and purposeful with
an aim to allow learners to explore ideas.
• Is thought-provoking and intellectually engaging, often sparking
discussion and debate.
• Encourages collaboration amongst learners, teachers, and the
community
• Integrates technology to support the learning process.
CONTD…
• Call for higher-order thinking, such as analysis, inference,
evaluation, prediction. It cannot be effectively answered by recall
alone.
• Point toward important, transferable ideas within and even across
subjects.
• Raises additional questions and sparks further inquiry.
• Requires support and justification, not just an answer.
WHAT A KEY INQUIRY QUESTION IS NOT
1. It is NOT a direct question that can be answered with a yes or
no.
2. It is NOT a question that can be answered without support.
3. It is NOT blurry/vague (undefined) questions.
Activity:
Participants to discuss in pairs and give examples of questions in each
area
FORMING AN INQUIRY QUESTION
• Consider the strands and sub-strands, and specific learning
outcomes as given in the curriculum design.
• Examine the theme or concept in the curriculum that needs to be
addressed.
Activity:
Choose a learning area and brainstorm on questions that would enable
learners to think about the concept without dictating the direction or
outcome of their thinking
CONTD…
Utilize the six typical question words:
• Why? How?
• Who?
• Where?
• When?
• What?
RELATED QUESTIONS….
Once an inquiry question has been formed, the next step is to
formulate a list of related questions that assist the learner in
answering the key question.
INQUIRY QUESTION
HOW CAN WE SORT OUT THE WASTE IN THE
CLASSROOM?
Learners to discuss in groups of 4 and organize how
they will be sorting out waste in the classroom.
Learners to carry out a classroom based project by
having buckets labelled for different waste materials
according to the attribute they have chosen.
Key words: sort, group, objects, attributes
QUESTIONS:
•Questions That Hook
•Questions That Lead
•Questions That Guide
•Questions that are Essential (KIQ)
QUESTIONS THAT HOOK
•Asked to interest learners around a new
topic
•May spark curiosity, questions, or debate
•Asked once or twice, but not revisited
QUESTIONS THAT LEAD
• Asked to be answered
• Have a “correct” answer
•Support recall and information finding
• Asked once (or until the answer is given)
• Require no (or minimal) support
QUESTIONS THAT GUIDE
•Asked to encourage and guide exploration of a
topic
• Point toward desired knowledge and skill (but not
necessarily to a single answer)
•May be asked over time
•Generally require some explanation and support
KEY INQUIRY QUESTIONS
•Asked to stimulate ongoing thinking and inquiry
• Raise more questions
• Spark discussion and debate
• Demand justification and support
• Responses may change as understanding deepens
CONCLUSION
Michelle Obama in her book ‘ Becoming, 2018’ says
“My mother….. showed me how to think for myself and to use
my voice”
John Dewey
“Give the pupils something to do, not something to learn; and the
doing is of such a nature as to demand thinking; learning
naturally results.”
END
THANK YOU
MATHEMATICS
Relating mathematics concepts to real life situations
Strand: Numbers:
Sub strands: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division
The curriculum design has indicated that the learners should work out
questions involving real life situations. At this level, learners can be
able to read and comprehend short sentences. The teacher should
therefore involve the learners in word questions that depict day to day
activities or real life situations. Abstract questions involving whole
numbers, fractions, decimals or any other sub strands may not be of
much help to the learners as they may not relate the concepts to
everyday life.
The following are examples of word questions that the teacher
may give the learners:
1. Amina harvested 276 bags of maize in one season. In the
following season she harvested 405 bags of maize. How
many bags of maize did she harvest in the two seasons
altogether?
2. Joshua had 1890 metres of barbed wire. He used 738
metres to fence his shamba. How many metres of the wire
was he left with?
3. Ouma bought 47 boxes of soap. Each box had 18 pieces of
soap. How many pieces of soap were there altogether?
4. One thousand two hundred and forty eight tree seedlings
were shared equally among 12 families. How many tree
seedlings did each family get?
Strategies
In Early Years Education, the learners were taken through different strategies of
working out questions under the various sub-strands. The strategies included:
• Counting on
• Counting forward
• Counting backward
• Number line
• Number family
• Breaking apart
These strategies may also be used at this level where learners have challenges.
Example
When 5 is subtracted from a number, the result is 7. What number was 5
subtracted from?
The numerical question is – 5 = 7
To work out – 5 = 7.
The missing number is made up of 5 and 7, therefore
5 + 7 =
Since 5 + 7 = 12, then the missing number is 12
– 5 = 7
STRAND: Measurement
Measurement at this level includes length, mass, volume, capacity,
area, money and time. When dealing with these sub strands, involve
the learners in real life activities which they can relate with.
Example
1. A pencil is 15cm long. What is the total length of 8 similar pencils?
2. Four hundred and seventy litres of milk was packed in bottles each
holding 10 litres. How many 10 litre bottles of milk were packed?
The Classroom Shop(money)
It is important for the teacher to compile a price list for the items in the shop.
The teacher should guide the learners in the various shopping activities
using real money or imitation money. The needs and wants in the sub
strand on money may be discussed using the classroom shop depending on
the items displayed. With guidance learners to discuss the money people
pay to the County Government for provision of services as guided by the
curriculum design. The money paid should not be referred to as tax at this
level (grade 4).
THANK YOU

GRADE FOUR PRIMARY
ENGLISH
Essence Statement
English is:
• the major language of education, information, trade, diplomacy and social networking.
• an official language in Kenya but most importantly, the medium of instruction in our schools
from Grade Four.
• key to the realisation of the National Goals of Education, the link to the global community and
the door to the worldwide information network.
• so, the Kenyan education system should inculcate, in the learner, proficiency in English through
the curriculum.
THEMES
In the Grade Four English Curriculum, the four language skills and grammar are presented through themes. The following themes will facilitate the learning of
English in context:
1. The Family
2. Family Celebrations
3. Etiquette
4. Accidents: First Aid
5. Nutrition: Balanced Diet
6. Internet: Email
7. Technology: Cyber Safety
8. The Farm
9. HIV and AIDS
10.Hygiene and Sanitation
11.Sports: My Favourite Game
12.Clean Environment
13.Money
Strands
The four strands in the English Grade Four Curriculum Design are:
• Listening and speaking
• Reading
• Grammar
• Writing
Newly introduced sub strands
LISTENING AND SPEAKING READING GRA
MM
AR
WRITING THEMES
 Stress/Intonation
 Speaking
Fluency
 Interactive
Listening/Turn
Taking/Riddles
 Listening Fluency
 Formulaic
language:
proverbs/sayings
 Extensive
Reading:
Reference
Materials
 Comprehension
strategies
 Reading:
Visuals/Reading
with Technology
 Reading Fluency
 Formulaic
language:
proverbs/sayings
No
ne
 Guided
Composition:
Filling Forms
 Creative Writing:
Narrative
Compositions
 Creative Writing:
Descriptive
Compositions
 Guided
Composition:
Personal Diary
 Formulaic language:
proverbs/sayings
 Internet:Em
ail
 Technology
:Cyber
Safety
Facilitating Learning
Oral Skills
 Stress/Intonation
 Speaking Fluency
 Interactive Listening/Turn
Taking/Riddles
 Listening Fluency
 Formulaic language:
proverbs/sayings
Suggested Method
• Dictogloss: this is a type of dictation that involves
the following:
• Modelled speaking and listening
• Readers theatre : Give opportunities for children to
act as a narrator or character. For example, children
could divide themselves into groups of four. Each
member reads a particular stanza of a poem or
paragraph of a narrative.
• Retell/recounts: Children retell narratives,
memories or anything they can remember
• Dramatic techniques : Simulation, role-play,
drama, hot seating and games have the same
purpose or role in the language classroom. They
help connect the classroom and the real world.
• Language games
Facilitating Learning
Reading Skills
 Extensive Reading: Reference
Materials
 Comprehension strategies
 Reading: Visuals/Reading with
Technology
 Reading Fluency
Suggested Method
Use of reference materials:exposed to concepts such as
headword or root words, pronunciation, part of speech of
the word and meaning or the word.
Reading fluency : reading faster, paced reading, timed
repeated reading, readers theatre
• Reading faster: It entails asking learners to read graded
materials several times as they keep improving their
reading speed.
• Paced reading: This activity involves setting a reading
rate goal in which you would you’re your learners to
read, for instance, 80 words per minutes.
• Timed repeated reading: Learners read a familiar
passage within a given time.
Facilitating Learning
Writing Skills
 Guided Composition: Filling Forms
 Creative Writing: Narrative
Compositions; descriptive
Compositions
 Guided Composition: Personal Diary
 proverbs/sayings
Suggested Methods
Guided writing
Writing a story from mind map, structured
paragraphs, picture reading, collaborative
writing.
Procedure for Creative Writing
• Do not teach the story
• Pre-writing; Allow learners to choose their
topics
• Have them write flexible outlines
• Drafting; Let the learners write their rough
drafts
• Editing/revising; Organize learners into
editing groups
Comments and questions
KISWAHILI
• GREDI YA NNE
Kauli kiini ya somo la Kiswahili
• Mwanafunzi wa lugha ya Kiswahili katika shule ya msingi daraja la juu atajenga
stadi na umahiri ufaao kuwasiliana, kutangamana na kushiriki katika miktadha
mbalimbali ya kitaifa, kikanda na kimataifa kwa kutumia lugha kuzungumza na
kuandika. Mwanafunzi anahitaji kujifunza kunga za lugha ya Kiswahili ili kuitumia
lugha hii kama wenzo wa ujifunzaji. Aidha, mwanafunzi hufunzwa Kiswahili ili
kushiriki na kukichangamkia katika hali zake mbalimbali. Hili humwezesha kujenga
stadi za kimsingi za kusikilza, kuzungumza, kusoma na kuandika. Kwa kujifunza
sarufi na matumizi ya Kiswahili kimktadha, mwanafunzi anaweza kuwasiliana kwa
ufasaha, umahiri na kwa namna ambayo itaimarisha utangamano darasani na
katika ulimwengu mpana. Nadharia ya sarufi bia ya Noam Chomsky (1965)
inaeleza kuwa binadamu ana uwezo asilia wa kuvimudu vipengele vya kisarufi
uwezo huu huchagiza ukuaji wa lugha wa mwanafunzi na hivyo mzungumzaji
stadi wa lugha anaweza kubaini matumizi sahihi na yasiyo sahihi katika lugha.
Matokeo ya jumla ya somo la Kiswahili
Yafuatayo ndiyo matokeo ya kijumla yanayotarajiwa katika somo la Kiswahili,
kiwango cha shule ya msingi daraja la juu:
Kufikia mwisho wa shule ya msingi daraja la juu, mwanafunzi aweze:
• Kusikiliza kwa makini na kuitikia ipasavyo kwa Kiswahili katika miktadha
mbalimbali ya mawasiliano
• Kuzingatia kanuni za lugha kuwasiliana kiubunifu kwa njia ya mazungumzo na
maandishi
• Kujieleza kwa ufasaha katika miktadha mbalimbali
• Kusoma kwa ufasaha na kufahamu matini mbalimbali yaliyochapishwa na ya
kidijitali na kutumia maarifa anayoyapata katika mazingira tofauti maishani
• Kutumia hati za kimaandishi na mfumo wa kidijitali kuwasiliana ipasavyo kwa
kuzingatia mitindo na miundo husika katika miktadha mbalimbali
• Kuchangamkia matumizi ya Kiswahili kama lugha rasmi na ya taifa katika
mawasiliano ya kila siku.
Mada zilizoshughulikiwa katika Mtaala huu
• Mtaala wa Gredi ya 4 umepangwa katika sehemu kumi na moja kuu kumi na moja ambazo zinazingatia masuala mtambuko. Sehemu hizi ni:
Nyumbani
• Nidhamu Mezani
• Mavazi
• Dira
• Ushauri – Nasaha
• Bendera ya Taifa
• Matunda na Mimea
• Wanyama wa Porini
• Afya Bora
• Kukabiliana na uhalifu
• Mapato.
Mada na mada ndogo
• Mtaala wa Kiswahili wa gredi ya nne una mada tano katika kila
sehemu. Mada hizo ni:
• Kusikiliza na kuzungumza
• Kusoma
• Kuandika
• Kuandika
• Sarufi
Jumla ya vipindi vya Kiswahili
• Vipindi vya Kiswahili ni vinne (4) kila wiki.
• Mtaala mzima una vipindi mia moja na ishirini (120) kwa mwaka.
• Mada za kwanza nne zinatokana na stadi nne za lugha ambazo kila mwanafunzi
anahitajika kujifunza. Mada ya sarufi ni muhimu wa kuwa kujifunza sarufi ni
kujifunza kanuni za lugha ambazo zitampatia mwanafunzi umilisi ufaao wa
lugha. Msamiati umefunzwa kimkutadha hasa katika vifungu vya kusoma na
wala siyo kama mada mahususi. Kila mada kuu ina msamiati unaolengwa.
Mwalimu ahusishe mwanafunzi katika kujifunza matumizi ya msamiati huo.
Ahakikishe kuwa mwanafunzi amepata umilisi wa kutumia msamiati uliofunzwa
ipasavyo katika mawasiliano ya kila siku. Kila mada ina mada ndogo ambazo ni
mahususi.

Kusikiliza na kuzungumza
• Stadi ya kusikiliza humsaidia mwanafunzi kupokea habari. Stadi ya kusikiliza ikikuzwa vyema huchangia ujifunzaji wa stadi ya kuzungumza, kusoma na kuandika katika Kiswahili. Kuweza kusikiliza ifaavyo ndio hatua ya kwanza katika kustawisha mawasiliano. Kusikiliza basi ni muhimu katika utangamano wa mwanafunzi katika mazingira ya ujifunzaji na ya maisha halisi.
• Kuzungumza humwezesha mwanafunzi kujieleza. Mwanafunzi anayeweza kuzungumza ifaavyo huweza kueleza mawazo yake kikamilifu na hata kuweza kutangamana na wengine katika jamii. Ni muhimu mwanafunzi apewe fursa ya kuzungumza kama inavyotolewa katika mtaala. Nafasi za kustawisha stadi za kusikiliza na kuzungumza na kujenga tabia njema katika mazungumzo zinazopatikana kutokana na mtaala wa Kiswahili gredi ya nne ni kama vile:
• Kutamka vitanzandimi
• Maamkuzi
• Adabu na heshima
• Kukariri mashairi
• Mazungumzo katika miktadha mbalimbali
• Kusimulia huku akitumia ishara zifaazo
Kusoma
• Kusoma ni stadi inayomwezesha mwanafunzi kujipatia habari na maarifa
kutokana na yaliyoandikwa. Uwezo wa kusoma hukuza umilisi wa hamu ya
ujifunzaji maishani. Kusoma huboresha msamiati wa mwanafunzi na hivyo
kuimarishaa stadi ya kuandika. Aidha, kusoma huchochea ubunifu wa
mwanafunzi na pia humwezesha kumakinika zaidi katikaujifunzaji. Uwezo wa
kusoma ni ndio msingi wa mafanikio katika ujifunzaji. Mtaala wa gredi ya nne
unampatia mwanfunzi nafasi kemkem za kusoma ambazo zinajitokeza chini ya
aina tatu za kusoma ambazo ni:
• Kusoma kwa ufahamu
• Kusoma kwa mapana
• Kusoma kwa kina

Sarufi
• Sarufi ni kanuni za lugha. Mada ndogo zinazohusu sarufi ni kama vile:

• Aina za maneno
• Ngeli za nomino
• Mnyambuliko wa vitenzi
• Vinyume vya nomino
• Nyakati na hali
• Ukubwa na udogo wa nomino

Marejeleo
• KICD (2019) Mwongozo wa Mwalimu: Kiswahili Gredi ya Nne. Nairobi:
Taasisi ya Ukuzaji Mitaala ya Kenya.
• Ministry of Education (2019) Upper Primary Level Curriculum Designs:
Volume One. Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development.
• Republic of Kenya (2017) Basic Education Curriculum Framework.
Nairobi: Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development.

• The primary purpose of Social Studies is to help young people
become functional members in Society
• Aims at preparing the learner for national and global citizenship,
lifelong learning and active participation in governance processes
as well as environmental stewardship.
ESSENCE STATEMENT
STRANDS
WHAT IS NEW?
1.Historic built Environments in the
County
• Focus on the main historic built environments in the
County namely; the museums, monuments and
cultural centers.
2.Interdependence of people in the County
• The inclusion of content on interdependence is a strategic way of
addressing The National Goal No 1; Foster nationalism,
patriotism and promote national unity
3.The School Motto and Core Values
• Learners should comprehend school motto & apply it to
their everyday life.
• Schools core values should guide learners’ behavior in
and out of school.
• BECF lays emphasis on curriculum promoting values
4.Enterprise projects in School
Rationale
• Promote development of Core competences
• Develop learners’ employability with a wide range of skills
acquired.
• Equip learners with financial literacy skills such as the culture
of saving, making investments and prudent management of
resources.
5.Community Leadership
• Community leaders identified in the design are Council of Elders,
Religious & Cultural Leaders.
Rationale
• Equip learners with leadership skills at their formative stage.
6.Peace Education Projects
Rationale
• PEP empowers learners to be peacemakers in their schools, deal with
conflicts & live peacefully with others
Expectations
• Peace Education Projects that could be undertaken by learners include;
development of:
 peace gardens,
 peace corners,
 nature trails,
 peace and essays competition
7.Good citizenship at school
Rationale
• Teaching citizenship in schools is paramount in creating informed and
active members of society
• Forms a basis for global citizenship at higher levels, which recognizes
that our world is an complex web of connections and interdependencies.
Expectations
• Learners to demonstrate qualities of a good citizen in school.
8.Children’s Government
Rationale
• Helps learners to participate in governance of their school
• A way of mentoring learners to entrench the values of a democratic
culture, which promotes responsible citizenship.
THANK YOU!
Creative Arts is a ‘new’ learning area offered in Grade 4
learners. This emanates from Movement & Creative
Activities offered in Grades 1-3.
It comprises of Art and Craft and Music. However, each of
these areas has a separate Curriculum Design and is to be
treated as a different learning area. Music has one lesson
per week, while Art and Craft has two lessons per week.
Introduction
This is a multi-disciplinary area of study which encompasses art, craft and music. It involves
acquiring and applying discipline-specific concepts, techniques and related vocabulary to increase
capacity for the effective pursuit of artistic goals. At this level the learner will be exposed to deeper
knowledge, skills and attitudes on the three disciplines in order to build on the competencies
introduced in lower primary in the integrated learning area of movement and creative activities
(art, craft, music and physical education).
In line with Dewey’s social constructivism theory, emphasis will be on an experiential, participatory
approach that will give the learner an opportunity
to articulate their thoughts through creativity and collaboration. This will prepare the learner to
transit to junior secondary level.
Essence Statements for Creative Arts
ART & CRAFT
CURRICULUM DESIGN
CONTENT IN GRADE 4
ESSENCE STATEMENT FOR ART & CRAFT
• Art and Craft in upper primary (Grade 4-6) involves acquiring and applying discipline specific concepts, techniques and related vocabulary to increase capacity for effective pursuit of artistic goals. At this level, the learner will be exposed to deeper knowledge, skills and attitudes in Art and Craft in order to build on the competences introduced at the lower primary. The span of strands has been broadened to include; Mixed Media and Technology, Indigenous Kenyan Crafts and Presentation and Exhibition.
• In line with global trends, this learning area endeavours to embrace emerging technologies as part of the teaching and learning tools. For the learner to acquire 2
1st century competences in Art and Craft, the basic ICT competences acquired in learning experiences at the lower primary will be broadened. Mixed Media and Technology includes competences in Graphic Design, Paper Craft, Puppetry, Animation and Photography. Technology will enhance the learner’s competence in digital literacy in the use of computer aided lettering and animation within Graphic Design. Photography will offer the learner an avenue to use artistic elements and principles in the creation of digital images for creative
purposes.
• The broad strand on Indigenous Kenyan Crafts seeks to enhance the learner’s appreciation of indigenous artistic cultural heritage. The learner will engage with skilled resource persons in the community to learn and apply traditional skills in Weaving and Basketry, Pottery and Leatherwork.
• Presentation and Exhibition skills will equip the learner with relevant and appropriate competences in the enhancement of their finished art products. This competence will aid in value addition of 2D and 3D artworks which in turn will promote their aesthetic appeal and possibly in marketability.
• Consistent with Dewey’s social constructivism theory, emphasis will be on an experiential, participatory approach that will give the learner an opportunity to articulate their thoughts through creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Subsequently, this will prepare the learner to acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes to transit to the lower secondary level.
LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR ART & CRAFT IN MIDDLE SCHOOL
By the end of the level, the learner should be able to;
Create 2D and 3D artworks to share ideas, emotions, thoughts, feelings and
experiences for learning and enjoyment
Appreciate and apply inherent creative techniques of Indigenous Kenyan
Crafts within their social context
Use emerging technologies as a learning tool to explore creative ideas in the
process of making artwork
Apply appropriate presentation and exhibition skills in enhancement of their
2D and 3D artworks
Apply environmental conservation values of re-use and recycle of materials
for creative purposes
Develop self-confidence and sense of achievement through making and
responding to artworks of self and others.
Broad strands in the Art & Craft G4 curriculum design
• Picture Making Techniques
a) Drawing
b) Painting
c) Crayon Etching
d) Montage
• Mixed Media and Technology
a)Graphic Design
b)Paper Craft (Fabric Decoration integrated)
c)Puppetry & Animation
d)Photography
Indigenous Kenyan Crafts
a) Weaving & basketry
b) Leather work
c) Pottery
Presentation and Exhibition
a)Mounting & Display
b)Exhibition skills

CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION ACTIVITY
AREA
STRANDS AND SUBSTRANDS
1.0 Creation 1.1 Self-Awareness
2.0 The Holy Bible 2.1 Respect for the Holy Bible
2.2 Bible Stories
2.3 Bible Patriarchs
3.0 The Life of Jesus Christ 3.1 The Birth of Jesus Christ
3.2 The miracles of Jesus Christ
3.3.3 Teachings of Jesus Christ
Continuation on Strands
4.0 Christian values Trust
Truthfulness
Obedience
Love
Responsibility
Holiness
5.0 The Church
6.0 Morality and Media
Expectations
•In the design lessons are allocated per strand. It
is upon the teacher to ensure that all learning
outcomes are adequately covered as per the
number of lessons given. If a strand has been
allocated six lessons the teacher should utilize all
the lessons and ensure that all the learning
outcomes in that strand are adequately covered,
before proceeding to the next strand.
• The teacher should not rush through the design, but
he/she should be keen to achieve the learning
outcomes by engaging all learners in the suggested
learning experiences. Engaging all learners in activities
will develop their creativity, innovativeness, critical
thinking and problem-solving skills. It is therefore,
imperative to involve the learners in the learning
process and ensure they acquire the requisite skills
Note
• it is important to note that Christian Religious Education has more
values than the 8 listed in the Basic Education Curriculum Framework,
since the values are guided by the context as guided by the strand.
For example the Bible stories and texts have moral lessons and values
that may not be in the 8 listed in the BECF
• Role modelling by the teacher in terms of values
• Learners may read the Bible on their own but where they have
difficulties, the teacher can guide them to read in turns the most
important thing is for them to understand the concept and acquire
the values, skills or attitude
New area; Media and Morality;
Expectations
•This strand focuses on social media and morality.
It espouses, on how to use social media
responsibly. Media should be used ethically
under the guidance of the teacher or
parent/guardian to attain learning outcomes. If
not, well guided learners can use social media
unethically.
• The teacher should therefore, guide the learner on
responsible use of media at school and at home. The
learning outcomes and experiences encourage the learners
to; use media to watch gospel songs or movies related to
different strands in the Grade 4 CRE curriculum. This will not
only foster acquisition of knowledge but it will make learning
interesting. Responsible use of media will mould learners
into responsible Christians/citizens who can fit well in the
society.
ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS EDUCTION
ESSENCE STATEMENT:
Islamic Religious Education aims at fulfilling the constitutional requirement of providing
an enabling environment for learners to grow spiritually and morally. This learning area
provides competencies, skills, attitudes and knowledge drawn from seven broad areas
namely Quran, Hadith/Sunnah, Pillars of Iman (Faith), Devotional Acts, Muamalaat
(Social relations), Akhlaq (Moral values) and History of Islam. It prepares learners to
grow as responsible citizens who are at peace with Allah (S.W.T), self, others, and the
environment.
Learners interested in this learning area may aspire career paths as
scholars of Islamic studies, judicial officials (Kadhis), and spiritual
leaders. The Quran and the Sunnah (practices of Prophet
Muhammad (S.A.W.) form one of the key frameworks in
facilitating learning in this area, in addition to the Vygotsky’s
Social Cultural Theory which finds parallels with the prophetic
concept of fitra (pure state of being).
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of Upper Primary, the learner should be able to:
a) Recite, read, write the selected surahs to enhance interaction with
the Quran as a primary source of guidance.
b) Deduce lessons from selected surahs and apply them in daily life.
c) Appreciate and emulate the practices of the Prophet as the best role
model.
d) Develop awareness and appreciation of Pillars of Iman as the
foundation of Islam.
e) Demonstrate interest in and positive attitude towards
performance of acts of Ibadah (worship) appropriately.
f) Acquire Islamic values to grow as a responsible
and ethical citizen.
g) Appreciate Islamic history as a basis for culture and civilization
for peaceful coexistence.
Islamic Religious Education has seven broad areas;
1.Qur’an.
2.Hadith ( Traditions of the Prophet).
3.Pillars of Iman (Faith).
4.Devotional acts.
5.Akhlaq (Moral values).
6.Muamalat ( Social relations).
7.History of Islam.
KENYA INSTITUTE OF
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Agriculture key competencies
1. Sustainable consumption
2. Effective Production
STRANDS AND SUBSTRANDS
Strand Sub strand
1.0 Conserving our
Environment
Soil
• Soil particles
• Uses of soil in farming
• Compost manure
Water
• Uses of water in farming
• Water conservation in farming
Living better with wild animals
Growing fruit trees
Conservation project: Edible crop gardening
2.0 Domestic animals Domestic animals and their uses
3.0 Gardening Practices Crops for gardening
• Vegetables
• Cereals
• Legumes
Selected gardening practices
Innovative gardening project
• Container gardening
• Care for container gardens
Expectations of the Curriculum
Water: Uses of Water
The uses of water include watering domestic animals and plants.
Conduct these activities using the plants and animals available in the
locality, or take the learners for an excursion where no animals are
available in the school.
Water Conservation in Farming
There are many conservation measures on water as a scarce resource in our day
to day life. These have been covered in the previous grades. This section expects
conservation of water in farming by utilizing drip irrigation. Drip irrigation in its
simplest form utilizes a bottle with water inverted at the base of the plant. In
other forms, guide the learners to the next level to utilize a pipe of water,
attached to a source of water such as a bucket.
Strand 1: Conserving our Environment
Expectations of the Curriculum
Living Better with Wild Animals
Agriculture enterprises may be destroyed by wild animals. The wild
animals could destroy animal enterprises as well as crops. This sub
strand intends to concentrate on small wild animals that destroy
crops and animals with an aim to develop competencies of
controlling animals while coexisting with them in the ecosystem. The
small animals include but are not limited to the birds, squirrels,
monkeys, mongoose and moles among others. This is essential to
establish peaceful coexistence of human beings with wild animals in
the country, while at the same time conserving the natural
environment.
Strand 1: Conserving our Environment
Expectations of the Curriculum
Growing Fruit Trees
This sub strand intends to develop the skills of learners in growing
their own fruits and give them opportunity to benefit from their
nutrients. Please note that this sub strand concentrates on fruits
that grow on hardy trees. Fruit production is a whole process
comprising of:
• Collection of fruit seeds
• Fruit seed extraction
• Fruit seed preparation
• Fruit tree nursery bed
• Transplanting, and
• Care for young fruit trees
Strand 1: Conserving our Environment
Expectations of the Curriculum
Conservation Project: Edible Crop Gardening
This sub strand is a progressive concept development of the
previous sub strand (growing fruit trees). The essence of this sub
strand is that successful production of fruits will only take place if
the whole process of taking care of the planted fruit trees is
provided. In implementation of this sub strand, the lessons can be
planned to run concurrently with another sub strand such that in a
week, there is one lesson for conservation project: Edible crop
garden practices while the remaining two lessons are allocated to
another sub strand.
This is because taking care of a crop is a process and not a one-off
activity.
Strand 1: Conserving our Environment
Expectations of the Curriculum
Domestic Animals
Domestic animals are components of agriculture
enterprises. This strand aims to develop basic
concepts (introductory level) to animals rearing for
the purpose of appreciation of animals as a worth
part of agriculture while recognizing the age limit
of the learner and laying foundation for animal
production to be developed at a later grade.
Strand 2: Domestic Animals
Expectations of the Curriculum
This strand introduces the concept of gardening which is a
vital practice in Kenya today where land, among other
agricultural resources, is becoming progressively scarce.
Agriculture is a core source of food and nutrition in Kenya.
To ensure that we achieve food security, it is important to
use any available opportunity to contribute to food
production, either for our consumption or for sale. While
agricultural space is getting limited, the demand for food is
increasing.
Guide the learners to practice the basic crop production
of:
Strand 3: Gardening Practices
Expectations of the Curriculum
Vegetables such as carrots (root vegetables), spinach (leafy
vegetables), and tomatoes (fruit vegetables). However, you may
adopt use of other types of vegetables that grow in the locality and
that may develop relevant knowledge and skills on vegetables.
Cereals such as wheat, maize and rice. You may also expose them to
other cereals to develop relevant knowledge and skills on cereals.
Legumes such as beans, peas and green grams. You may also expose
them to other legumes to develop relevant knowledge and skills on
legumes.
Strand 3: Gardening Practices
Expectations of the Curriculum
Selected Gardening Practices: Direct Sowing of Tiny Seeds
Direct sowing of seeds is common with large seeds such as those of
maize. However, some crops such as carrots have small seeds and
require to be planted directly to the seedbed (without the nursery
stage). It is with this understanding that the same skills should be
learnt by the pupils.
Gardening Tools and Equipment
In this area, guide the learners to identify the tools and equipment
that they use in the various gardening practices. It is appropriate to
ensure that the learners use appropriate tools and equipment for
the various tasks in gardening activities.
Strand 3: Gardening Practices
Expectations of the Curriculum
Innovative Gardening Project
The sub strand innovative gardening project aims to ensure that
gardening takes an interesting dimension to ensure that every
individual learner is empowered to participate in food production
regardless of space limitation. Innovative gardening project
recognizes that a learner cannot be taught how to be innovative, but
can be shown innovative ideas that can trigger their innovativeness.
Strand 3: Gardening Practices
Expectations of the Curriculum
Container Gardening
Container gardening implies making space for growing crops in a
container.
The size and type of the container varies with the choice of the user,
availability of the containers and the crop to be grown.
Container gardens give opportunity to grow crops on ground that
could be inappropriate for cropping either because of limited space,
spaces with stones or bushes, space between structures, cemented
space or on storey buildings
Container gardens provoking innovativeness of the user.
Container gardens empower the learner’s self-efficacy by enabling
them produce useable crops at their age regardless of landlessness
or urban and peri-urban life limitations.
POWER OF Container Gardens
Can be used to grow fruits
Can be used to grow vegetables
Can be used for nursery beds
Can be used as plots for cereals
CAN BE USED FOR ALL PRACTICES
Sack gardens
Plastic container
gardens
Wooden box
garden
Commercial
germination pots
Storey tyre garden
Fruits and
vegetables
in Basin
gardens
Hanging container
garden
Trough garden
Double tyre garden
Deep triple tyre
garden for fruit trees
“I don’t need a farm to produce my
HEALTHY VEGETABLES, I only need my
BRAINS”
The Innovations are endless
Quote: Anonymous
A Hungry Nation
is an Ugly Nation
Anonymous
K E N Y A I N S T I T U T E O F C U R R I C U L U M D E V E L O P M E N T
H I N D U R E L I G I O U S E D U C A T I O N
S T R A N D S A N D S U B – S T R A N D S
I N
M I D D L E Y E A R S E D U C A T I O N
0 9 / 0 8 / 2 0 1 9
I N D E R J I T K A U R R E H A L
STRANDS
• 1. Prakriti (Creation)
• 2. Gyaan Swaroop (Manifestations)
• 3. Dharam Granth (Scriptures)
• 4. Bhakti (Worship)
• 5. Dharam Siddhaant (Principles of Dharma)
• 6. Sadachaar (Ideal behaviour)
• 7. Utsav (Festivals)
• 8. Yoga (Physical welfare)
1. PRAKRITI (CREATION)
• Sub-strand
• Panch-mahabhoot (Five elements that constitute the whole universe)
• Jal (Water)
• Rivers that are considered sacred in India
• Conservation of water
• Significance of water in various religious activities as per four faiths that are taught under
Hindu Religious Education(Sanaatan/Hindu, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism).
• Gifts of Paramatma(God) to nature
• Plants that are considered sacred
• Tulsi
• Ber
• Peepal
• : Panch Mahabhhot is a continuation from Lower primary, in Grade four the element Jal(water)
has been taken keeping in mind the four faiths in Hindu Religiousin Education. Content on
sacred rivers like Ganga, Beas and Rujubalika, will be covered.
• Sacred plants
• Plants which are considered sacred according to faiths in Hindu Religious Education, like Tulsi,
Beri, Boddhi tree have been taken.
• Teacher should instill in the learner the knowledge of sacred rivers and plants mentioned.
Involve learners in activities such as caring for plants and conservation of water and other
related learning activities to enhance competencies.

2. GYAAN SWAROOP(MANIFESTATIONS)
• Sub-strand
• Enlightened Beings
• Swami Vivekanand
• Parshavnath Tirthankar
• Lord Buddha – His ascetic life.
• Sri Guru Ram Das Ji
• A brief life history and their contributions to the reform society.
• The essence of any religion can be realized by studying life histories of the founders of
religion. As Hindu Religious Education encompasses four religeons Sanatan, Jains, Buddhism and
Sikhism so every effort has been made to represent the Enlightened Beings from four faiths
equally. Being a progression from lower primary Swami Vivekanand, Tirthankar
Parshvanath,, Sri Guru Ram Das ji, Prince Siddhartha are covered in Grade Four. The
teacher needs to be well versed with the life histories of above-mentioned religious
personalities. The learner should be told simple short stories from religious books to develop
righteous living and love all humanity as children of one Paramatma.
3. DHARAM GRANTH (SCRIPTURES)
• Role of Scriptures in instilling moral values in one’s life.
• i. Manu Smriti
• Ii. Uttradhyaanan
• Iii. Sigalovaada Sutra
• Iv. Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
• The principles of all Religions are found in Scriptures. They act
as a guide in times of duality. The teacher needs to be well
versed with the essence of Scriptures namely Manu Smriti,
Uttaradhyayan, Sigalovaada Sutra, Sri Guru Granth
Sahib ji in order to instill knowledge and respect of
Scriptures not only of their own faith as well as paying equal
respect to the Scriptures from other faiths too.
4.BHAKTI (WORSHIP)
• Sub-strand
•Significance of prayers in the Mandir as a
community (Aarti)
•Places of worship; Hindu Mandirs in Kenya
• This strand only covers prayers from Sanatan/Vedic. Paramatma is
infinite. Our minds need an anchor to relate to Him, through daily
prayers describing His attributes. For spiritual nourishment prayers
should be recited in daily routine. The teacher should be capable enough
to recite the prayers with correct pronunciation. Digital literacy should
be incorporated fully for excellent delivery of this strand.
• Sub-strand – Sanatan Mandirs (Temple) in Kenya
5. DHARAM SIDHAANT(PRINCIPLES
OF DHARMA
• Sub-strand
•Virtues of righteousness according to
Sanaatan/Hinduism
•This is a new strand introduced in Grade Four.
Looking at the magnitude of content to be covered
only one faith in Hindu Religious Education has
been taken, that is Hinduism. The teacher needs to
draw out the virtues of righteous ness derived out
of these principals.
6. SADACHAAR (IDEAL BEHAVIOUR)
•Sub-strand
•Integrity
•Aspects of integrity through parables
from Scriptures of the four faiths.
• Sadachaar for character formation. Acquire a sound
foundation for developing into an ideal human being with
the focus on aspects of integrity and respecting each
other and nurturing relationships. Guide the learner to
implement the values taught through parables will help in
their interaction with others and from diverse cultural
background for harmonious co-existence.
7. UTSAV (FESTIVALS)
• Sub-strand
•Religious and Social aspect of festivals
•Maha Shivratri (Hinduism)
•Paryushan Parva (Jainism)
• Responsibly participate in Utsav(festivals) for social
cohesion Create awareness of religious and social aspect of
festivals and participate in them to enhance cohesion and coexistence. In order to share experiences and encourage
community members, festivals are celebrated as a constant
reminder of the past. Guide the learners to acquire values of
care, love, concern, humility, obedience and responsibility.
8. YOGA (OVERALL WELFARE)
(PHYSICAL, MENTAL & SPIRITUAL WELFARE)
•Sub-strand
• Samasthiti (Alert postures)
• Loosening Practices:
• Neck bending
• Trunk movement
• Knee movement
• Yoga is introduced as a form of physical fitness and
meditation-for mental, physical and spiritual growth. The
importance of physical well-being should be instilled at a
very early age of life. Habits of taking care of one’s body,
cleanliness and balanced diet, developed at this tender
age will help them to become healthy citizens. The same
is being carried to the upper primary level in Grade four.
• NAMASTE
• JAI JINENDRA
• SAT SRI AKAL (TRUTH IS THE ETERNAL
WEALTH)
• THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME.

INDIGENOUS
LANGUAGE GRADE 4
Background
Kenya has many indigenous languages, not just the regional
languages of the 42 counties but also the languages of Kenyans
of unique backgrounds such as the Asians and many others.
There are also social status languages such as Kiswahili based
Sheng, English based Sheng and Engsh. Githinji 2006:10 – 11)
Cont.
For this reason, the constitution of Kenya chapter 2, article 7 (3) commits
the Government to promote and protect the diversity of languages of the
people of Kenya and promote the development and use of these
languages. Scholarly perspectives that support the recognition of all
languages include Mazrui and Mazrui’s reference to
Right of language and right to language and Ludwig’s statement “the
limits of my language are the limits of my world.”
Cont.
Learning mother tongue provides opportunities for nurturing acceptance
and appreciation of cultural diversity. The knowledge and skills acquired
at this level will support cognitive and learning development at higher
levels. Continuous advancement of knowledge in indigenous languages
could guide learners to make decisions on future career choices such as
acting, broadcasting, development of orthography, translation and
interpretation among others. Overall, learning indigenous language
ensures enhanced learning and inclusivity in a big way.
Essence Statement
This learning area develops the language skills acquired in EYE as well as a positive
attitude towards learning. Having been exposed to concrete learning activities and
basic literacy skills in lower primary, the learners’ thought processes are more mature.
Learners will therefore be provided with a rich and supportive environment to develop
their proficiency in indigenous language. They will also be equipped with language
skills to enable them acquire a second language more proficiently and achieve relevant
competences. In addition, learning in a language they are already familiar with will
give the learners the required confidence to express themselves clearly, participate
more actively in the learning process and think critically as well as imaginatively.
Cont.
The indigenous language will further enable learners to interact effectively
with peers, teachers and instructional materials, thus enhancing their
cognitive and affective development. This resonates with Vygotsky’s social
cultural development theory which asserts that learning is majorly a social
activity. Continuous advancement of knowledge in indigenous languages
could guide learners to make decisions on future career choices such as
acting, broadcasting, development of orthography and editing among
others.
Subject General Learning Outcomes
By the end of middle school the learner should be able to:
a)Respond appropriately to a variety of communication in the indigenous language
b)Express themselves confidently and appropriately in a variety of social contexts
c)Comprehend information in different contexts in the indigenous language
d)Read texts accurately and fluently with comprehension
e)Write legibly in different formats to express a variety of ideas and opinions
f)Enjoy communicating using a variety of cultural language strategies
T
THEMES
1. School & Family
2. Care of animals
3. Means of communication (Etiquette in telephone
conversations)
4. Safety & security
5. Modern means of transport
6. Occupations
Cont. Themes
7. Care of communal resources
8. Honesty
9. Disposal of technological waste
10. Modern means of transport
11. Peace education
12. Negative cultural practices
Strands
The four strands in the English Grade Four Curriculum Design are:
• Listening
• Speaking
• Reading
• Writing
Sub strands
LISTENING SPEAKING READING WRITING
 Listening to respond
 Listening to use
information
 Listening to make
personal opinions
and judgements
 Listening
comprehension
 Listening to stories
on varied topics
 Listening to
narrations with
cultural language:
proverbs/sayings
 Using specific
language to give
information
 Giving instructions
 Describing events and
experiences
 Giving information on
varied topics
 Discussing varied
topics fluently and
coherently
 Using artistic
expressions to give
imaginative
experiences
 Telling stories
 Using correct
pronunciation,
intonation and pause
 Reading to use
information
 Reading texts with
varied language
structures
 Silent reading(using
level dictionary)
 Reading texts with a
variety of literary short
forms
 Reading texts for
comprehension
 Reading texts on varied
topical issues
 Reading to make
personal judgements
and opinions
 Writing
using
different
sentence
structures
 Using
punctuation
marks
correctly in
writing
varied texts
 Using
acquired
vocabulary
to give
information
 Using artistic
expressions
to write
stories and
imaginative
experiences
Facilitating Learning
Oral Skills
 Stress/Intonation
 Speaking Fluency
 Interactive Listening/Turn
Taking/Riddles
 Listening Fluency
 Formulaic language:
proverbs/sayings
Suggested Method
• Dictogloss: this is a type of dictation that involves
the following:
• Modelled speaking and listening
• Readers theatre : Give opportunities for children to
act as a narrator or character. For example, children
could divide themselves into groups of four. Each
member reads a particular stanza of a poem or
paragraph of a narrative.
• Retell/recounts: Children retell narratives,
memories or anything they can remember
• Dramatic techniques : Simulation, role-play,
drama, hot seating and games have the same
purpose or role in the language classroom. They
help connect the classroom and the real world.
• Language games
What is different?
Listening & speaking
 Emphasis will be on
pronunciation of sounds and
blends that are unique to the
indigenous languages.
Suggested Method
Language exposure: Listening and speaking activities
to expose learners to actual sounds of their language
and not those in Kiswahili or English
Practice in fluency : articulation of sounds correctly,
with correct intonation and pause. This may include
listening to recorded clips or speakers of the
language to capture authentic pronunciation
Cont.
Reading & Writing
 Reading:
1. Reading texts with cultural language use for
exposure
2. Intensive reading
3. Extensive reading
 Writing:
1. Writing using correct spelling
2. Using acquired language to give information
in different formats
3. Creative Writing: Narrative
Compositions,using cultural language forms
such as proverbs/sayings
Suggested Methods
Reading
Reading structured paragraphs, reading words,
sentences or texts with distinct sounds, reading texts
with cultural language forms with comprehension.
Creating own collection of vocabulary.
Writing
• Spelling practice
• Writing on varied topics using specific language
structures
• Writing in logical sequence
• Writing creatively using proverbs, sayings and
expressions unique to the language.
Cont.
Think globally, act locally
Discussing creative forms, technology,
health, music and art from the
indigenous point of view and discovering
linguistic equivalents.
Approaches
Local songs, poetry, riddles and language
games will be used to enhance
proficiency. The emphasis will be on
learning authentic indigenous language
forms of creativity and not foreign or
exotic creations of Shakespeare or
Shaban Robert. The African folk songs,
chants will form the basis of creative
language learning.
Thank you
HOME SCIENCE – GRADE 4
ESSENCE STATEMENT
Home Science aims at equipping learners with knowledge, skills, attitudes and
values which will help promote healthy living in terms of preparing and eating
healthy foods, prevention of illnesses, ensuring comfort and safety in the home,
observing personal hygiene and wise buying. In addition, the learner will be able
to appreciate the physical changes which occur from childhood to adolescence.
The learner will engage in practical activities such as shopping for the home, care
of the home, cooking and service of food, food preservation, laundry work,
sewing, knitting and crocheting. Home science will also strengthen the foundation
for development of higher competencies in lower secondary.
LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR HOME SCIENCE
By the end of upper primary, the learner should be able to:
1.promote healthy living practices for the well being of self and others
2.appreciate the needs of a child in promoting proper growth and development
3.plan, prepare and present meals to promote healthy living
4.preserve food using traditional and modern methods
5.choose, use and care for clothes and household articles in school and at home
6.make simple needlework items for enjoyment and entrepreneurial
competences
7.use resources appropriately at home and in school
STRANDS & SUBSTRANDS
1.0 HEALTHY PRACTICES
1.1 Play
2.0 HEALTHY LIVING
2.1 Common Illnesses in the locality
2.2 Care of the home
2.3 Care and cleaning of shoes
2.4 Fuels used at home
CONT…..
3.0 CONSUMER EDUCATION
3.1 Consumer Awareness
4.0 FOODS AND NUTRITION
4.1 Choosing foods
4.2 Variety in the Diet
4.3 Preservation of milk
4.4 Fragile Kitchen utensils
4.5 Cooking Food
CONT…..
5.0 CLOTHING
5.1 Needlework tools
5.2 Stitches (tacking)
5.3 Fixing a button
5.4 Laundrywork
RATIONALE FOR INCLUSION
• Emphasis on practice: the learning area is practical oriented and provides
opportunities for the learner to practice the skills learnt. For example, in Care
and cleaning of shoes, learners are expected to care for their shoes made from
different materials
• Use of inquiry based learning: some of the content renders itself well to IBL
methodology. The learners are given an opportunity to develop and test their
hypothesis. For example, in the Strand/Sub strand, Healthy living/Care of the
home, when improvising cleaning materials and tools from locally available
resources, learners are able to make, use and care for them
CONT…..
• Emphasis on parental engagement and empowerment: the learner is
provided with opportunities for engaging with the parents to ensure that
the parents are involved in the learning of their child/children so that the
learning outcomes can be achieved. Engaging the parents also ensures
that habits learnt at school are reinforced at home. Example, when
teaching the sub strand on the shopping list (consumer education –
consumer awareness), the teacher can engage the parent to supervise the
child as he/she drafts a shopping list. The parent can also be accompanied
by the learner as they go out to shop using the shopping list they will have
written down.
CONT…..
• Inclusivity: the learning activities do not leave out any learner
regardless of ability or background. The learning materials can easily
be improvised from the environment. Further, there are many
opportunities for engaging the parent which ensures that what is
learnt in school is transferred at home and in the community.
• Role modeling: the teacher models for the learners the health habits
learnt in the day-to-day activities so as to reinforce them.
CONT…..
• Sourcing for Resources: getting or acquiring the
necessary teaching and learning items, materials and
resources is very important towards achievement of the
learning outcomes. This will include realia, text books,
internet connectivity, resource persons, among others.
Resources can be acquired through improvisation, buying,
borrowing, donations, resource persons
CONT…..
• Integration of Information Communication Technology (ICT):
use of both current and emerging technologies to support and
enhance the curriculum delivery where learners are guided to
engage in meaningful learning that translates into improved
achievement of the learning outcomes. It should be as participatory
as possible. The teacher can use text, pictures, animations, watching
video clips, sharing educational materials/lesson notes, reporting
purposes, storage of learners’ records, among others
THANK YOU
MUSIC
CURRICULUM DESIGN
CONTENT IN GRADE 4
ORGANIZATION OF CONTENT
• The content is organized in three broad strands just like
in EYE namely;
• 1. Performing,
• 2. Creating & Composing
• 3. Listening, responding and appreciation
• However, the third strand has an addition of
Appreciation of Music. In EYE the third strand is
Listening and responding.
New content
• The new concept in this strand is the appreciation of
Music.
• The learner should be exposed to Music of different
genres as well as music drawn from different cultures.
Incorporating cross-cultural curricula in our music
classrooms should help the learners to better perceive
music from other cultures, therefore appreciate listening
to all kinds of music not only that they have interest in.
New content in Sub strands
• Sub strand: Songs; Two part singing; this introduces
the learner to the concept of harmony, one of the major
elements of music.
• Singing at this level is for purposes of learning
performance skills, roles of music in different
occasions, practical mastery of music elements (rhythm,
pitch, harmony, dynamics and other expressive
elements) and theme/message.
New content- Creating & Composing
• French rhythm names
(taa and ta-te) are used as a learning
tool for practical sounding of note values (for crotchet &
quaver) / beats and their use in composition mostly by aural
learning (rote).
• This is because established theories and methods of music
education insist on practical experiences before theoretical
conceptualization of music.
• Start with rhythms of familiar tunes before introducing new
rhythms.
• Hand signs: The learner will Interpret the hand signs
for the pitches d r m. Mental visualization of relative
pitch is aided through the use of hand signs.
• Signing of familiar tunes as they sing along will further
enhance learners visualisation of the pitches.
Western Musical instruments
• Descant recorder: Notes G A B.
• Concepts to be covered are: parts/assembling a recorder, finger
numbers, holding ( posture), how to cover the holes, blowing
and fingering to play notes G A B.
• Learner will learn to play tunes built on notes G A & B. This
should be introduced by using familiar tunes such as ‘kanyoni
ka kanja’ or customise a familiar song to the notes G A B such
as ‘Mary had a little lamb’ before introducing new tunes.
New content- Descant recorder
• Learner will develop creative thinking in music through
improvising music on the descant recorder.
• They will create/compose tunes built on notes G A B using
rhythmic patterns learnt (ta ta-te) or beyond. This should be
played from memory.
• Writing of the compositions may be done but NOT through the
conventional music notation ( staff) but using French rhythms,
solfa syllables and tones G A B.

KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
COMPETENCY BASED CURRICULUM
Grade 4
PHYSICAL AND HEALTH
EDUCATION
NEW STRANDS AND SUBSTRANDS
• Frisbee game
• Health and Physical Fitness
• First Aid
• Outdoor activities
– Rationale for inclusion
– Learning experiences
– Theory lesson in PHE
FRISBEE strand
4.0 Frisbee Game
4.1 :Field of play
4.2 :Catches
4.3 :Throws
Areas of Health-related Fitness
• Cardio-vascular endurance,
• Muscular strength,
• Muscular endurance,
• Flexibility and
• Body composition
HEALTH AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
HEALTH AND PHYSICAL FITNESS strand
5.0 5.1 Components of health-related fitness: Warm up
and cool down
5.2 : Human heart
5.3 :Cardiorespiratory endurance
5.4 : Muscular strength
5.5 : Muscular endurance
5.6 : Muscular and joint flexibility
5.7 Nutrition and sports performance: Water intake
5.8 : Healthy eating habits
5.9 : Food intake during games and sports
5.10 wellness: Dealing with emotions
5.11 : Alcohol and drug abuse in games
HEALTH AND PHYSICAL FITNESS
FIRST AID strand
6.0
6.1 :ABC of first aid
6.2 :Common injuries in play
6.3 :Transporting injured persons
OUT DOOR ACTIVITIES strand
7.0
7.1 :Recreation activities
7.2 :Leisure time management
7.3 :Community game activities
Rationale
• Physical Health is a state of wellbeing achieved
through appropriate nutrition and physical
activities.
• Changes in life style have affected physical
growth of learners hence need to change
• In this strand the learners will be able to address
what happens to the body when one undertakes
physical activity
Cont’
• Additional game as an alternative to
swimming
• First Aid for competencies incase of injuries
during play
• Outdoor activities for active recreation and
developing values and other competencies
Expectation
• Most of these new areas render themselves
useable during theory lesson: introduction,
development and conclusion
• In the development of the lesson a video can be
shown
• However, all lessons in PHE serve to give the
learner an opportunity for movement, thus the
theory lessons should not take away aspects of
physical movement from the learner
Thank you
Science & Technology
 Science refers knowledge about or systematic
study of the physical and natural world based
on facts learned through observation and
experiments (investigation)
 Technology is the practical application of
scientific knowledge to solve problems and/or
invent/design useful tools to improve the
quality of human life
Science and Technology
Technology
Technological knowledge is not limited to technical skills
but also has to do with thinking processes and skills
Various complex thinking processes such as; creative and
critical thinking, decision-making; problem-solving and
design) underpin technological activities.
Some of these thinking processes form core aspects such
as; innovation, entrepreneurial attitude and behaviour
associated with technology as volition
Technology
Technology is globally still a relatively new,
developing school subject, with
– no well-established subject philosophy;
– lacks a substantive research base and a wellestablished-classroom pedagogy;
– no equivalent academic discipline which may serve as
a-source for curriculum development and classroom
pedagogy;
Science and Technology
Science and technology forms a strong foundation for
subsequent levels in Science related disciplines by
• Developing technological skills in the learner through science
• The complementarity between Indigenous technology
knowledge systems (ITKS) and Western technology knowledge
systems (WTKS) (Ankiewicz 2015)
Unique Features in Sc & Tech learning area
The unique features of the Science and Technology Learning is
comprised of 6 Strands;
 Living things
 Environment
 Digital Technology
 Matter
 Force and Energy
 Earth and Space
Strand: Living Things
Sub-strand: Plants
Standard 4
• Types of Crops
• Weeds
Grade 4
• Living Things and Non Living
Things
• Characteristics of Plants
• Care of Plants
Reasons; The content on plants
has been enriched by variety of
suggested learning experiences
and values
Strand: Living Things
Sub-strand: Animals
Standard 4
• Characteristics of Animals
• Farm animals and their Products
Human Body
• Teeth
Grade 4
• Characteristics of animals
• Vertebrates and Invertebrates
• Care of animals.
Human Body
• The entire digestive system
• Reasons: The content on animals
has been enhanced by addition
more learning experiences and
values.
• The entire digestive system and its
parts are discussed
Strand-Environment
Standard 4: Water
• Uses of Water
• Storage of Water
Grade 4: Environment
• Air Pollution
• Water Pollution
In Sc and Tech a new strand
environment is introduced in place
of the topic; water to address
aspects of environmental
sustainability.
Strand: Matter
Standard 4: Properties of Matter
• Footing and Sinking
• Pressure in Liquids
Grade 4: Matter
• Understanding Matter
• Properties of matter (Floating and
Sinking)
As a foundation, it is important for the
learner to understand matter.
However, Pressure, floating and
sinking were comparatively loaded at
standard 4 therefore pressure in
liquids is pushed to the next higher
grade level
Strand: Force and Energy
Standard 4: Making Work Easier
• Simple Tools
• Energy
• Light Energy
• Heat Energy
Grade 4:Force and Energy
• Force and its effects
• Sound Energy
• Light Energy
• Heat Energy
• Machines – Levers
Force and Energy forms the foundation
of Science Technology Engineering and
Mathematics (STEM) pathway
Strand: Earth and Space
Standard 4:Weather and the Sky
• The Sky
• Types of Cloud
Grade 4: Earth and Space
• Weather and Sky
• Weather Conditions
Earth and space is a broad
learning area that comprises
both weather and the sky- for a
Holistic learning
Strand: Digital Technology
• Digital literacy is a new strand not
previously included the standard 4
syllabus that aims at inculcating
innovativeness, creativity, problem
solving and analytical thinking skills in
the learner.
• The content covered at this level
include: Digital Devices and Coding
(Computers, tablets, Ipads, laptop, radios,
TV, mobile phone, cameras, internet,
textbooks)
Digital literacy, is among the 21st
Century Skills, it also forms part of
the 7 core competencies.
It is the ability to use technology
as a tool to reinforce, extend and
deepen, discover, master and
communicate knowledge and
information,
Using technology to communicate
at a personal level
ELEMENTS PRE PRIMARY LOWER PRIMARY UPPER PRIMARY JUNIOR SEC SENIOR SEC
Functional
skills
Familiarization
with ICT
devices
• Turning device
on and off
• Perform basic
operations
Identify and name
parts of a device
Operate the
basic functional
skills
Operate advanced
functional skill
Creativity in
DL
Explore Digital
device to
make creative
shapes and
letters
Explore Digital
device to make
creative shapes
letters, words and
simple sentences
• Explore Digital
device to construct
compound
sentences
• Use digital device
to find and select
appropriate
educational
games
Use online
communication
tools
• Collect and store
information,
• research for
information,
• prepare
presentations
 Unlike science in Grade 4, Science and Tech has added project
work, meant to enhance acquisition of core competences
Problem Solving as a Pedagogical Strategy
In Science & Tech, the role of the teacher is to use available
resources to facilitate and guide the learner to explore nature
through problem solving
Using Problem Solving as a Pedagogical Tool
 The most effective way to :
• promote active reflective thought among learners,
• involve them in teaching and learning,
• enhance their understanding,
• Increase their learning outcomes, and
is through problem solving
What does this mean?
Does this mean we simply have to teach our students
how to solve problems?
Preparing teachers with the ability to teach their
students how to solve problems is good. But we
need to do more than that.
The suggestion is that we prepare them to be able to
use problem solving as a pedagogical tool.
How do we this?
A couple of suggestions
We should begin instruction with problems, dilemmas and
questions
Focus attention on ideas and sense making rather than on
teacher directions and rules
The style of teaching should be the exact opposite of teaching by
telling. The teacher should NOT do the explaining
Develop the belief that learners are capable of learning and
making sense of their learning.
Allow students to wonder why things are, to inquire, to search for
solutions and to resolve incongruities
Several approaches have been suggested but one approach is to
organize instruction using the 3-part lesson format ~ the “Before,
During and After”model
The Three-part Lesson Format
The “Before” Phase – Be certain learners understand the problem – Get students mentally prepared to work on the problem – Clarify expectations prior to learners working on the problem
The “During” Phase – Let go but listen attentively – Cautiously provide hints based on learners’ ways of thinking – Provide profitable activity for learners who finish quickly
The “After” Phase – Engage learners in productive discussion – Listen attentively without evaluation – Summarize main ideas
Pedagogical shift
Developing learners who are fluid in problem solving suggests
moving away from a preconception of ‘teaching’ in an
intuitive and imaginative manner to an explicit, reflective and
analytic way, based on pedagogical principles.
Reflective teaching has the potential of effectively challenging
the teachers’ initial ideas, formed during the teachers’
apprenticeship of observation.
Performance assessment forms part of formative assessment
Retention of knowledge into the future is linked to
meaningful learning that involves acquisition of new
meanings from both the presented meaningful learner
material and a meaningful presentation(Ausubel,2012
)
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EARLY LEARNING AND BASIC EDUCATION
SCHOOL YEAR REPORT FOR SNE BASED PATHWAY – FOUNDATION LEVEL
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
REPORT YEAR:
LEARNER’S DATE
OF BIRTH:
NAME OF SCHOOL:
LEARNER’S NAME: ATTENDANCE
GENDER: TERMS 1 2 3
LEARNER’S GRADE: DAYS ABSENT
NEMIS NUMBER: SCHOOL DAYS
The teacher should record the learner’s achievement level for each learning area using the rating in the table below.
Performance Level Rating
Exceeding Expectation 4
Meeting Expectation 3
Approaching Expectation 2
Below Expectation 1
LEARNING AREAS RATING TEACHER’S COMMENTS
Communication, Social and Pre-Literacy Skills
(Communication Readiness; Recognizing MultiSensory Stimuli within the Environment; Verbal
Expressive or Non-Verbal Expressive Communication
Skills; Arguementative and Alternative Aided
Communication Skills; Social skills; Interpersonal
Relationship; Pre-Reading and Pre-Writing Skills)
Daily Living Skills and Religious Education (Personal
Items; Toileting; Prayer; Feeding; Dressing and
Undressing; Our environment)
Sensori-Motor and Creative Activites (Sensory
Perception; Sensory Integration; Psychomotor
Activities; Creative Activities; Music and Movement)
Orientation and Mobility (Body awareness; Use of
Body Parts in Orientaion and Mobility; Body Posture;
Position in Space and Direction of Movement;
Movement in the Environment; Mobility Techniques;
Use of devices; Information &Communication
Technology)
Pre-Numeracy Activites (Gross& fine motor skills;
Classification; Pre-number Activites; Measurement)
AFFIX
LEARNER’S
PHOTO
HERE
Learner’s Conduct and Behaviour
Attributes/Area Teacher’s Comments
Classroom conduct
Work completion
Working with others
Class Teacher’s Feedback on Learner’s acquisition of Core Competencies
(Communication and Collaboration, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Imagination and Creativity, Citizenship, Digital Literacy,
Learning to Learn, Self-Efficacy)
Class Teacher’s Feedback on Learner’s acquisition of Values
(Responsibility, Respect, Excellence, Care and Compassion, Understanding and Tolerance, Honesty and Trustworthy, Trust and Being
Ethical)
Evidence of Participation in Community Service Learning Program
Class Teacher’s Details
Name: Sign: Date:
Head Teacher’s Details
Name: Sign: Date:
Parents/Guardian Details
Name: Sign: Date:
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
ICT Integration in the Learning Process
Cloud Computing Strategy 1
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Session Outcomes
Cloud Computing Strategy 2
By the end of the session, the participant should be able to:
a) State the meaning of ICT integration in the learning
process
b) Identify ICT resources that can be used during an ICT
integrated lesson
c) Identify factors that influence integration of ICT in a
lesson.
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Activity 1: What is ICT integration in education?
Cloud Computing Strategy 3
Step 1: Organise the participants into manageable groups
Step 2: In their groups, allow them to brainstorm on the
meaning of ICT integration in the learning process.
Step 3: Allow them to present your responses in plenary.
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT Cloud Computing Strategy 4
Definition of ICT integration in education
• ICT integration is the use of ICTs during the learning
process to enhance the attainment of learning outcomes
and appropriate competencies, namely, knowledge, skills,
attitudes and values.
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
What is ICT Integration?
Teacher
Learner ICT Resources
ICT Integration in the learning
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Activity 2: Why ICT integration?
Cloud Computing Strategy 6
Step 1: Organise participants into manageable groups.
Step 2: Allow them to discuss why we need to integrate
ICT in the learning process.
Step 3: Ask the participants to present your responses
during plenary.
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Possible answers
Cloud Computing Strategy 7
• We are already living in the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR).
Mobile banking, self-driving cars, e-assessment among others are
taking the centre stage.
• We are living in the era of Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things
and Big data (Global debates are revolving around here)
• Need to equip our learners with 21st Century Skills.
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Possible answers
Cloud Computing Strategy 8
• ICTs assist in simplifying abstract concepts
• ICTs arouse the curiosity of the learner
• ICTs increase the retention of the knowledge acquired
• ICTs enable learners acquire digital literacy skills
• ICTs make learning fun
• ICTs increase creativity of the learner.
(Any other relevant answer)
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Activity 3: ICT tools used during the learning process
Cloud Computing Strategy 9
Ask participants to discuss in groups some of the ICT tools
a teacher can use during the learning process.
• Give an example of how each can be integrated in the
learning process. Base your examples on a specific
learning area from the Grade 4 designs.
• Ask them to present their findings during plenary.
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT Cloud Computing Strategy 10
Possible answers:
ICT tools that can be used during the learning process:
• Phone
• Camera
• Computer
• Laptop
• Projector
• Radio and TV – KICD radio prog.s – KBC and on KEC
www.kicd.ac.ke
• Tablets – DLP devices with content
• DVDs/CDs
• Flash discs
• Memory cards
• External hard discs
• Data cables (Any other relevant answer)
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT Cloud Computing Strategy 11
NOTE:
While selecting ICT tools for use during
teaching, it is advisable to find out if you
have learners with special needs in your
classroom.
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT Cloud Computing Strategy 12
Activity 4: Adaptations done to take care of Learners With
Disabilities
• Ask participants to identify the different
categories of learners with special needs in
their groups. How can ICT help make learning
inclusive? Which adaptation strategies could
help learners with special needs learn at the
same pace with regular learners?
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Possible answers:
Special need Possible adaptations
Hearing Headphones with amplified
sound, signed videos
Visual Narrations, braille adapted
keyboard, Use of JAWS &
NVDA
Physical Voice input, adapted
computer desk
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Online Digital resources
Resource Use
Digital Oxford University
Dictionary
Checking out English
vocaburary
Khan Academy Maths and Science
(Interactive videos)
PhET simulations STEM based simulations
Kiwix Offline version of Wikipedia
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT Cloud Computing Strategy 15
Activity 4: In your groups, discuss the factors that need to be
considered when selecting ICT resources to use in a lesson.
• Ask participants to share their points during
plenary sessions
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT Cloud Computing Strategy 16
Possible responses
• Relevance
• Ability to cater for different learning styles
• Level of language used
• Ability to be adapted for learners with special
needs
• Promotion of 21st C skills
• Availability of the required ICT equipment
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
TPACK Model
Cloud Computing Strategy 17
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Teacher
Learner ICT Resources
Key Players in the TPACK Model
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Great TEACHING INVOLVES
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Factors influencing integration of ICT in teaching and learning
• School leadership
• Capacity building of teachers
• Time
• Availability of ICTs
• Access to ICTs
• Attitude
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
List of Abreviations & Acronyms
DVD Digital Versatile Disc
EAC Ease of Access Centre
HDMI High Definition Multimedia
Interface
JAWS Job Access With Speech
NVDA Non Visual Desktop Access
VGA Video Graphics Array
KENYA INSTITUTE OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Thank you!
Q & A session
Cloud Computing Strategy 22
I N D I V I D U A L I S E D E D U C A T I O N P R O G R A M M E
( I E P )
Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development
WHAT IS AN IEP?
An Individualised Educational Programme
(IEP) is a written plan that describes what
the teacher and other professionals will do
to meet special needs of a learner.
WHO IS INVOLVED?
An IEP should be developed by a multidisciplinary team which
may consist of;
the learner,
a regular teacher,
a special education teacher,
an assessment teacher and
other professionals such as psychologists, speech therapists,
occupational therapists, physiotherapists, social workers and
the parents.
WHY IS AN IEP IMPORTANT?
An IEP is important as it focuses on an individual learner’s
needs and allows each learner to acquire knowledge, skills,
attitudes and values at his/her own pace.
COMPONENTS OF AN IEP
The following are the components of an IEP
a) The learner’s present level of performance.
In this stage, the learner’s current level of performance is
assessed to identify those skills the learner has strengths in
and those that he or she has weaknesses or challenges.
This can be done through observation, tests and interviews.
Assessment should take place during the lesson.
Assessment results may then be used in deciding what to
teach and how to teach it.
IEP CO MPO NENTS CO NTD….
b) Long term and short-term learning outcomes
After collecting information on the learner’s strengths and
weaknesses, a statement describing what is expected in each area
of special learning needs is made. This statement is referred to as
a long-term learning outcome. This is the overall aim of the IEP.
Long term learning outcomes in an IEP state what is expected to
be achieved within a specified period for example one month.
The long-term outcome is then broken down into short term
learning outcomes. These are competencies that should be
developed to achieve the long-term learning outcome.
IEP CO MPO NENTS CO NTD….
c) Evaluation procedure and criteria
This step describes how progress will be assessed and
specifies how well the learner is expected to perform.
Evaluation criteria must define the standards that are to be
used to assess the learner’s progress or success.
It is always good to evaluate progress after a specific shortterm learning outcome.
IEP CO MPO NENTS CO NTD…
d) Special educational needs and related services
The IEP must be clear in listing special challenges the learner may be
experiencing that call for an IEP.
The identified challenges may be addressed by a special needs
education teacher in the resource room.
If the learner requires other related services in addition to the
educational intervention, this should be specified as to whom, when
and where these may be provided.
Related services may include physiotherapy, occupational therapy,
speech therapy, guidance and counselling among others.
IEP CO MPO NENTS CO NTD….
e) Implementation strategy
The IEP statement must give the date when the programme
will start and the time duration it should take. It can be one
year, a term or a month, depending on the skill area and the
learner’s level of ability. The review date should also be stated.
SAMPLE INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAMME (IEPS) REPORT
BIO DATA
Name of child _________________________________
Date of birth _____________________________Age___________ Grade____________________
Admission Number________________
Parent /Guardian
Name____________________________
Parent /Guardian Occupation _____________________________ Parent/ Guardian contact _____________________________ IEP area of focus _____________________________ Present level of performance
Summary of strengths weaknesses and initial recommendations
Strength
1….
SAMPL E IEP CO NTD….
2….
3….
Weaknesses
1….
2….
3…..
Initial recommendation(s):
……………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………
………………………
I E P C O N T D…
Learning area/
/skill assessed
Present level of performance
Strengths Weaknesses Initial
recommendation
Mathematics The learner can
subtract where
there is no
regrouping.
The learner is not
able to subtract in
questions
involving
regrouping.
The learner
should be guided
further to work
out subtraction
with regrouping.
I E P C O N T D… ….
After establishing the present level of performance of the learner, develop some long
term and short-term learning outcomes.
Long term learning outcomes
There is usually one long term learning outcome. It describes what the learner is
expected to achieve or learn by the end of the term. More specifically, it should reflect
all the areas in which the learner is experiencing difficulties. They should be in line with
the learner’s present level of performance or functioning.
Short term learning outcomes
1…
2….
3…
These describe what the learner is expected to achieve or learn by the end of the
lesson.
Learning experiences/activities———————————————–
IEP CO NTD…
IEP Implementation
Time frame: Start date—————————— End date————————–
Review Date —————————————
Evaluation Report
Conclusion and final recommendation
This comes at the end of the implementation of the program. Make conclusion and
recommendation at the end of the duration that mark the end of implementation of the
program for the learner.
END
THANK YOU
Kenya Institute Of Curriculum Development
ACTIVITY
Can you remember any learning experience during
your school or college days?
• What makes it memorable?
• How did it make you feel?
• Buzz with your neighbor and share in the plenary.

INTRODUCTION
• Learning refers to the relative permanent change in
behaviour brought about through interactions or experiences
with the environment.
• Learning experiences can be defined as interactions in which
learning takes place.
“..the interaction between the learner and external conditions in
the environment to which he/she can react.” Ralph Tyler
A learner is exposed to situations and activities so as to
develop desired knowledge, skills, values and attitudes.
the experiences could be:
• Formal featuring the classroom conditions and teaching
methods;
• Non-formal during which the learner is engaged in organized
and structured activities taking place in or outside school
• Informal which entails general school and home social
interactions.
CONTD…
•It covers why, how, when and where learning
takes place
•The teacher has the responsibility to invoke the
experience in which learning takes place.

PURPOSE OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES
Learning experiences enable the learner to:
• Acquire knowledge and develop skills, values and attitudes
• Acquire the intended core competencies
• Self-regulate and evaluate
• Engage deeply in the learnt concepts
• Reflect on the learning process
• Interact with others during the learning process.
Factors to consider when selecting learning experiences
• Relevance to intended learning outcomes
•Developmental age level
•Learning resources
• Safety
• Size of the class
• Time required for the experience
Learning Experiences In Curriculum Designs
The curriculum design has provided for Learning Experiences as:
• Suggested learning experiences as per sub-strand
• Non- formal learning experiences
• Community service learning activities
• Linkage activities to PCIs and Values
What Informs Learning Experiences?
In competency based curriculum, learners should be given
opportunities to take responsibility for their learning through:
embracing:
• Multiple intelligence theory
• Different learning styles
• Differentiated learning

Differentiated learning recognize that learners learn differently
and therefore should be given an opportunity to learn through:
• Varied learning experiences
• Uses of a variety of media
• Use of a variety of resources
• Different learning styles
• Needs and interests
• Strengths and abilities
• Learning pace
Classroom activities should be adapted to meet these
differences.
Content Product Environment
According to Students’
Readiness Interest Learning Profile
Teachers Can Differentiate
Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999).
Process
Principles Of Good Learning Experiences
• Validity: to achieve given learning outcomes learners must be
given opportunities to practise the specific behaviour indicated in
the learning outcome.
• If focus is to solve problems in sanitation, ample opportunities
should be provided for learners to come into contact with real
problems and find solutions.
• Variety: use of varied experiences (multisensory) to achieve the
same learning outcome so long as they meet the criteria for
effective learning
PRINCIPLES CONTD…
• Comprehensiveness: all the learning outcomes have
corresponding learning styles
• Adds value to the learner: learning experiences puts the learner
first and should be purposeful
• Promotes further learning: inspires learners to be long-life
learners
• Effective: should enrich learning and not substitute it
• The learner must obtain satisfaction from carrying the kind of
behaviour implied by the learning outcome.
Suggested Learning Experiences
The suggested learning experiences should cover:
• Knowledge, skills, attitudes
• Values
• Competencies
• Are varied and include use of ICT devices
THANK YOU!
Developing Learning Outcomes
Integrating Core Competencies and Values
Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development
Why are learning outcomes important?
The Competency based curriculum is founded on
learners showing or demonstrating that they have learnt.
There should be evidence that learning has taken place.
Learning outcomes are the evidence that learning
experiences have made a change that learners manifest.
The change or transformation in learners is manifested
through new knowledge, skills and attitudes.
Designing learning outcomes
Since CBC is learner centered and activity oriented, learning
outcomes are designed following the same trend.
The outcome statement includes a verb that will clearly
illustrate what action learners need to engage in to
demonstrate their competencies.
The action could demonstrate a change at the level of
knowledge, a skill or an attitude.
The verb in a learning outcomes
Verbs like identify, name, list.. Illustrate knowledge.
By the end of the sub-strand the learner should be able to :
identify types of waste in the school environment
collect waste in the school to care for the
environment
appreciate cleanliness in the school environment
The verbs represent the three domains of learning including knowledge, skills and attitudes.
The object in learning outcomes
The outcome also has an object, which answers the question “what”
identify types of waste in the school
environment
collect waste in the school to care for the
environment
appreciate cleanliness in the school
environment
The context in a learning outcome
The outcome also has a context, which answers the question “why”, “where”, ‘’how” and “when”
identify types of waste in the school environment
collect waste in the school to care for the
environment
appreciate cleanliness in the school environment
What characterizes good learning
outcomes?
A good learning outcome begins with an action verb,
followed by the object of the verb and a phrase that gives the
context.
Preferably only one verb is used in a learning outcome.
The learning outcomes should be observable.
Learning outcomes are amenable to assessment.
Avoids vague terms like know, understand, learn, be familiar
with, be exposed to, be acquainted with, and be aware of.
Activity 1- In groups, analyze the following outcomes
and comment on how they have been formulated.
Identify four primary colours
Understand painting materials
Mix two primary colours to get a secondary
colour
Enjoy mixing different colours
Learning Outcomes and Learning Experiences
Learning experiences provide the context or environment
that enhances the attainment of learning outcomes
The experiences and tasks learners go through must have a
direct bearing on the learning outcomes
Experiences that are unrelated to the outcomes leads to
confusion and lack of internalization of concepts.
In summary….
•Level learning outcomes, general learning area outcomes and learning area specific learning outcomes, work progressively towards the National Goals of Education.
•Outcomes focus on results of the learning experiences and should be related to each other.
•Outcomes are a projection of what we expect.
•They reflect the desired end of the learning experience.
•Outcomes are linked to assessment because they define what learners are expected to demonstrate.
Activity 2: Write three lesson
outcomes.
What is the core competency being
developed
What value is incorporated
LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE
SCHOOL CLASS DATE TIME ROLL
XX YY XX/YY/ZZ XX.YY
am/PM
XY
Strand……………………………………………………………………………
Sub-strand………………………………………………………………..
Specific Learning Outcomes
By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:
a. ……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
b. ……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
c. ……………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………
Key inquiry question(s)
1…………………………………………………………………………………
2………………………………………………………………………………….
Learning Resources
1…………………………………………………………………………………
2………………………………………………………………………………….
Organization of learning
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
Introduction……………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………
Lesson development
Step 1…………………………………………………………………………….
Step 2 ……………………………………………………………………………
Step 3………………………(No of steps depend on the lesson being taught)
Conclusion:
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
Extended activities:
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
Reflection on the lesson:
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
Professional Documents
Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development
Professional documents
Scheme of work
Lesson plan
Record of work
Progress record
Individualized Education Programme (IEP
Scheme of work
Developed from the curriculum designs
 Plan of how learning shall be organised within the allocated time.
Allows the teacher to manage the time appropriately
All aspects of the learning process are thought through well in advance
Components
Administrative details
1.Week
2.Lesson
3.Strand
4.Sub strand
CONT.
5. Specific Learning Outcomes
6. Learning Experiences
7. Key Inquiry Questions
8. Learning Resources
9. Assessment
10. Reflection
Scheme of work template
School, Grade. Learning area, Term , Year
Week Lesson Strand Sub
strand
Specific
learning
outcome
Learning
experiences
KIQ Learning
resources
Assessment Reflection
LESSON PLAN
A breakdown of the Scheme of
work into teachable units for the
lesson
LESSON PLAN COMPONENTS
Administrative details } School, Grade, Learning area, Date Time,
Roll
1. Strand
2. Sub strand
3. Specific learning outcomes
4. KIQ
5. Learning resources
6. Organisation of learning
Cont.
7.Introduction
8.Lesson development
9. Conclusion
10. Extended activities
11.Reflection on the lesson
Record of work covered
Provides evidence of work covered by the teacher
Components
Administrative details
Time frame
Lesson
Work done( Strand and sub strand covered with details)
Reflection

Signature
Learner’s progress record
Record the learner progress over time
An analysis of this will show what progress
the learner is making
Takes different formats depending on the
type of assessment
Assignment
Using the Curriculum designs
1. Develop a scheme of work for one week in the
learning area
2. From the scheme of work develop a lesson plan
3. In pairs ,critique the scheme of work and lesson
plan developed

 

BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK

 

 

 

 

Figure 1: Curriculum Development Cycle
Rationale for Curriculum Reforms







Constitution of Kenya, 2010
Article 53 (1) (b) states, that every child has a right to
free and compulsory basic education
Article 10, National Values and Principles of
Governance
Chapters 6, Leadership and Integrity
Promoting Kiswahili as a national and official language
and English as official languages.
Encouraging teaching and learning of KSL and Braille.
Developing and promoting the use of indigenous
languages.
Emphasis on communication formats and
technologies accessible to persons with disabilities.
Rationale Cont:




The Kenya Vision 2030
Integrating early childhood into primary
education
Reforming secondary curricula
modernizing teacher training
developing programmes for learners
with special needs among others
Rationale Cont:


Task Force Report chaired by Professor
Odhiambo, 2012
major curriculum reform to align it with the
Constitution, 2010 and to address the
dictates of Vision 2030
inclusion of community service
programmes in the school curriculum

Rationale Cont:





Draft Sessional Paper on ‘Reforming Education
and Training in Kenya’
reforming the education sector to provide
for the holistic development of learners
recommends a competency based
curriculum
early Identification and nurturing of talents
introduction of values
introduction of three learning pathways at
Senior Secondary School level.
Rationale Cont:





Summative evaluation of the 8-4-4 system of education, 2009
more academic and examination oriented. Teachers hardly use
formative assessment (assessment for learning). Assessment
was limited to summative assessment (assessment of learning)
.
graduates at secondary school level also did not acquire
adequate entrepreneurial skills for self-reliance.
did not provide flexible education pathways for identifying and
nurturing aptitudes, talents and interests of learners early
enough in order to prepare them for the world of work, career
progression and sustainable development.
skills gaps identified – agricultural, entrepreneurial, vocational
and technical skills, innovation and creativity and ICT .
recommended a needs assessment survey
Rationale Cont:





KICD Needs Assessment Survey 2016
a curriculum reform
a wide curriculum to cater for various talent areas to
enable learners achieve their potential and be better
equipped to develop themselves and the nation.
a functional holistic curriculum that would produce
an individual with spiritual, moral and social aspects
with ability to live amicably with others.
development and acquisition competencies at every
level of learning
a flexible and comprehensive educational structure
and system
Rationale Cont:






East African Community Protocol
Recommendations on:
National Goals of Education
Structure for Basic Education
Key Competences
Learning areas/subjects
Learning outcomes for ECD, Primary
and Secondary
Guidelines on assessment
Rationale cont:


Global Standards
UNESCO IBE – review every 5 years
Sustainable Development Goal No
4 (ensuring quality education)
21
st Learning (Skills and
Approaches)

Table 1: Comparative Overview of the East African Region
12
Country Pre-primary Primary Secondary Total
Burundi 3 6 7-8 16-17
Uganda 3 7 6 16
Rwanda 3 6 6 15
Tanzania
mainland
2 7 6 15
Kenya 2 8 4 14
Tanzania
Zanzibar
2 6 6 14
Table 2: Global Comparative of Basic Education
Country
Preprimary
Primary Junior Secondary
Senior
Secondary
Total
years
Canada (2) 6 2 4 14
South Korea (3) 6 3 3 15
Kenya

(2) 8 – 4 14
Ghana – 6 3 3 12
South Africa (1) 6 3 3 13
Singapore (3) 6 2 3 14
England – 6 3 3 12
Malaysia

(2) 6 3 2 13
China (2) 6 3 3 14
Finland

(1) 6 3 3 13
Paradigm shift
FROM (less)
Content Focus
Rigid and Prescriptive curriculum with
limited flexibility
Focus on summative assessment and
competition (High stakes exams)
Emphasis on Schooling
Teaching
TO (more)
Focus on Competencies
Flexible with Opportunities for
specialisation – pathways
Balance between formative and
summative assessment, and
excellence
Emphasis on Education
Learning
BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK

NATIONAL GOALS OF EDUCATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Foster nationalism, patriotism and promote national
unity
Promote social, economic, technological and
industrial needs for national development
Promote individual development and self-fulfillment
Promote sound moral and religious values
Promote social equity and responsibility
Promote respect for and development of Kenya’s rich
and varied cultures
Promote international consciousness and foster
positive attitude towards other nations
Promote positive attitude towards good health and
environmental protection

Values








Love
Responsibilit
y
Respect
Unity
Peace
Patriotism
Social
Justice
Integrity
Guiding Principles






Opportunity
Excellence
Diversity and
Inclusion
Parental
Empowerment and
Engagement
Community Service
Learning
Differentiated
Curriculum &
Learning
Theoretical Approaches




The Instructional
Design Theory
Vygotsky’s SocialCultural Theory
Gardner’s Multiple
Intelligences
Theory
Piaget’s Theory of
Cognitive
Development

Core Competencies for Basic
Education 1. Communication and Collaboration
2. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
3. Imagination and Creativity
4. Citizenship
5. Digital Literacy
6. Learning to Learn
7. Self -Efficacy Next
topic
BAC
K
BAC
K
BAC
K
BAC
K
BAC
K
BAC
K
BAC
K

 

Pertinent and Contemporary Issues
No. Broad area Pertinent and Contemporary Issues
1. Health Related
Issues
HIV and AIDS, alcohol and drug
abuse prevention and lifestyle
diseases
2. Life Skills and
values Issues
Life skills, Values and human
sexuality
3. Social Economic
Issues
Environmental, disaster risk
reduction, safety and security,
countering terrorism, violent
extremism and radicalization,
poverty eradication, gender and
animal welfare
Curriculum Support Programmes






Values based Education (VbE)
Citizenship
Community Service Learning (CSL)
Non-Formal Programmes – clubs and
societies, sports and games.
Guidance services, career guidance,
counselling services, peer education,
mentorship, learning to live
Parental empowerment and engagement.
Learning Areas for Early Years Education
Pre Primary Education
Learning Area Lessons Per Week
1 Mathematical Activities 5
2 Language Activities/Kenya Sign
language/Pre Braille Activities
5
3 Environmental Activities 5
4 Psychomotor and Creative
Activities
8 (5 lessons for
Psychomotor and 3
lessons for Creative
activities)
5 Religious Education(CRE,IRE,HRE)
and PPI
2 (1 PPI)
Total No of lessons per week 25
Lower Primary Education

Learning Area Lessons Per
Week
1
Literacy Activities and Indigenous
Languages /Braille
5
2
Kiswahili Language Activities/Kenya
Sign Language for learners who are
deaf
3
3
English Language Activities 3
4 Mathematics Activities 5
5
Environmental Activities 5
6 Hygiene and Nutrition Activities 2
7
Religious Activities (CRE/IRE/HRE) 3
8 Movement and Creative Activities 8 (5 for Movement 2 for Art
&Craft, 1 for music)
9
Pastoral Programme of Instruction 1

Total Lesson Per Week 35

CURRICULUM FOR LEARNERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
Category of
learners
Pre-primary Lower primary Grade 4
1.Visual
impairment
Mathematical Activities Mathematics
Activities
Mathematics
Environmental Activities Environmental
Activities
Science and
Technology
Agriculture
Home Science
Braille
Psychomotor Activities Movement and
creative Activities
Social studies
PHE
Pre braille Activities Braille literacy Creative Arts
2.Hearing
impairment
Environmental Activities Environmental
Activities
English
Psychomotor Activities Movement and
creative Activities
Social studies
Creative Arts
Kenya Sign language Kenya Sign
Language
Science and
technology
English Language
CURRICULUM FOR LEARNERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
Category of
learners
Pre-primary Lower primary Grade 4
3. Physical
impairment
Mathematics Activities Mathematics
Activities
Mathematics
Environmental Activities Environmental
Activities
Science and
Technology
Agriculture
Home Science
Braille
Psychomotor Activities Movement and
creative Activities
Social studies
PHE
Mathematics
Activities
Creative Arts
Grade 4
# Learning Area Lessons
Per Week
1. Kiswahili Language or KSL for learners who are deaf 4
2. English anguage 4
3. *Other Languages (Indigenous, French, German,
Chinese, Arabic Languages) Learners select for one
language
2
4. Science and Technology 4
5. Social Studies (Citizenship, Geography, History) 3
6. Mathematics 5
7. Home Science 3
8. Agriculture 3
9. Religious Education (CRE/IRE/ HRE) *Learners select
one
3
10. Creative Arts (Art, Craft, Music) 3
11. Physical and Health Education 5
12. Pastoral Programmes and Instruction 1
Table 12: CBC ROLL OUT PLAN
Grade 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 202
7
2028
PP1-
G1&2
G3 Std.3
G4 Std.4
G5 Std.5
G6 Std.6
G7 Std.7
G8 Std 8
G9 F.1
G10 F.2
G11 F.3
G12 F.4
Key:

National Pilot

CBC rollout

8-4-4

THANK YOU