HOME SCIENCE I
- How can you ensure that a sitting room is well ventilated? (3mks)
- What two precautionary measures should be taken when using paraffin as a fuel? (2mks).
- State two reasons for using white ceramic tiles in the kitchen? (2mks).
- State three qualities of good lighting. (3mks).
- State two advantages and two disadvantages of steaming as a method of cooking?
- Care should be taken to ensure that left over foods remain fresh. How can this be
- State two qualities of fruit for jam making? (2mks).
- Give three reasons for coating food before deep frying? (3mks).
- State three ways of preparing clothes before washing? (3mks)
- Two methods which can be used to sterilize baby’s feeding equipment? (1mrk)
- What two was you use to disinfect kitchen clothes. (1mrk)
- Give two ways of using a crossway strip in garment construction. (1mrk)
- Give the following I-T -C – L – C ( International Textile Care Labeling Code). (11/2mks).
(c) ° °
- Give the two reasons of airing clothes after ironing. (1mrk).
- Two stitches that may be used to neaten an overlaid seam. (1mrk).
- Two ways of finishing the neckline of a night dress. (1mrk).
- 17. Two qualities of a thimble. (1mrk).
- What causes suffocation? (11/2mrks)
- Two things to prevent in first treatment of a cut. (1mrk).
- Using the diagram below, name the most suitable seam for joining the pieces labeled A and B, the suitable side seam and the piece labeled A of a child’s dress. (3mks).
Seam joining A and B ……………. Side seam …………
Piece labeled A………
- What points should you look for when buying a zip? Give two. (2mks)
- Use the pattern piece below to answer the question that follow.
Pattern pieces. (11/2mrk)
A………. B ……….
Pattern symbol. (1 1/2mrk)
X ………. Y ……….
- (a) After completing your cookery practical lesson you found that your white cotton
apron has the following stains
(i) Grease (ii) Coffee
State clearly how the stain can be removed. (5mks)
(b) What factors should be considered when choosing brooms and brushes? (6mks)
(c) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of dry cleaning. (4mks).
(d) What factors should be considered when choosing floor covering? (5mks)
- French seam is commonly worked on children’s clothes.
(a) i. What are the advantages of the seam? (2mks)
- With aid of clear diagrams show the working of the seam. (6mks)
(b) What are the advantages of combing wool with Nylon. (4mks)
(c) Discuss points you would observe to ensure that your sewing machine gives you
maximum service. (4mks)
(d) Of what use is pattern drafting to tailor ? (4mks)
- (a) Explain four rules to be observed when preparing left over foods. (4mks)
(b) Discuss the advantages of food preservation. (4mks)
(c) What points must be remembered when storing grains. (4mks)
(d) (i) Explain points to be considered when serving invalids. (4mks)
(ii) A sauce is served with lumps in it, what possible mistakes are likely to have been
HOME SCIENCE I
- – Doors should be large enough.
- Windows should be large enough.
- Room should be spacious.
- Furniture should not be congested.
- Artificial ventilation e.g. fans should be provided.
- Rooms should be well cleaned daily.
- – Do not store in sodas bottles.
– Lids should be tight fitting.
- Store away from foodstuffs.
- Keep away from children’s reach.
- – Easy to clean.
- Easily show dirt.
- Protect wall from dampness.
- Last long as they easy to maintain.
- – Should not contrast with background to avoid straining the eyes.
- Light should be well distributed to avoid shadows on working areas.
- Work should be done efficiently without straining.
- It should minimise accidents and ease in movement.
- It should enhance interior decoration.
- It should be without a glare.
– Easy to digest no fats are added or direct heating.
– Saves time and fuel when food is cooked over a pot of boiling water in which other
foods are cooked.
- Nutrients are retained as no liquid media is used.
– A slow method of cooking
– Expensive method if done a lone.
- Steamed food tends to lack flavour.
- – Put food in clean containers which are covered to prevent contamination by dust and
- Food should be cooled quickly and stored in the fridge clean cool place.
- – Should be firm or hard.
– Should not be over ripe or unripe.
- Should be unbruised.
- Should not be withered.
- – To prevent it from breaking into pieces.
– To prevent it from overcooking.
- To improve it’s appearance.
- To prevent food from getting too greasy.
- – Mending
- Removing stains.
- Commercial sterilizers e.g. Milton.
- Commercial disinfectant e.g. Dettol.
- – To neaten raw edges.
- For decoration.
- To strengthen out edges.
- To make rouleu loops.
- – Drip dry.
b.- Do not bleach.
c.- Use warm iron.
- – To get rid of excess dampness.
– To remove any smells or odours.
- – Loop stitches.
– Button hole.
- – Bias binding / cross way strip.
- Double yoke.
- – Should be strong to last long
- Should not rust
- Should fit the figure.
- – Breathing poisonous gases.
- Blocked windpipe
- Wearing objects over there
- – To control too much bleeding which can lead to death
– Prevent entry of germs.
- – Overlaid seam.
– French seam.
- – Choose a good brand.
– Test to see that zip glides smoothly and easily.
– Length of zip should suit length of poening.
– Colour of zip tape must match colour of fabric.
- A – Front Bodice.
B – Back Bodice.
C – Front facing.
X – Dart.
Y – Starting grain.
Z – Place to Fold.
23.(a) (i) – Wash in very hot water with a little washing soda in it.
– Carbon tetrachloride may be used on the stubborn stain.
(ii) – Rub salt on the stain and pour boiling water through the stain.
- Rub salt and lemon juice and pour boiling water through if stain is a bit stubborn.
- Use wood ash or Borax in same way as salt if stain is very stubborn.
(b) – Bristles should be firmly and closely set on the head.
- Handle should be of comfortable length.
- Head should be smooth and slightly curved to reduce damage on furniture.
- Should be selected for the correct purpose and use.
- Material should be of good quality so that they last long.
- The material is expensive.
- Solution may cause damage on the fabric.
- Solutions are inflammable.
- Solution are poisonous.
(d) – Should relate to the colour scheme of the room ( Harmonize with rest of the
- Design of the upholstered furniture.
- Texture of the fabric or material used.
- Size of the room.
- Cleaning and care required.
- Amount of money available.
– The purpose of the covering e.g soft carpet for sitting room, bed rooms and
corridors and hard carpet for kitchen and bathroom.
- (a) (i) Narrow and strong with two lines of machining.
(ii) Neat seam as edges are concealed.
(iii) Easy to launder.
Easy to work.
- Tack and stitch 6mm from, the edge outside the fitting line.
- Remove tacking press open the seam and trim to 4mm.
- Fold a long the stitching line with Right sides together.
- Tack 6mm from the edge enclosing the raw edges completely.
- Stitch below the tacking line i.e on the fitting line remove tacking.
(b) – The fibre produce is much more stronger and hence long lasting.
- The fibre is warmer than Nylon.
- The fibre is easier to launder.
- The fibre is cheaper to buy.
(c) – Must be covered when not in use to protect it from dust.
- Replace broken parts immediately.
- Have the machine checked by mechanic regularly.
- Oil the machine regularly.
(d) – Development of skills.
- Money saving as patterns are made at home.
- Less time wasted as shopping for patterns is not done.
- Using of individual person’s measurements.
- No adjustment required and correction is easy to do.
- (a) – Food be re heated and not re-cooked.
- Large pieces should be cut into small ones.
- Additional moisture should be added in form of gravy or stoch may be added to replace what was lost during cooking.
- Food may be coated with batter to prevent it from over heating.
- Food should be well garnished to enhance appearance.
- Avoid repeated re- heating by preparing just enough.
- Serve food in anew form to avoid monotony.
(b) – Food in season can be preserved to be used when out of season.
- Preserved food can be transported to reach places of storage.
- Preservation slows down food decay.
- May be done where there is surplus.
(c) – They should be completely dry.
- Store in well ventilated rooms.
- Preserve grains before storage.
- Place storage containers on racks.
- Do not keep toxic chemical in the grain store.
- Rock grain store and check frequently.
- Use old stock before the one.
- Meals should be balanced.
- Serve meals punctually.
- Prepare, cook and serve hygienically.
- Food should be palatable and appetizing.
- Serve attractively.
- Give small amounts at a time.
- Give hot foods hot and cold foods cold.
- Food should be soft and easy to digest.
- Avoid strong flavourings and smells in food.
- Follow doctors orders.
- Flour is added to very hot fat.
- Using too much heat during cooking.
- Adding liquid too fast without adequate stirring.
- Inadequate stirring during cooking.
- Roux not well cooked.
- Blending of flour not adequately done.
- Give two reasons for folding in flour in creamed cake mixtures (2mks)
- Explain the following terms used in cookery (3mks )
- Give two reasons for airing clothes before storage (2 mks)
- Differentiate between a split level house and a storeyed house (2mks)
- Explain three ways in which blending viscose with polyester would modify the characteristics of the viscous (3mks)
- State two advantages of dry cleaning clothes (2mks )
- Give two causes of a black ring in hard boiled egg (2mks)
- List down four nutrients found in eggs (2mks)
- Give three reasons why soaking is necessary for cotton and not for woolen fabrics (3mks)
- State three qualities of fabric for underwear (3mks)
- Explain two points on care of the Kitchen sink (2mks)
- State three factors to consider when selecting flowers for flower arrangement (3mks)
- Give three pre-caution to take when cleaning plain wooden surfaces (3mks)
- Explain the advantage of a refrigerator with two doors as opposed to one door (1mk)
- Give two ways of saving time and energy when performing house hold duties
- State two effective means of communication when passing information to children
- Give two important points to bear in mind when choosing fastenings (2mks )
- (a) State and explain five points to consider when planning meals (5mks)
- Give two reasons for the following faults in baking
- Cracked Swiss roll (2mks )
- Creamed cake sunken at the middle (2mks)
c). Explain three causes of malnutritional disorders and in each case give an
example (6 mks)
- Minerals perform varied and inter-related Discuss (4mks)
19 .(a) Discuss properties of cotton which make it important for hospital linen.
- Describe how to make an open seam at the side of a popline blouse (6mks)
- Your niece who is short and plump wishes to make a two piece outfit for a special occasion. Advice (4mks)
- Give two advantages of smoking on a child’s outfit (2mks )
- (a) Explain clearly how to remove a grease stain on cotton Apron (5mks )
- State four points to observe when laundering non fast coloured articles
- Your brother living in Kisumu is considering buying a plot to build a house . Suggest five points he should consider (5mks)
- State four factors which determine the cleaning frequency of a room (4mks)
- State two remedies for static fabrics in wear ` (2mks )
- (a) Discuss four points on use and care of brooms (4mks)
- Discuss five points one should consider when choosing a method of fullness disposal on a garment. (5mks)
- Give four qualities of aluminium which make it popular for household utensils (4mks )
- Suggest factors which influence consumer choice (5mks )
- Give two uses of salt in laundry work . (2mks )
- Reasons for folding in flour
- To incorporate air
- To retain the already incorporated air
( 2×1 = 2 marks )
- Meaning of terms
- Dextrination – When starch is exposed to dry heat it changes to form a sugar known as dextrin . the process is known as dextrinisation ( 1mk)
- Gelatinization – Starch when exposed to moist heat – absorbs water swells and burst (1mk )
- Caramelisation – Sugars exposed to heat melts to form a caramel hence caramelisation (1mk )
- Reasons for airing clothes
– To get rid of dampness
– To remove bad smells
( 2×1 = 2 marks )
- Split level in a house is where rooms are placed at individual levels of the ground . A storeyed house has rooms on top of others .
- – Reduces creasing
- Reduces shrinkage
- Makes it lighter
- Advantages of dry cleaning
- Fibres not affected
- Colour is maintained
- Texture is maintained
( 2×1= 2marks)
- Black ring in eggs
- Stale eggs
- Not cooling in cold water .
( 2×1 = 2 marks )
- Nutrient in eggs
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin D
( ½ x 4 = 2 marks)
- Soaking necessary for cotton and not for wool
- Wool is weak when wet
- Wool felts and shrinks
- Soften cotton for dirt
- Dirt does not adhere to woolen fabrics as much as any other
(any other relevant answer 3×1 = 3 marks )
- – Not bulky
- Soft to the skin
- Non static
- Not irritating
- Colour fast
( any other 3×1= 3 marks)
- Care of the kitchen sink
- Pour hot water occasionally
- Do not allow big particles down the sink
( 2×1 = 2 marks )
- – Selecting flowers
- Not strong scented
- Do not pick when full bloom
- Clean foliage
- – Plain wooden surfaces
- Scrub along the grain
- Avoid harsh abrasives
- Avoid use of hot water -it discolors
- Do not expose to direct sunlight – it warps
- Avoid sharp things.
- – A two door refrigerator allows the frozen food to stay undisturbed unlike one
door where frequent opening affects the freezer compartment
- – Use of correct and efficient tools
- Use correct posture
- Use labour saving devices
- Make use of trays and trolleys ( 2×1 = 2 marks)
- – Bold posters
– Real objects any other ( 2×1 = 2 marks )
- – Choice of fastening
- Position of the garment
- The weaver
- Type of fabric
- Type of garment
( any other relevant point 2×1 = 2 mks )
- (a) Planning meals
- Cooks capability
- Amount of money
- Equipment available
- Time available
( any other 5 x1 = 5 marks )
- – Cracked Swiss roll
– Not rolled immediately
– Too high temperature
– A lot of baking time
- – Creamed cake sunk in the middle
- Too soft mixture
- Not cooked
- A lot of sugar used
c ) Causes of malnutrition
- Excessive intake of nutrient – Obesity
- Lack of nutrients – Anaemia, Kwarshiokor
- Inability of body to absorb nutrients – Anaemia, Rickets
- d) General functions of minerals
- Protects body from diseases
- Helps in the formation of body cells
- Regulate body processes
- Helps maintain water composition in the body
( 3×1 = 3 marks )
19 (a) Properties of cotton
- Warm to the body
- Soft to the skin
- Withstands frequent washing / strong
- Easy to launder
- Not affected by alkalis and acids hence can be bleached effectively
( 4 x 2 = well explained points )
- b) Making open seam .
- Place two pieces (½) pieces together S (½) Facing
- Pin (½) Tack (½) and machine stitch (½) along the fitting line (½) on w. s (½ )
- Remove tacking (½) press (½) seam open (½)
- Trim (½) raw edges and neaten (½) by machine fold (½) , binding , blanket stitch t.c.
- c) Advice on two piece outfit
- Matching colour .
- Dark and dainty fabric
- Good draping quality
- Not clinging to the body
- Choose fabric with vertical lines
- d) Advantages of smoking
- Style features
- Can let down for added width
20 (a) Removal of grease stain
- Scrape (1) as much as possible
- Place blotting (1) paper on stain
- Iron using hot iron (1) from outside (1) towards center .
- Wash (1) article in hot water (5marks)
- Laundering non fast coloured articles
- Do not
- Wash quickly
- Dry undershade
- Use warm iron
- Iron s only (4×1 = 4marks)
- Points on plot buying
- Type of soils
- Social amenities
- Slope of land
- Nearness to place of work
( any other relevant point 5 x1 = 5 marks )
- d) Cleaning frequency
- Condition of room
- User of the room ( occupants )
- Time available for cleaning
- Cleaning equip and material available
- Use of the room
- Location of the room
- e) Remedies of clinging fabric
– Use fabric softener in last rinse
– Wear with cotton underwear’s
- (a) Use and care of brooms
- Remove fluffs
- Clean in heavily built soapy water
- Store with the head between two nails
- Dry Facing down – with no pressure on the bristles
- b) Choice of method of fullness of
- Position on garment
- Type of fabric ( weight )
- Age of wearer
- Type of garment
- Fabric texture
- c) Qualities of aluminium
- Shinny appearance
- Light in weight
- Does not rust
- Good conductor of heat
- d) Factors which influence consumer choice
- Money available
- Other consumers
- Time available
e). Use of salt in Laundry
- Fix color of loose colored garments
- Cut mucus
- What causes mildew stain (1mk)
- Give two methods of lengthening a skirt that has become too short (2mks)
- You have a polyester dress that clings to the body. Suggest two remedies for this problem
- State two factors to consider when planning meals for invalids (2mks)
- Give two methods of aerating flour mixtures and in each case give an example of a raising agent used. (2mks)
- (a) Give three uses of fats in cookery (3mks)
(b) Describe stewing as a method of cooking (1mk)
- Give two disadvantages of advertising to the consumer (2mks)
- State four ways of preventing skin diseases. (2mks)
- Give two disadvantages of concealed drainage system (2mks)
- Give two reasons why batter is allowed to rest after making before use. (2mks)
- State two disadvantages of soaking clothes for more than 24 hours (1 ½ mks)
- List four factors to consider when selecting fabric for children’s garment (2mks)
- What four factors contribute to efficiency when performing household tasks (2mks)
- The size of a patch pocket depends on several factors . Give four. (2mks)
- List any four preparations an expectant mother should make for home confinement
- State one way of protecting the baby against each of the following
(i) Prickly heat (1mk)
(ii) Nappy rash (1mk)
- List four differences between brooms and brushes (2mks)
- State three factors which determine method of controlling fullness (1 ½ mks)
- State four ways of conserving energy when lighting (4mks)
- (a) State and explain four factors to consider when planning meals (4mks)
(b) Give four general rules to bear in mind when preparing pastries (4mks)
(c) Give four points to consider when entertaining (4mks)
(d) Discuss three reasons for preserving food. (6mks)
(e) Give two reasons for blanching vegetables before freezing (2mks)
- (a) Give four precautionary measures to take when laundering woolen articles (5mks)
(b) Explain how to make boiling water starch (5mks)
(c) Explain four importance of good ventilation in a house (4mks)
(d) Give four reasons why disposal of sewage in rivers and streams is prohibited (4mks)
(e) State four factors to consider in choice of wall finishes (2mks)
- (a) Explain how to attach a zip fastener using edge to edge method (1mk)
(b) State three qualities of a well made hem (3mks)
(c) Discuss 4 qualities suitable for underwear fabrics (8mks)
- (a) Explain how to work French seam at the side of a child’s petticoat (9mks)
(b) Explain the functions of the following machine parts
(i) Feed dog (2mks)
(ii) Presser foot (2mks)
(iii) Stop motion screw (2mks)
(c) Give three qualities of a well made dart (3mks)
(d) Name two methods of graining a fabric before cutting out. (2mks)
- – Caused by folding and storing damp clothes (1 x 1 = 1mk)
- Ways of lengthening a skirt
– Adding a frill
– Let down the hem
– Put a false hem (2 x 1 = 2mks)
- Remedies for static electricity
– Wear dress with cotton petticoat
– Put fabric softener in the last rinsing water (2 x 1 = 2mks)
- Planning meals for invalids
– Fresh foods
–Adhere to doctor’s instructions
– Not greasy (2 x 1 = 2mks)
- Chemical – Baking powder
– Biological – Yeast
– Mechanical – Air ( 2 x 1 = 2mks)
(a) Uses of fats
– Cut short gluten strands
– Soften mixtures
– Add flavour and colour
– Increase self life (3 x 1 = 3mks)
(b) Long slow moist method of cooking food. Food is not allowed to boil. Done in
casserole in oven or on top of a stove (1 x 1 = 1mk)
- Disadvantages of advertising to the consumer
– Increases cost of goods
– Gives false information
– Confuses consumer due to many brands advertised (2 x 1 = 2mks)
- Preventing skin diseases
– Avoid sharing personal items
– Sterilise shared items
– Bath regularly
– Eat food rich in vitamins (4 x ½ = 2mks)
- – Can only be used where there is piped water
– Expensive to install
– Careless use may make maintenance difficult
- Reasons for resting batter
– So that starch grains can absorb liquid
– So that air bubbles can escape ( 2 x 1 = 2mks)
- – fibres are weakened
– Water becomes slimy
– Bad smells develop (3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks)
- – Shrink resistance
– Non – Irritating
– Inflammable (4 x ½ = 2mks)
- – Correct equipment and material
– Having a time plan
– Good speed
– Correct tools
– Correct methods of working
- – Purpose
– Purpose of garment
– Age of wearer
– Size of garment (4 x ½ = 2mks)
- – Inform midwives
– Prepare clean and sterile room
– Make transport available
– Clean razor blade and string (4 x ½ = 2mks)
- (i) Prickly heat – avoid overdressing (1mk)
(ii) Nappy rash – change napkins when used
- – Rinse napkins thoroughly (1mk)
- – Brooms have long handle while brushes have short handle
– Brooms sweep large areas – while brushes small areas
– Brooms have soft bristle while brushes have stiff bristles
– Brooms remove loose dirt while brushes remove fixed dirt (4 x ½ = mks)
- – Type of garment
– Position on garment
– Figure type
– Weight, texture and washability of fabric (3 x ½ = 1 ½ mks)
- – Use daylight as much as possible
– Lighting designed to suit purpose
– Avoid bulbs of higher wattage than required
– Ensure all light fittings are clean
– Turn off lights when not in use ( 4 x 1 = 4mks)
- (a) – Balanced – Protein, carbohydrate, vitamins
– Individual requirements
– Time available
– Colour variety
– Food in season
– Any other (4 x 1 = 4mks)
(b) Weigh ingredients accurately
– Use mixture of lard and margarine
– Use cool equipment and work in a cool place
– Number and type of guests
– Type and style of service
– Cutlery and crockery available
– Number of dishes to be served
– Time of the day and weather (4 x 1 = 4mks)
(d) Discuss three reasons for preserving foods
– Ease transportation for foods like vegetables and fruits
– Preserve so as to be used when out of season
– No food will keep indefinitely so food is preserved for future use
(well discussed points) (3 x 2 = 6mks)
(e) Two reasons for blanching vegetables before freezing
– To help retain colours
– Reduce bulk
– Retain nutrients
- Precautions to take when laundering woolen articles
– Do not soak as they are weak when wet
– Use water of same temperature throughout
– Dry flat
– Press do not iron to avoid stretching
(any other) (5 x 1= 5mks)
(b) Boiling water starch
– Measure 1 tablespoon (1) Starch. 2 tablespoons cold water(1) Make smooth paste
(½) Add ½ litre (1) boiling water (½) Stir and boil for a short while (½) Dilute as
required (½) (5mks)
(c) Importance of Good ventilation
– Get rid of surplus heat from people and machinery
– Get rid of bad ordours
– Allow circulation of fresh air
– Avoid drowsiness (4 x 1 = 4mks)
(d) Reasons for not disposing waste in rivers
– Causes water to smell foul
– Poses, health problems to animals and human beings
– Affects plants and destroys aquatic life
– Carrier of water borne diseases
- Choice of wall finishes
– Size of wall
– Money available
– Care required
– Availability of the material
(4 x ½ = 2mks)
- (a) Method of attaching zip
– Tack ½ the seam and neaten ½ the edges
– Open and press it open
– Work form R.S. and the zip closed ½ and the tag level with the fitting line ½ pin one
side of the opening to the zip length ½
– Pin the other side so that the folds meet (½)
– Tack firmly down on the side and up (½) of the other closing at the base of the zip
– Hold the folds together (½) with 1cm tacking stitches (½) from the end to end.
– Working on the R.S (½) machine down (½) one side and up the other 6mm ½ from
the fold ( ½ ) according to the width of the zip teeth
(Diagrams can be used to make explanation clear) (9mks)
(b) Qualities of well made hem
– Well eased
– Hemming stitches evenly distributed
– Equal in depth (3 x 1 = 3mks)
- Three qualities of fabric for underwear
– Should be absorbent since they are worn next to skin
– Easily laundered – cleanliness is absolutely essential due to accumulation of body
– Should not be bulky, should not be seen over outer garment
– Non – clinging for outer garment to slide over easily
– Good quality – Cheap materials will not survive constant wear and washing
(4 x 2 = 8mks)
- (a) How to work a french seam at the side of a child’s petticoat
– With w.s. of the fabric together and edges even pin tack ½ along the fitting line ( ½ )
– Machine ½ along the tacking (½) remove all the tacking and trim ( ½ ) the seam
turning to about 5mm (½)
– With the right side (½) of the fabric facing (½) fold over along the seamline, pin, tack
along the fitting line ½ about 6mm below the seam (½)
– Machine or backstitch ( ½ ) along the fitting line
– Remove tacking and press ½ the seam towards the back of the garment (½) (9mks)
(b) Feeddog – Regulate amount of fabric passing through when needle is stitching
Presser foot – Holds fabric in place and presses it to the feed dog
Stop motion screw – Stops the needle from moving up and down. ( 3 x 2 = 6mks)
(c) Three qualities of a well made dart
– Tapers gradually to a point
– Straight line of stitching
– Firmly secured at the point
– Correct length and width
– Pressed to the right side
- Graining fabric
– Pulling diagonally
– Pulling a thread across the fabric and cut through
(2 x 1 = 2mks)
- Give four precautions a mother should take to ensure that an active toddler does not accidentally suffer from burns and scalds. (2 mks)
- State two causes of anaemia other than nutritional deficiency. (2 mks)
- State three factors to consider when planning lighting for various rooms in the house.
- Explain why laundry blue is in minimal use today for laundry work. (1 mk)
- Explain four qualities for making lingerie. (4 mks)
- Giving a reason in each case name two nutrients which should be emphasized in school
children diet. (2 mks)
- State two reasons why clothes should be dried thoroughly before storage. (2 mks)
- State two general rules to observe when setting a table for a meal. (2 mks)
- Heavy close texture is a common fault in sponge cake. Give two causes. (2 mks)
- Give two reasons why vitreous enamel finish is used on cookers. (2 mks)
- List four methods of finishing a plain seam on the side of a denim skirt. (2 mks)
- The following is a poorly planned menu for a family which includes a three year old child.
Ugali, Sweet potatoes, Sukuma wiki fried with tomatoes.
(a) (i) give two reasons why it is a poor menu. (2 mks)
(ii) suggest one dish to improve the meal. (1 mk)
- State three qualities to look for when buying a tape measure. (1 ½ mks)
- Explain two qualities that make crossway strips useful in dressmaking. (2 mks)
- Give four factors to consider when buying wooden utensils. (2 mks)
- State two qualities of a well-made hem. (2 mks)
- Give two reasons why weaning should be a gradual process. (2 mks)
- Good eyesight is essential at all times. Give three points on care of eyes. (3 mks)
- Give three reasons for cooking and decorating cakes. (2 mks)
- (a) Silk is a common fabric for making evening wear. Give three factors that make it
popular for the above occasion. (3 mks)
(b) Give four steps to ensure that a sewing machine gives good stitches when stitching.
(c) Give three differences between interfacing and interlining. (3 mks)
- Describe how to work a machine fell seam at the yoke of a poplin shirt. (8 mks)
- Give four factors that determine the method of disposing fullness in a garment.
- (a) Giving reasons in each case state four basic rules in the use and care of a refrigerator.
(b) Give four points you would advice your aunt on in choice of curtains for her new
house. (4 mks)
(c) A well-drained house is a comfortable house to live in. Give four point to support the
above statement. (4 mks)
(d) Suggest four reasons why a family should prepare for a baby’s arrival. (4 mks)
- (a) Explain the meaning of the following terms used in cookery. (4 mks)
(b) What advice would you give to a friend who is going to get married about planning family meals? Assume that as a career girl she has very little experience. (5 mks)
- Breast milk is the perfect food for a baby. Give four advantages of breastfeeding.
(d) Give four points of personal hygiene that are essential to a food handler. (4 mks)
(e) What are the reasons for folding in flour in creamed cake mixtures? (2 mks)
- (a) (i) Give four points to consider when buying commercial paper patterns. (4 mks)
(ii) Explain three points to consider when choosing a zip fastener. (3 mks)
(b) A wise shopper is a wise consumer. Give five points a consumer should look for
before buying an item. (5 mks)
(c) Give four points that determine the cleaning frequency of a house. (4 mks)
(d) Give four reasons for budgeting family income. (4 mks)
- Four precautions a mother should take to ensure an active toddler does not suffer from burns and scalds. ( ½ x 4 = 2 mks)
– Keep metal boxes out of reach of children.
– Have fire guards round open fires.
– Do not place hot liquids where children can reach them.
– Children should not be locked in houses alone.
– Handles of pans and pots should be turned away from path ways.
- Causes of anaemia other than nutritional deficiency. (1 x 2 = 2 mks)
– Genetic (sickle cell).
– Excessive loss of blood.
– Sickness e.g. malaria, leukemia.
– Parasites e.g. hookworm.
- Factors to consider when planning lighting for various rooms. ( ½ x 3 = 1½ mks)
– Purpose of the room.
– Size of the room.
– The existing colour scheme.
- Explain why laundry blue is in minimal use today: (1×1 = 1 mk)
– This is because most of the soapless detergents made these days have flourescent whitener which have the same function as laundry blue.
- Qualities of fabric for making lingerie.
– Soft not to irritate skill.
– Not bulky not to be seen over the outer garment.
– Absorbent to absorb sweat.
– Strong to withstand frequent washing.
– Should not generate static electricity not to cling to the body.
- Nutrients to be emphasized in a school child’s diet: (2×1 = 2 mks)
– Carbohydrate/fat because they are active.
– Protein because they are growing.
– Vitamins for protection.
– Minerals for strong bones.
- Reasons why clothes should be rinsed thoroughly:
– Remove smells of soap.
– Avoid skin irritation from detergents.
– Prevent damage to fibres by detergent.
– Mention original colour.
- 8. General rules to observe when setting a table: (2×1 = 2mks)
– Table should be clean.
– The tablecloth should be clean and well pressed.
– Allow space eof about 60 cm per person.
– Place clean cutlery 2.5 cm from the edge of the table.
- Causes of heavy texture in sponge cakes: (2×1 = 2 mks)
– Too hot oven.
– Insufficient whisking.
– Poor folding in.
– Too rapid addition of flour.
– Too much flour.
- Why vitreous enamel finish is used on cookers: (2×1 = 2 mks)
– Easy to clean and maintain.
- Four methods of finishing a plain seam on the side of a denim skirt:(½ x4 = 2 mks)
– Edge stitching.
– Zig zagging.
– Loop stitching.
- (i) Reasons why it is a poor menu: (2×1 = 2 mks)
– Contains a lot of carbohydrates.
– The meal has no protein.
(ii) A protein dish e.g. meat stew, chicken, currry, ndengu (1 mk)
- Qualities of a good tape measure: ( ½ x 3 = 1 ½ mks
– Clearly marked.
– Not stretchable.
– Reinforced ends.
– Should not fray at sides.
– Markings should not fade off.
- Qualities that make crossway strip useful in dress making stretches therefore can be manipulated round curves and corners: (2×1 = 2mks)
Forms a contrast in grain or print therefore decorative.
- Factors to consider when buying wooden utensils:
– No scratches. – Well grained.
– Ordourless. – Non toxic.
– Durable. – Smooth.
- Qualities of a well-made hem: (1×2 = 2mks)
– Same width.
– Correct for fabric and style.
– Not puckered.
– Seams matched.
– Well pressed.
- Reasons why weaning should be gradual: (1×2 = 2 mks)
– Allow baby to get accustomed to the new food.
– Allow mother time to observe the baby for any allergic reactions.
- Good eye sight is essential. Points on care: (1×3 = 3 mks)
– Eat a diet rich in vitamin A and C.
– Work in well lit area but avoid very bright unprotected light.
– Clean your face every morning paying attention to areas around the eyes.
– Any evidence of bad eyesight or soreness should be reported to the doctor.
- Two reasons for decorating cakes: (1×2 = 2 mks)
– To make the cake attractive.
– Prevent cake from drying.
– Encourages creativity.
- (a) Factors which make silk popular for evening wear: (1×4 = 4mks)
– Lustre – the nature shine makes it suitable for fancy wear.
– Has good draping quality.
– Warm – gives warmth on cold nights.
– Sheds creases easily.
(b) Steps to ensure a sewing machine gives good stitches: (1×4 = 4mks)
– Correct tension.
– Thread machine correctly.
– Firm and accurate tacking.
– Correct size of needle for fabric.
– Thread should match fabric in thickness.
(c) Difference between interfacing and interlining: (1×3 = 3mks)
– Interfacing is used on small areas while interlining is used on large areas.
– Interfacing is used on the facing while interlining is used between the lining and the garment.
– Interfacing is used to give crispness (stiffening) while interlining gives warmth and body to garment.
(d) How to work a machine fell seam: (8 mks)
– Place two pieces of material together edges matching.
– Pin , tack, on the fitting line.
– Machine on the fitting line.
– Trim one side to less than 0.5 cm.
– Trim the other side to 1.2 cm.
– Press, open.
– Fold over the wider turning to the shorter one and tack.
– Machine close to the fold.
- Remove tacking and press.
(e) Factors which determine methods of controlling fullness: (½ x 4 = 2mks)
– Type of garment.
– Position of fullness.
– Type of fabric.
– Age of wearer.
- (a) Basic rules in use and care of refrigeration: (2×4 = 8 mks)
– Do not keep hot food in the fridge as it lowers the temperature causing spoilage of other foods.
– Do not use sharp instruments to scrap of ice from the fridge. It scratches and causes marks on the fridge.
– Store food in polythene papers to prevent drying.
– Do not overload – to allow free circulation of air.
– Place fridge in the coolest part of the kitchen to avoid heat interference.
(state 1mk reason 1mk)
(b) Choice of curtains: (1×4 = 4 mks)
– Colour fast not to fade.
– Durable fabric.
– Easy to launder.
– Colour within the colour scheme of the room.
– Non inflammable fabric.
– Shrink resistance.
(c) Importance of goods drainage:
– Frees house from dampness.
– Avoid bad smells.
– Makes places attractive.
– Minimizes risk of getting diseases.
– Precludes breeding places for pests.
(d) Reasons why a family should prepare for baby’s arrival: (1 x 4 = 4 mks)
– Help a family to manage their finances better.
– Avoid last minute rush and anxiety after baby is born.
– Challenges the family to look for room and bed for baby.
– Allows mother to get the best for the baby.
– Gives parents time to prepare younger children to accept the new baby.
- (a) Meaning of following terms: (1 x 4 = 4 mks)
– Bake blind – baking of pastry without a filling.
– Balter – mixture of flour and water usually with an egg.
– Braising – cooking of food usually of meat on a bed of fried root vegetables known as a mirepoix creaming. Beating fat or fat and sugar until it is creamy in both texture and colour.
(b) Points to consider in meal planning: (1×5 = 5 mks)
– Family meals should be nutritionally balanced.
– Make use of food in season as its cheaper.
– Money available – food budget within the finances means of the family.
– Plan meals to be prepared with equipment available.
– Should vary colour of dishes.
– Should consider individual taste. (Any other relevant answers)
(c) Advantages of breast feeding:
– More nutritious and easily digested.
– Always at the right temperatures.
– Does not need preparation.
– Contains antibodies.
– Has no harmful micro-organisms.
(d) Points of hygiene to a food handler: (4×1 = 4 mks)
– Wash hands before touching food.
– Do not handle cooked food with bare hands.
– Health carriers of infectious diseases should not b e allowed to handle food.
– Wear kitchen clothes when handling food e.g. apron or overall.
(e) Reasons for folding in flour in creamed cake mixture: (2×1 = 2 mks)
– To incorporate more air.
– Prevent the already incorporated air from escaping.
- (a) (i) Points to consider when buying commercial patterns: (1×4 = 4 mks)
– Measurements should correspond with one’s body measurements.
– Style should fit the figure.
– Fashion should be current.
– Choose one with several styles.
– Beginner should choose simple patterns.
(ii) Choice of zip fastener: (1×3 = 3 mks)
– Length – buy correct length for the garment being made.
– Colour – should match the garment as nearly as possible.
– Weight – buy correct weight for purpose. Heavy zips cause sagging.
(b) Points a consumer should look for before buying an item: (1×5 = 5 mks)
– Should do window shopping to compare prices in different shops.
– Should ship for quality – a good quality product will last long. Reputation on item is good guide to quality.
– Should look for features of a product. Buy one with useful features.
– Should examine tag and label on an item to get information on use and care.
– Should find out about quarantee. The more expensive an item is the more the coverage on quarantee one needs.
– Find information on installation, delivery, servicing etc.
(c) Factors which determine the cleaning frequency of a house:
– The occupants of the house e.g. young children or adult.
– Amount of dirt or dust getting into the house.
– Conditions of the house e.g. cracked floors.
– Available time for cleaning.
– Cleaning equipment and material available.
(d) Four reasons for budgeting family income: (1 x 4 = 4 mks)
– Helps a family to live within their income.
– It promotes organized living and planning.
– The family knows how the money is being spent and they are able to evaluate their financial situation.
– Budgeting encourages sensible control of various expenses.
– Budgeting helps a family to look at their income sources realistically.
- You have brought a denim material to make a pair of shorts for your brother. What seam
would you choose and why? (2mks)
- The temperature of water is important in stain removal processes. Explain the effect of
hot water in the following stains. (2mks)
- Mention two hazards caused by water pollution. (2 mks)
- List four materials used for interfacing. (2mks)
- Explain the importance of using acidic substances in cooking bony beef meat. (2mks)
- State four points to consider when buying fish (4mks)
- State three reasons why a knot should not be used to start stitches. (3mks)
- Explain two reasons why it is important to transfer pattern marking from paper pattern to
fabric before cutting out. (2mks)
- Give two advantages of flourescent lighting over filament bulb. (2mks)
(a) what is advertising (2mks)
(b) give three disadvantages of advertising (3 mks)
- State two disadvantages of using a knitted articles (2mks)
- Give three points on choice, use and care of pegs (4 mks)
- State three points on care of brooms and brushes (3 mks)
- Give two functions of fats in cake making. (2 mks
- Three causes of sewing machine not feeding the fabric properly (2mks)
(a) Oil paints are commonly used as wall finish. Give three advantages of oil paints.
(b) Sufficient ventilation is important in a house. Give four points in support of the above
(c) Suggest five steps to take to ensure that shoes last long (5mks)
(d) Give four differences between soap and soapless detergents (4mks)
(e) Explain how to dry clean a scarf. (4mks)
- (a) Give three points in each case to consider when drawing up diets for
(i) Aged (3mks)
(ii) Vegetarians (3mks)
(b) What causes the following faults in pastry making
(i) Shrunken pastry (3mks)
(ii) Too short and crumbly pastry (2mks)
(c) Give four basic rules in use and care of a refrigerator (4mks)
(d) Discuss two factors which determine an individual’s nutrient requirements.
- (a) State four factors to consider when choosing an opening for a garment. (4mks)
(b) Give two advantages and two disadvantages of man made fibres. (4mks)
(c) Describe how to work an overlaid seam on the yoke of a silk blouse. (9mks)
(d) What advice would you give to your friend who has narrow hips about choice of
- (a)(i) Give four reasons as to why interlining is used in garment construction. (4mks)
(ii) List four areas on an article where interlining is done (2mks)
(b) Define the following cookery terms
(i) Bake blind (2mks)
(ii) Chopping (2mks)
(iii) Glazing (2mks)
© State four steps in making a budget. (4mks)
- Discuss three advantages of table setting (3mks)
- What is meant by the term raising agent? (1mks)
- Suitable seam for a pair of shorts
– Double stitched seam (1mk)
– Strong due to double stitching
– Flat hence comfortable
– Easy to launder (1mk)
- Effects of hot water on the following stains
– Blood – hot water fixes the stain (1mk)
– Grease – Hot water emulsifies it (1mk)
- Hazards of water pollution
– Kills marine life
– May cause poisoning
– Kill sea plants (2x 1mrk)
- Interfacing materials
- Use of acidic substance in cooking meat
– Acid changes collagen to gelatin thus softening the meat. (2×1=2mks)
- Factors to consider when buying fish
– No unpleasant smell
– Red gills
– Bright and prominent eyes
– For shell fish the shell should be tightly closed (4×1=4mks)
- Why a knot should not be used to start stitches
– Can tear fabric
– Can undo and the stitch is destroyed
– Causes tiny lumps when fabric is pressed (3×1=3mks)
- Reasons for transferring pattern marks
– Ensure right parts are joined together
– Ensure good fit/size i.e. stitching line is followed (2×1=2mks)
- Advantages of fluorescent lighting
– Fluorescent is long lasting
– gives bright light
– consumes less energy (3×1=3mks)
- Meaning of advertising
– Simple way of informing the public about goods and services available in the market.
– Appeals to emotions hence influences consumer psychologically
– The manufacturer will bear the cost of advertising
– can cause product of low quality to be preferred to that of high quality (3×1=3mks)
- Disadvantages of knitted Articles
– Ladders Very Easily
– Bulges At Knees And Elbow
– Easily Pulls out of shape
- Points on choice use and care of pegs
– Should be made of good quality material – plastic or wood
– Ensure they are clean and dry before use
– Keep pegs in a clean container or bag. (4×1=4mks)
– Should be strong and well designed to hold clothes firmly on the line
- Care of brooms and brushes
–Store With Head Between Two Nails
– Remove Fluffs After Use
– Shake Off And Dust Before Storage (3×1=3mks)
- Functions of fats in cake making
– Shortens The Mixture
– Improves The Keeping Quality
– Helps In Aeration
– Improves Colour (2×1=2mks)
- Causes of a sewing machine not feeding fabric properly
– Fabric Held Too Tightly
– Feed Dog May Be Covered
– Insufficient Pressure On The Pressure Foot
– Length Too Short
- (a) Advantages of oil paints
– Water repellent hence easily cleaned
– Surface is smooth therefore dust does not settle on it.
– Oil paint is durable (3×1=3mks)
(b) Prevent humidity
– Get Rid Of Surplus Heat From People And Machinery
– Remove Any Ordours
– Increase Free Circulation of air (4×1=4mks)
(c) – Polish to preserve
– Repair Immediately When Torn
– Store On Shoe Rack
– Dry in a cool place
– Wear With socks to absorb perspiration (5×1=5mks)
(d) Soapless detergents do not foam fast with hard water while soap does
– soaps are made from animal\vegetable fat while soapless are from chemicals
– soapless come in different strengths
– soapless forms lather in both warm and cold water (4×1=4mks)
(e) Dry-cleaning a scarf
– Shake dust
– Put solvent in a container and immerse garment in it squeezing gently
– squeeze out and hang in open air
– leave solvent to settle and drain then store. (4mks)
- Factors to consider in drawing a diet for
– Easy to digest
– Less energy giving foods
– Food rich in minerals and vitamins
– Serve in small amounts (3×1=3mks)
– Well flavored
– Varied to avoid monotony
– use vegetable fats and oils for preparing (3×1=3mks)
(b) Shrunken pastry
– Insufficient relaxing
– Stretching during shaping
– stretching during rolling (3×1=3mks)
(ii) Short and crumbly pastry
– too much fat
– too little water (2×1=2mks)
- Basic rule in use and care of a refrigerator.
– Do not store hot food in the refrigerator, it lowers the temperatures
– Store food in covered containers or polythene papers to prevent dehydration
– Do not overload to allow free circulation of air
– Store meal size portions
– Place fridge in the coolest part of the kitchen
– Do not use sharp instruments to remove ice to prevent scratching the surface.
- Three classes of beverages and give an example of each
– Stimulants – Tea or coffee
– Nourishing – milk
– Refreshing – Fruit juices
(e) Two factors which determine an individual’s nutrient requirement (2×1=2marks)
– Age – young children require more protein
– Climate – cold areas – more energy foods
– Body size
– State of health – invalids and convalescents
(stating ½mrk, explaining ½mrk)
- (a) Factors to consider in choice of an opening (4×1=4mks)
– Position of opening
– Type of fabric
– Type of fastening
– Age of wearer
– Purpose of opening
(b) Advantages of man made fibers (2×1=2mks)
– Resistant to sunlight
– Thermoplastic (can be pleated)
– Smooth, Soft. Slippery
– Yarn spillage is common
– Poor absorbency
– Not resistant to abrasion
– Holds and generates static electricity
(c) How to work overlaid seam, (11mks)
– Turn seam allowance ½ on the F.L. ½ of the overlay ½ to the wrong side ½ .
– Press and hold with tacking
– Place the overlay ½ over the underlay ½ with folding ½ of overlay lying on the F.L.
½ of the overlay.
– Pin , tack ½ and machine ½ close ½ to the fold on R.S. ½ . Remove tacking ½
– Turn to the W.S. trim ½ the raw edges to within hem ½ of the fitting line.
– Neaten ½ raw edges using loop stitches ½ . Press ½ the completed seam
(d) 3 pieces of advice you would give to your friend who has narrow hips on choice of clothes (3×1=3mks)
– She should wear pleated skirts
– Wear over blouses
– Bulky fabrics are suitable
– to avoid tight fitting skirts
- (i) Reasons for using interlining (4×1=4mks)
– Gives added crease resistance
– Increases life to garment
– Adds warmth
– Adds firmness to a complete silhouette
(ii) – Areas ( ½ x 4mks)
(b) Cookery terms
(i) Bake blind – refers to the baking of pastry without a filling (2mks)
(ii) Chopping – cutting finely especially of vegetables (2mks)
(iii) Glazing – applying of egg white on an item before baking to give a good
(c) Steps in making a budget (4×1=4mks)
– Establish family financial goal both present and future
– Estimate income from all sources
– List committed, fixed and unchangeable expenses
– Total plan for expenditure and compare with estimated income
(d) Advantages of table setting (3×1=3mks)
– Makes the act of eating easier
– It increases the diners’ appetite as items are smartly presented
– It gives order during meal times
(e) Raising agent is any substance which when added to a flour mixture provides a gas which expands upon heating, raising the mixture. (1mrk)
- State three points on choice, use and care of a charcoal iron (3 mks)
- List three disadvantages of using hard water in the home (3mks)
- (a) Define the term accessories (1 mk)
- List two examples of accessories that are both functional and decorative (1 mk)
- State four uses of milk in cookery (2 mks)
- Give four points to consider when buying fabric for soft furnishing (4 mks)
- Write four points to consider when planning meals for the family (4 mks)
- State three reasons for using interlining on garments (3 mks)
(a) Define glare (1 mk)
(b) Give three attributes of good artificial light (3 mks)
- State four factors to consider when buying a house (2 mks)
- Heavy close texture is a common fault in creamed cakes. State three causes for the above (3 mks)
- Give three qualities of a good dust bin (1½ mks)
- State three rules of sewing on buttons (1½ mks)
- Give three advantages of sponging in laundry work (3 mks)
- Give two causes of fabric puckering during sewing (2 mks)
- Suggest three reasons for using fullness in garment construction (1½ mks)
- State three points to bear in mind when choosing flowers for flower arrangement
- State three changes that occur in meat during roasting (3mks)
- State the importance of play in the life of a young child (3 mks)
- Budgeting for one’s income is very important. List three factors to consider when
making a budget (1½ mks)
- (i) Explain briefly why the following processes are done in laundry work
(ii) Starching (2 mks)
(iii) Boiling (2 mks)
(iv) Dampening (2 mks)
(v) State four advantages of using carpets as floor covering materials (4 mks)
(vi) Discuss five factors to consider in choice of a washing machine (10mks)
- (a) Osteomalacia is a common disorder among women of child-bearing age. Give four
symptoms of the above disorder (4 mks)
(b). Discuss five uses of fruits in cookery (4 mks)
(c). Discuss five points to consider when preparing meals for children (5 mks)
22 (a) Mention five properties which make synthetic fabrics suitable for household articles (5mks)
(b) Give clear instructions on how to work darts (7 mks)
23.(a)French seam is a popular seam in children articles. Explain clearly how to work the
seam (8 mks)
(b). State and explain four general rules to observe when removing stains (4 mks)
© . Discuss two advantages and disadvantages of advertising (4 mks)
(d). Define the following terms used in cookery
(a) Raising agent (2 mks)
(b) Braising (2 mks)
- Three points on choice, use and care of charcoal iron
– Firmly fixed screws
– Comfortable handle and sufficient pressure
– Close iron well and clean sole before using
– Empty after use
– Store in cool, dry place
(1 X 3 = 3 mks)
- – Wastes soap during washing
– Forms scum with soap when rinsing hence discolours clothes
– Can cause blockage in pities
– Discolours kettles and boilers
(1 X 3 = 3 mks)
- a) – Assessories are small things worn or carried as part of ones dressing (1 mk)
(b) Ring, watches, hair clips
(½ X 1 = 1 mk)
- – Sauces e.g. custard sauce
– Beverages – tea, milkshake
– For enriching e.g. mashed potatoes
(½ X 4 = 2 mks)
- – Colour must be fast
– Fabric should be shrink resistant
– Should be crease resistant
– Colour blends well with rest of décor
– Easy to launder
– Durable (1 X 4 = 4 mks)
- – Should be balanced
– Individual requirements
– Food in season
– Money available
– Time available
– Facilities available
(1 X 4 = 4 mks)
- – Give added crease resistance
– Prevent stretching or sagging
– Increase life of garment
– Add warmth
– Add firmness to a complete suhoule
(1 X 3 = 3 mks)
8.(a)- Glare is any brightness within the field of vision which causes the eye to strain
(b) – Does not cast shadows
– Not cause glare
– Not waver or fricker
– Does not discharge impurities in the air
(1 X 3 = 3 mks)
- – Buying a house
– Cost. Should be within
– Value of house. Seek professional advice to determine worth
– Location of house
– Reliability of seller
– Family requirements
(½ X 4 = 2 mks)
- – Insufficient creaming
– Too much liquid
– Too slow an oven
– Too hot oven
– Insufficient cooking
(1 x 3 = 3 mks)
- – Made of strong leak proof material
– Well fitting lid
– Large enough
(½ x 3 = 1½ mks)
- – All flat buttons must be sewn leaving a shank
– Buttons should be sewn on double fabric
– Buttons with a stem do not need a shank
– Should be firmly fixed
– Accurately positioned
– Place right side upright
(½ x 3 = 1½ Mks)
- – Solutions are simple to make at home
– Saves money and time since it reduces on commercial dry cleaning
– Reduces risk of colour loss or shape
(1 x 3 = 3 mks)
- – Needle too coarse for fabric
– Stitches too long incase of fine fabric
(1 x 2 = 2 mks)
- – Using fullness
– Provide fashion feature
– Shape the garment
– Give a good fit
(1 x 3 = 3 mks)
- – Make sure follage is clean
– Choose fresh flowers
– Use a mixture of flat and pointed flowers
– Avoid using strong scented flowers
Avoid cutting too many flowers in full bloom as they wither quickly
(1 x 3 = 3 mks)
- – The fat melts
– Colour changes from red to brown
– Soluble proteins coagulated resulting in meat being firmer
– Elasting contracts causing meat to shrink
(1 x 3 = 3 mks)
- – Play helps a child to develop mentally e.g. building blocks
– Helps a child to socialize with the others
– Help in physical development e.g. climbing, running
(1 x 3 = 3 mks)
- – Amount of money available
– Needs of the individual family members
– Needs should be ranked in order of priority
– Fixed expense should be listed down
– Saving should be done
(½ x 3 = 1½ Mks)
20.i. (a) Starching
– Give articles a glossy appearance
– Give a smooth surface which dirt does not adhere to
– Stiffens (gives body)
– Whitens articles (2 mks)
– Whiten articles
– Kills germs
– Removes stubborn stains (2 mks)
– Sprinkle warm water – it spreads better
– Helps in removal of creases (2 mks)
- Advantages of carpet
– They are warm
– Deaden sound
– Comfortable to the feet
– Add to the colour scheme of the room
(1 x 4 = 4 mks)
v. Five points in choice of a washing machine
– Size of family or establishment to determine size to be bought
– Space available for storage
– Cost and maintenance
– Consider control of the machine
– Buy from reputable dealer
– Should have instruction manual
– Consider serviceability of the machine
(2 x 5 = 10 mks)
21.(a) Symptoms of osteomalacia
– Bone tenderness
– Patients walk with legs wide apart appearing to waddle
– Twitching of muscles
– Spontaneous fracture may occur
(1 x 4 = 4 mks)
(b) Uses of fruits
– In jam making – plum, pineapple
– As a dessert – fruit salad
– For garnishing – cakes
– Making sauces – apples
– Making jelly
– As a filling for a dessert pineapple upside down
– Fruits in jelly
(1 x 4 = 4 mks)
- Factors to consider in preparing meals for children
– Well balanced
– Easy to digest foods
– Serve their food punctually
– Present their food attractively
– Breast milk is best for baby
– Contains nutrients in their right amounts
– Is at the right temperature for the baby
– Contains antibodies
– Free from contamination
– Helps develop bond between mother and child
(Well discussed 2 x 3 = 6 mks)
22.(a) Five properties which make synthetic popular
– Smooth and have a luxurious appearance
– They are resilient, creases hang out easily
– Light in weight even if given bulk treatment hence suitable for air travel
– Resistant to sunlight except for nylon
– Not attacked by moth
– Not absorbent hence dry quickly
– Thermoplastic – can be permanently pleated
(1 x 5 = 5 mks)
(b) Working dart
- Fold (½) fabric right sides (½) together matching stitching (½) line pins (½) and tack
- Starting from broad end (½) stitch (½) along the fitting line (½) until dart tapers to
nothing in the fold (½)
– Leave long threads (½) fasten by weaving or back stitch (½)
– Remove tacking (½) press (½) dart towards correct direction (½)
– Five general rules for making seams
– Always stitch along the grain for good hang
– Match all balance marks and fitting lines before stitching
– Tack firmly along fitting line
– Stitch exactly on the fitting line
– Conceal all raw edges or strengthened by protective stitching
– All seams must be inconspicuous as possible
– Should be fine
Eye should be smoothly finished
Easy to thread
Assorted (1 x 3 = 3 mks)
23.(a) Working French seam
– Place two pieces of material W.S (½) together with notches and fitting line matching
– Pin (½) and tack (½) on the F.L line (½ ) machine ¼”(½) above the fitting line
– Remove tacking (½) trim turning (½) to less than the finished width of the seam press
(½) open (½)
– Turn so that the R.S. (½) of material is inside and crease along the stitching line pin
(½) tack (½) machine (½) on the F.L
– Remove tacking (½) press the seam (½) to one side of garment (8 mks)
(b) General rules on stain removal
– Remove when fresh as they become fixed with time
– Use less harmful method first for unknown stains
– Use correct agents for stains clearly identified
– Stains removing agents must be in solution when used on coloured fabrics
– Wash garment thoroughly after stain removal
– If agent is suspected to be too strong for fabric try it first on hidden parts of the garment
– Study the general appearance of the stain first
(Any other 1 X4 = 4 mks)
(c) Advantages of advertising
– Informs consumers about goods and services
– Consumers can choose what they want
– Advertising increases demand for a product
– Competition among manufacturers is increased leading to quality goods
(1 x 2 = 2 mks)
– Gives false information to the consumers
– Increases cost of goods
– Can make goods of low quality to be preferred to those of low quality
(1 x 2 = 2 mks)
(d). (a) Raising Agent
– Any agent which when added to flour mixtures produces a gas which expands upon
heating raising the mixture (2 mks)
– Methods of cooking food especially meat and poultry on a bed of fried root vegetables
known as the mire poix (2 mks)