Agriculture KCSE Mock Exams and Answers {Latest Best Collections}

NAME:…………………………………………..     INDEX NO…………………………
SCHOOL:………………………………………      CANDIDATE’S SIGN ……………..

DATE ………………………………

443/1

AGRICULTURE

Paper 1

Time: 2 Hours

 

 

MOCKS 1 202

 

 

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

 

443/1

AGRICULTURE

Paper 1

2023
Time: 2 Hours

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  1. Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above
  2. Sign and write the date of examination in the spaces provided above.
  3. This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C
  4. Answer all the questions in section A and B and any two questions from section C
  5. Answers should be written in the spaces provided.
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For Examiner’s Use Only

 

Section Question Maximum Score Candidate’s Score
A 1 – 16 30  

 

B 17-20 20
C 21-23 20
20
Total Score 90

 

 

SECTION A (30 MARKS)

(Answer all the questions from this section)

  1. State two causes of hard pan in the farm.                         (1 mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State four information contained in a delivery note. (2 marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. Give four advantages of using certified seeds in crop production.             (2 marks)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give fourdisadvantages of minimum tillage.                                     (2 marks)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

  1. State four conditions under which shifting cultivation is practiced. (2 marks)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give four importance of sub-soiling. (2 marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State three conditions under which opportunity cost is zero. (11/2 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. State four methods of harvesting water on the farm. (2 marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Name three basis on which the classification of fertilizers is done.             (11/2 narks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Outline four advantages of land reforms in Kenya. (2 marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. State two causes of forking in carrots. (1 mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. (a). State three types of capital.                                                                         (11/2 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(b). Apart from capital, state other three factors of production.                 (11/2 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. State four reasons for conserving forage. (2 marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. State four factors that affect the efficiency of herbicides. (2 marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Give four scientific aspects of agriculture. (2 marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

  1. Name four methods of harvesting trees in agroforestry. (2 marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION B (20 MARKS)

(Answer all the questions from this section)

  1. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.
  2. a) Name the method of irrigation illustrated above.                         (1 mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. b) State two advantages of this method of irrigation.             (2 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. c) Give four factors which determine the choice of type of irrigation to use. (2 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The diagram below shows a common weed in the farm. Study it and answer the questions that follow.

 

  1. Identify the weed shown above. (1 mark)

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. State one harmful effect of the weed to cereals. (1 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give three ways that can be used to control the weed. (3 marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The diagram below showsirish tubers after being subjected to some conditions before transplanting. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.

(a). Name the process of potato treatment illustrated above.                                   (1 mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b). State two conditions necessary for the above process.                          (2 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c). Give two reasons for carrying out the above practice.                           (2 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Students were to apply a compound fertilizer 5:20:10 on their agriculture plot measuring 3 m by 4 m, at the rate of 200kg per hectare.

(a). Calculate the amount of fertilizer they would require for each plot. (Show your working).                                                                                                        (2 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b). What do figures 20 and 10 in the fertilizer stand for?                           (2 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c) Give two methods of soil sampling.                                                        (1 mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

SECTION C (40 MARKS)

(Answer any two questions from this section)

  1. (a) Describe ways in which cultural measures control crop diseases             (8mks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) Describe seven nursery practices carried out while seedlings are still growing.

(7marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c)State the qualities of a good farm manager.                                             (5marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. a) Describe the field production of bulb onions under the following sub headings.
  2. Ecological requirements.                                                      (4marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Planting.                                                                             (3marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  • Harvesting.                                                     (3marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b). Discuss six reasons for pruning in coffee.                                                           (6 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c). Highlight four characteristics of plants used as green manure.                   (4 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. (a). Briefly explain six factors influencing mass wasting.                         (6 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b). Describe the procedure of harvesting sugar cane.                                  (6 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c). Describe four ways in which soil depth influences crop production.    (8 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

NAME:…………………………………………..     INDEX NO…………………………
SCHOOL:………………………………………      CANDIDATE’S SIGN ……………..

DATE ………………………………

443/2

AGRICULTURE

Paper 2
Time: 2 Hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOCKS 1 2023

 

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

 

443/2

AGRICULTURE

Paper 2

2023
Time: 2 Hours

 

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  1. Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above
  2. Sign and write the date of examination in the spaces provided above.
  3. This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C
  4. Answer all the questions in section A and B and any two questions from section C
  5. Answers should be written in the spaces provided.

 

 

 

For Examiner’s Use Only

 

Section Question Maximum Score Candidate’s Score
A 1 – 20 30  

 

B 21-24 20
C 25-27 20
20
Total Score 90

 

 

 

 

SECTION A (30 MARKS)

(Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided)

  1. Name two kinds of livestock which can be castrated using a rubber ring. (1mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Define the term “breach of birth” as used in livestock production. (1 mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. a) Name the camel breed that is adapted to cooler regions and has a wooly body covering.                                                                                                         ( mark)

…….………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. b)  Give three ways used to improve production in indigenous cattle.      ( mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give four methods of administering vaccines to livestock. (2marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State two uses of bedding materials in a poultry house in deep litter system. (1mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. Give any twopairs of livestock tools which are always used together. (1mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. List two types of feed additives. (1 mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State three factors that may lead to dip wash being exhausted or weakened while in the dip tank. ( marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State four practices which are carried out to control mastitis in lactating cows.

(2marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Givetwo signs of heat in rabbits. (1 mark)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. State four maintenance practices carried out on the water-cooling system of a tractor

(2marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State four observations on the behavior of chicks which would indicate that the temperature in the brooder is too high. (2marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Highlights four desirable characteristics that should be considered when selecting a heifer for milk production. (2marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give four functions of calcium in dairy cows. (2marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Name two notifiable diseases in cattle. (1mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State any two channels through which beef is marketed in Kenya.                        (1mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. State four factors that may influence the pulse rate of a sheep. (2marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. List three properties of concrete that make it suitable for constructing farm building.

(1 mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give four reasons why breeding boar may be culled. (2 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Give two functions of a footbath in a plunge cattle dip.                         (1mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION B (20 MARKS)

(Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided)

  1. The diagram below represents an implement.

(i)  Identify the implement.                                                                            (1 mark)

…………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii)Name the parts labelled U and V and give one function of each.                        (2 marks)

U………………………………………………………………………………………

V………………………………………………………………………………………

(iii)State two ways of adjusting the depth of ploughingwhen using the implement. (2 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Study the diagram of an egg below and answer the questions that follow.

 

  1. Name the parts labeled O, and P                         (2 marks)

O   …………………………………………………………………………………

P   ……………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State the functions of the parts M and L.             (2 marks)

M

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

L

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

iii) Why should the egg be turned during incubation.                                   (1mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. Below is an illustration of a farm structure.

a)Identify the structure above.                                                                       (1mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………

b)State Six livestock routine practices which may be carried out in the structure above                                                                                                              (3marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

c)Give Two maintenance practices which should be carried out in the structureabove.                                                                                                                                    (1mark)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. The diagram below shows the farm equipment. Study it carefully and use it to answer the questions that follow.

 

(a) Name the parts labeled A, B and C                                                          (3 marks)

A………………………………………………………………………………………

B………………………………………………………………………………………

C………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) State the use of the equipment shown above.                                            (1 mark) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c) Give one maintenance practice carried out on the equipment.               (1 mark) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

SECTION C

(Answer any two questions in this section on the spaces provided)

  1. a) Describe the live cycle of a named tapeworm (Taeniaspp). (10marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. b) Describe the management practices that would ensure maximum yield of fish in a fish pond. (5marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. c) Explain five functions of water in nutrition. (5marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. (a) Discuss the management of layers from one day old to the start of laying in a deep litter system.                                                                                                 (l0 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) State anyfive advantages of using animal power in the farm.                      (5 marks)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c) Describe fiveimportance of keeping animals healthy.                                  (5 marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Discuss mastitis disease under the following subheading:

(i)        Causal organism                                                                                 (1 mark)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(ii)       Predisposing factors                                                                           (4 marks)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(iii)      Symptoms                                                                                           (4 marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(iv)      Control and treatment                                                                                    (3 marks)

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. b) Explain eight factors that affect milk composition in dairy farming. (8 marks)

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

NAME:…………………………………………..     INDEX NO…………………………
SCHOOL:………………………………………      CANDIDATE’S SIGN ……………..

DATE ………………………………

443/1

AGRICULTURE MARKING SCHEME

Paper 1
Time: 2 Hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOCKS 1 2023

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

 

443/1

AGRICULTURE

Paper 1

2023
Time: 2 Hours

 

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  1. Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above
  2. Sign and write the date of examination in the spaces provided above.
  3. This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C
  4. Answer all the questions in section A and B and any two questions from section C
  5. Answers should be written in the spaces provided.

 

 

 

For Examiner’s Use Only

 

Section Question Maximum Score Candidate’s Score
A 1 – 16 30  

 

B 17-20 20
C 21-23 20
20
Total Score 90

 

SECTION A (30 MARKS)

  1. State two causes of hard pan in the farm. (1 mark)
  • Continuous ploughing at the same depth.
  • Plough using heavy machinery on wet soil.
  1. State four information contained in a delivery note.                                               (2 marks)
  • The date of delivery
  • The quantity and type of goods delivered.
  • The method of delivery
  • The person receiving the goods
  • Condition in which the goods are received
  • Delivery note serial number.
  1. Give four advantages of using certified seeds in crop production. (2 marks)
  • Have high germination potential.
  • Free from pests and diseases.
  • Give high yields.
  • Are able to adapt to certain ecological conditions.
  1. Give four disadvantages of minimum tillage. (2 marks)
  • Leads to build-up of soil-borne pests and diseases.
  • Leads to build-up of rhizomatous weeds.
  • Causes poor soil aeration.
  • Leads to poor water drainage.
  1. State four conditions under which shifting cultivation is practiced. (2 marks)
  • Where land is abundant.
  • Where the population is sparse.
  • Where land is communally owned.
  • Where the number of livestock per unit area is low.
  1. Give four importance of sub-soiling.                                                                       (2 marks)
  • Better plant root penetration into the soil.
  • Brings leached nutrients near crop roots.
  • Improves water infiltration into the soil.
  • Allows efficient gaseous exchange hence improves microbial activities.
  1. State three conditions under which opportunity cost is zero.             (11/2 marks)
  • When there is no alternative choice.
  • When goods are unlimited in supply.
  • When a factor of production is freely offered.

 

 

 

 

  1. State four methods of harvesting water on the farm. (2 marks)
  • Use of weirs and dams.
  • Use of ponds.
  • Rock catchment.
  • Roof catchment.
  • Use of retention ditches or level terraces.
  1. Name three basis on which the classification of fertilizers is done. (11/2 narks)
  • Effect on the soil.
  • Mode of application.
  • Time of application.
  • Nutrient composition.
  1. Outline four advantages of land reforms in Kenya. (2 marks)
  • To encourage land improvement and conservation measures.
  • To increase labour and land productivity by putting idle land into use.
  • To promote commercial farming.
  • To encourage investment in agriculture.
  • To enable agriculture meet changing market demands.
  • To enhance efficient utilization of land and hence increase agricultural output.
  • To settle landless people.
  1. State two causes of forking in carrots. (1 mark)
  • Excessive use of organic manure.
  • Presence of an obstacle.
  1. (a). State three types of capital.                                                              (11/2 marks)
  • Liguid capital.
  • Working capital.
  • Fixed/ durable capital.

(b). Apart from capital, state other three factors of production.                 (11/2 marks)

  1. State four reasons for conserving forage. (2 marks)
  • To avoid wastage in times of plenty.
  • To ensure enough supply of forage throughout the year.
  • To earn income from selling excess forage.
  • To ensure good utilization of land.

 

  1. State four factors that affect the efficiency of herbicides.                           (2 marks)
  • Stage of growth of crops.
  • Plant morphology and anatomy.
  • Mode of action ie contact or translocated.
  • The concentration of the herbicide.
  • Method of application.
  • Environmental factors like rain and soil.
  1. Give four scientific aspects of agriculture. (2 marks)
  • Crop pathology.
  • Agricultural engineering.
  • Soil science.
  • Genetics as applied in plant and animal breeding.
  1. Name four methods of harvesting trees in agroforestry. (2 marks)

 

 

SECTION B

  1. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.
  2. a) Name the method of irrigation illustrated above. (1 mark)
  • Sprinkler irrigation.
  1. b) State two advantages of this method of irrigation. (2 marks)
  • It is easy to control the amount of water used.
  • Can be used on any topography.
  • Water is evenly distributed over the required area.
  • Less water wastage than in furrow irrigation.
  • The system can easily be moved from one place to another.
  • Foliar fertilizers can be applied together with irrigation water.
  1. c) Give four factors which determine the choice of type of irrigation to use. (2 marks)
  • Capital availability.
  • Topography of the land.
  • Water availability.
  • Type of soil.
  • Type of crop to be irrigated.
  1. The diagram below shows a common weed in the farm. Study it and answer the questions that follow.

 

  1. Identify the weed shown above. (1 mark)
  • Striga / Witch weed/ Strigahermontheca
  1. State one harmful effect of the weed to cereals. (2 marks)
  • It is parasitic
  1. Give three ways that can be used to control the weed. (3 marks)
  • Rotating with non-cereal crops.
  • Using appropriate herbicides.
  • Trap cropping.

 

 

  1. The diagram below shows irish tubers after being subjected to some conditions before transplanting. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.

(a). Name the process of potato treatment illustrated above.                                   (1 mark)

  • Chitting/ sprouting.

(b). State two conditions necessary for the above process.                           (2 marks)

  • Humidity/ moist environment.
  • Diffuse light.

(c). Give two reasons for carrying out the above practice.

  • To ensure uniform growth after selection.
  • To ensure that growth commences immediately after planting.
  1. Students were to apply a compound fertilizer 5:20:10 on their agriculture plot measuring 3 m by 4 m, at the rate of 200kg per hectare.

(a). Calculate the amount of fertilizer they would require for each plot. (Show your working).                                                                                                        (2 marks)

1 ha (10,000m2) requires 200kg of fertilizer

                        Therefore, (3 * 4) m2 would require = 12m2 * 200

                                                                                        10,000m2

                                                                                    = 0.24kg / 240g

(b). What do figures 20 and 10 in the fertilizer stand for?                           (2 marks)

  • 20- ration of phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5)
  • 10- Ratio of potassium oxide (K2O)

(c) Give two methods of soil sampling methods.                                          (1 mark)

  • Traverse method.
  • Zigzag method.

 

 

SECTION C

  1. a) Describe ways in which cultural measures control crop diseases.             (8mks)
  • Use of healthy planting materials/ certified seeds during planting to prevent introduction or spread of crop diseases.
  • Practicing field hygiene / burning crop residue / rogueing/ clean weeding/ destroys (kills) disease causing micro-organisms/ destroys pests that transmit diseases.
  • Proper seedbed preparation/ clean seedbed for the control of armillaria root rot in tea and coffee.
  • Proper spacing to control damping off in cabbage seedlings in the nursery or rosette disease in groundnuts or blight
  • Heat treatment for the control of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane.
  • Proper drying of cereals and pulses before storage to control Aflatoxin
  • Planting disease resistant varieties egRuiru 11, for the crop to be able to resist attack by coffee Berry disease.
  • Crop rotation – starves the disease-causing organisms to death
  • Proper crop nutrition – makes the crop strong and able to resist attack by disease
  • Close season – This is the period when a susceptible crop is not grown in order to control a certain disease.
  • Timely planting/ early planting – enables the crop to escape attack by the disease eg blight in tomatoes and irish potatoes.
  • Pruning/ open pruning / staking/ altering of environmental conditions / irrigation;
  • irrigation during dry season controls blossom end in tomatoes, staking and pruning reduce blight in tomatoes (Stating ½ mk explaining ½ mk x 8 = 8mks)

 

(b) Describe seven nursery practices carried out while seedlings are still growing.            (7marks)

  • watering- water the nursery bed regularly preferably in the morning and evening.
  • Mulching- apply a light mulch after nursery establishment
  • Weed control- weeds to be removed through uprooting.
  • Pricking out- remove overcrowded seedlings and plant in a seedling bed.
  • shading- a light shed to be erected over the nursery bed to minimize water loss.
  • Pest and disease control- are controlled through sterilizing the soil using appropriate chemicals
  • Hardening off- gradually reduce shade and frequency of watering to prepare seedlingsto the ecological conditions in the seed bed.

(c)State the qualities of a good farm manager.                                                               (5mks)

  • Has knowledge about specific agricultural principles, marketing and accounting
  • Hardworking and time conscious
  • Has practical farming skills
  • Flexible in decision making
  • Should be responsible/ dynamic /prudent/ competent / ambitious

 

  1. a) Describe the field production of bulb onions under the following sub headings.
  2. Ecological requirements.                              (4marks)
  • Temperature-Hot or warm climates though some varieties prefer cool conditions.
  • Rainfall-1000mm and above/annum.Irrigation is necessary in dry areas.A long dry period is needed for ripening.
  • Altitude-2100m
  • Soils-Require sandy loam and alluvial soils which should be fertile and well drained.
  • pH-6-7.

 

 

  1. Planting. (3mks)
  • For direct sowing 250kg DSP /ha should be applied during planting .
  • Plant at a spacing of 30x10cm or 30×7.5cm.
  • In indirect planting seedlings are transplanted at 8cm apart within the rows
  • Make shallow drills/holes, place seeds and then cover the seeds with little soil.
  • Deep planting of seedlings inhibits bulb expansion.

 

  • Harvesting.                                                    (3mks)
  • When the leaves start drying the tops are bent or broken to hasten withering of the stem
  • Bulbs are then dug up and left to dry in a shade for a few days.
  • They are stored in slatted boxes.

(b). Discuss six reasons for pruning in coffee.                                                           (6 marks)

  • To control cropping
  • To train the plant to have the required shape.
  • To remove the diseased and unwanted parts of a plant.
  • To facilitate picking.
  • To ease the penetration of sprays into the bush of a plant.
  • To control pests and diseases such as Antestia bug and coffee berry disease.

(c). Highlight four characteristics of plants used as green manure.                         (4 marks)

  • Are highly vegetative/ leafy.
  • Have a fast growth rate.
  • Have high nitrogen content (leguminous).
  • Capable of rotting quickly.
  • Capable of growing in poor conditions.

 

 

 

  1. (a). Briefly explain six factors influencing mass wasting.                     (6 marks)
  • The slope of the land-Steep slopes leads to faster movement of materials.
  • The nature of material-Mass wasting occurs easily where massive rocks overlie sedimentary rocks which have clay material underneath and also if the material contains a lot of water.
  • Climate-Heavy rainy periods encourage wasting
  • Vegetation cover-It is easy and faster in bare ground than where it is covered with vegetation.
  • Human activities-eg deforestation, building, quarrying etc interferes with the stability of surface layers.
  • Forces within the earth’s crust eg earth tremors and some volcanic eruptions

(b). Describe the procedure of harvesting sugar cane.                      (6 marks)

  • Take the sample to the factory first for quality testing.
  • Cut the stem of the cane at ground level using a panga to avoid the loss of the yield and to ensure establishment of the ratoon crop.
  • Remove the green tops to avoid some substances from flowing back.
  • Strip off the dry leaves from the stem.
  • Do not burn the cane as this lowers its quality.
  • Transport the cane to the factory immediately for processing.

(c). Describe four ways in which soil depth influences crop production.    (8 marks)

  • Soil moisture content: a deep soil holds more moisture than a shallow soil.
  • Root penetration and plant support: a deep soil provides better root anchorage and free root penetration to lower zones.
  • Soil erosion: a deep soil encourages water infiltration other than surface run-offs, thus minimizing soil erosion.
  • Soil aeration: a deep soil is well-aerated compared to a shallow soil.
  • Mineral nutrient content: a deep soil allows more accumulation and exchange of minerals. This allows better growth of vegetation compared to a shallow soil that has less mineral nutrient.
  • Microbial activity: a deep top soil and sub-soil favours activity of micro-organisms such as decomposers and nitrogen fixers.

NAME:…………………………………………..     INDEX NO…………………………
SCHOOL:………………………………………      CANDIDATE’S SIGN ……………..

DATE ………………………………

443/2

AGRICULTURE MARKING SCHEME

Paper 2

2023
Time: 2 Hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOCKS 1 2023

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

 

443/2

AGRICULTURE MARKING SCHEME

Paper 2

2023
Time: 2 Hours

 

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  1. Write your name and index number in the spaces provided above
  2. Sign and write the date of examination in the spaces provided above.
  3. This paper consists of three sections: A, B and C
  4. Answer all the questions in section A and B and any two questions from section C
  5. Answers should be written in the spaces provided.

 

 

 

For Examiner’s Use Only

 

Section Question Maximum Score Candidate’s Score
A 1 – 20 30  

 

B 21-24 20
C 25-27 20
20
Total Score 90

 

 

 

 

SECTION A

  1. Livestock which can be castrated using a rubber ring
  • He goat
  • Male calves
  • Rams

  2x =1mk

  1. Definition of “breach of birth” as used in livestock production   
  • It’s a presentation during parturition where the hind legs of the new born comes out first      1×1=1mk
  1. a) Camel breed that is adapted to cooler regions and as a wooly body covering  
  • Bareterian1x = mk
  1. b)  Give three ways used to improve production in indigenous cattle
  • Cross breeding with exotic breeds with superior
  • Supplementary feeding
  • Proper control/prevention of livestock diseases

3x =1 mks

  1. Methods of administering vaccines to livestock
  • Injection
  • Oral/through the mouth
  • Nasal/inhalation
  • Through the cloaca
  • Ocular/through the eye

 4x =2mks

  1. Uses of bedding materials in a poultry house in deep litter system
  • To provide warmth
  • To absorb moisture to prevent dampness

2x =1mk

  1. Pairs of livestock tools which are always used together
  • Trocar and canula
  • Hypodermic syringe and a needle
  • Elastrator and rubber ring
  • Bull ring and lead stick

2x =1mk

 

  1. List two types of feed additives
  • Hormone eg. stilbestrol and oxytocin.
  • Antibiotics e.g. tetramycin.
  • Medicant e.g. caccissostate.       3x =1 mks
  1. Factors that may lead to dip wash being exhausted or weakened while in the dip tank
  • Evaporation
  • Dilution by rain water in case of roof leakage
  • Leakage at the bottom/cracks at the bottom or walls
  • Dirt/impurities from the animal’s body

   3x =1 mks

  1. Practices which are carried out to control mastitis in lactating cows
  • Practice farm hygiene/milk infected cause last/use separate udder cloth for each cow/use disposable udder cloth
  • Practice that dips after milking
  • Practice good milking technique
  • Apply milking salve/jelly to prevent drying and cracking of teats
  • Immediate treatment of infected cows to avoid spread of the disease/treat any would on the teat/udder                                        4x  =2mks
  1. Signs of heat in rabbits.
  • Restlessness
  • Frequent urination
  • Swollen vulva
  • The doe throws itself on its sides
  • Rubs herself against the wall/object.
  • The doe peeps through the cage wall.
  1. Maintenance practices carried out on the water cooling system of a tractor
  • Keep the radiator fins free of rubbish and dirt
  • Ensure the fun belt has the right tension
  • Ensure all loses are tightly fitted to prevent leakage
  • Top up the level of water in the radiator before using the tractor
  • Replace worn out parts eg fan belt, hose pipes radiator cap
  • Lubricate radiator pump regularly
  • Repair the radiator
  • Tighten loose bolts and nuts

4x =2mks

 

 

  1. Behavior of chicks which would indicate that the temperature in the brooder is too high
  • Chicks moves away from the source
  • Parting/opening beaks
  • Opening/spreading the wings
  • Making abnormal noise
  • Drinking water excessively
  • Chicks may lie flat on their bellies

4x =2mks

  1. Desirable characteristics that should be considered when selecting a heifer for milk production
  • Level of production
  • Health/growth rate/age
  • Fertility rate/mothering ability
  • Body conformation
  • Disease resistance
  • Temperament / adaptability

  4x =2mks

  1. Functions of calcium in dairy cows   
  • A component of milk
  • Formation of skeleton/teeth
  • Blood clotting
  • Nerve functioning/control milk fiver
  1. Notifiable diseases in cattle
  • Anthrax
  • Foot and mouth disease
  • Rinderpest
  • Rabies
  • Lumpy disease
  1. Channels through which beef is marketed in Kenya
  • Local butcheries
  • Kenya meat commission
  • Livestock marketing division            2x =1mk
  1. Factors that may influence the pulse rate of a sheep.
  • The sex of the animal
  • Age of the animal
  • Degree of excitement
  • The physiological status of the animal e.g pregnancy

4x ½ =2 marks

  1. Properties of concrete that make it suitable for constructing farm building
  • Its durable
  • It is easy to clean
  • It is fire proof
  • Can be molded into various shapes                                             3x  =1 mks

 

 

  1. Reasons why breeding boar may be culled. (2 marks)
  • It avoids incidences of blow fly infestation
  • Old age.
  • Poor health.
  • Infertility / low libido.
  • To stop breeding.
  • Hind leg weakness / when too fat or too lazy.
  • Bad temperament / aggressiveness.
  • Poor performance of offspring

 2x =1mk

  1. Functions of a footbath in a plunge cattle dip
    • Wash animal hooves to remove mud
    • Contain chemicals to control foot rot

2x ½ =1  mark

 

 

SECTION B

  1. Farm implement.
  2. Identify the implement.

Disc plough                                                                           

  1. Name the parts labeled U and V and give one function of each.            

U         –           Furrow wheel/depth wheel

–           Controls the depth of ploughing

V         –           Disc

–           Cut and invert the furrow slices

  • Ways of adjusting the depth of ploughing
  • Add weight to the plough beam
  • Adjust the cutting angle of discs
  • Use of draft control lever
  • Exert more hydraulic force
  • Use fewer discs

 

 

  1. i) The parts of an egg labeled N,O and P

O – Outer shell membrane

P – Shell

  1. ii) Functions of

M – to keep the yolk and germ spot in position/ Germ spot to keep facing up.

L – for gaseous exchange

iii)       Reason for egg turning during incubation is

– To avoid the developing embryo from sticking on one side of the egg hence

embryonic mortality

 

 

  1. a) Crush                                                                                                  1mk
  2. b)
  • Spraying against external parasites
  • Dehorning
  • Hoof trimming
  • Taking body temperature
  • Treating sick animals
  • Milking 6 x ½ = 3mks
  1. c)
  • Repair broken wooden post/timber
  • Clean after use
  • Regular inspection
  • Replace yoke when the need arises 2 x ½ = 1mk

 

  1. a) Name the parts labeled A, B and C (3 marks)
    • Spray tank
    • Trigger
    • Nozzle

(b) State the use of the equipment shown above.                              (1 mark)

  • Spraying chemical solutions.

(c) Give one maintenance practice carried out on the equipment.                        (1 mark)

  • Clean after use
  • Oil the moving parts.
  • Store under shade.

 

SECTION C

  1. a) Live cycle of a tapeworm (taeniaspp)   
  • Mature segments / proglottids full of eggs are dropped with human faeces
  • Eggs are then released from the segments
  • Cattle/pigs ingest the eggs during grazing/feeding
  • In the intestines the eggs hatch into embryos
  • The embryos penetrate the intestine walls and enter the blood stream
  • The embryos first localize in the liver
  • From the liver, the embryos are distributed into the muscles in the body
  • In the muscles, they become cysts/bladder worms
  • Human being are injected when they eat raw/under cooked beef/pork with the cysts
  • In the human small intestines, the cysts wall dissolves, the bladder worms emerge and attach on the intestine walls
  • They then develop into adults worm and starts laying eggs

10×1=10mks

  1. b) Management practices that would ensure maximum yield of fish in a fish pond
  • Control stocking rate
  • Control of water pollution
  • Supply adequate feed regularly
  • Provide appropriate feed
  • Aerate the water by ensuring constant inflow and outflow
  • Control predators
  • Harvest fish at the correct maturity age
  • Maintain appropriate water level in the fish pond always

5×1=5mks

  1. c) Functions of water in nutrition
  • Components of body cells and many body fluids e.g blood
  • Used in biochemical reactions in the body eg digestion
  • Regulate body temperatures trough sweating and evaporation
  • Excretion of metabolic wastes from the body
  • Formation of the products eg milk, eggs etc
  • Makes cells turgid to maintain their shape
  • Transportation of nutrients

5×1=5mks

  1. Management of layers from one day old to the start of laying in a deep litter system.
  • Disinfect the brooder 2 — 3 days before the day old chicks are brought in.
  • Spread newspaper over the litter to prevent chicks from eating litter.
  • Spread some food on the newspaper so that chicks can learn to eat.
  • Remove the newspaper when the chicks have learnt to eat from feeders
  • Feed on chick mash up to8th
  • Gradually introduce growers mash from week
  • Debeak (on the 10th day)
  • Keep chicks in the brooder for 6—8
  • Provide and maintain source of heat as necessary.
  • Provide adequate clean water
  • Vaccinate against common diseases especially Newcastle.
  • Control external parasites
  • Insulate sick chicks
  • Treat sick chicks.
  • Introduce roosts for perching (on 6th week)
  • Introduce grit / sand to help in digestion.
  • Hang green vegetable to keep them busy.
  • Feed on grower’s marsh to 18th – 20th
  • Gradually replace by layers mash from 18th
  • A specific day/week must be indicated to award mark.

(1 ×10 = 10 mks)

(b)Five advantages of using animal power in the farm.

  • Does not require skilled labour as compared to engine power.
  • Animals are cheaper to buy and maintain.
  • Work output is higher than that of human beings.
  • Can work in areas where tractor can’t reach.
  • Work better on small holdings than tractors.

(1 x 5 = 5 mks)

 

  • Importance of keeping animals healthy.
  • Grow fast and reach maturity quickly.
  • Gives animals a longer economic and productive life.
  • Maintains a high productivity.
  • Produce good quality products thus command high market value.
  • Will not spread diseases to other animals.
  • Are economical and easy to keep.

 

 

 

  1. 27. Mastitis disease under the following subheading

(a)       (i)        – Streptococcusagalactinae /

Staphylococcalmastitis

 

(ii)

  • age
  • Stage of lactation period
  • Udder attachment
  • Incomplete milking
  • Mechanical injuries
  • Poor sanitation
  • -Poor milking technique.

 

(iii)

  • Pus, blood, thick clots in milk or watery milk
  • Pain when milking / udders / teats are swollen
  • Death of infected quarter.
  • Salty taste in milk, fine clots or flakes in fore milk

 

(iv)

  • Empty the affected quarter of udder and instill antibiotic
  • Use teat dip on each teat after every milking.
  • Use the right milking technique.
  • Strict cleanliness and use of disinfectant during milking.
  • Dry cow therapy. /Infusing a long acting antibiotics into the teat canalwhendrying off the cow.
  • Use a strip cup to test for mastitis, infected animals should be milked last.
  • Use separate udder clothes
  • Remove sharp objects from grazing and milking areas to prevent teatinjury
  • Open wound on the teats should be treated immediately

 

 

 

 

  1. b) Eight factors that affect milk composition in dairy farming.             (8 marks)
  • Age of the animal – Butter fat in milk becomes less as an animal grows old thus young animals produce milk with higher BF than older animals.
  • Breed – Different breeds of cattle produce milk with differing percentages composition e.g. Jersey produces higher BF than Friesian.
  • Type of food eaten by an animal – Roughage feeds produce milk with higher fats, lactose and protein compared to grains.
  • Disease – Diseases such as mastitis reduce lactose composition in milk because bacteria attack milk sugars.
  • Physiological condition – of the animal.
  • Sick / extremely emaciated animals register low percentage of BF.
  • During late pregnancy cows produce milk with low BF content.
  • Stage of lactation – The butter content in milk is highest at the middle phase of the lactation period and lowers towards the end of lactation.
  • Time of milking – Milk produced in the morning has lower BF content than produced in the evening.
  • Season of the year – BF content increases during cold season.
  • Completeness of milking – The last drawn milk from the udder contains 10% total BF content.
  • Thus milk drawn last from the udder has higher BF content.

 

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