Name………………………………………………………………………………..Index Number…………………..

School………………………………………………………. Candidate’s Signature…………..

Date……………………………………

FORM 4

443/1

AGRICULTURE

Paper 1

2 hours

Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper has three sections A, B and C
  • Answer all questions in section A and B
  • Select any two question in section C and answer them in the spaces provided
SECTION QUESTION MAXIMUM SCORE CANDIDATE’S SCORE
A 1 – 16 30  
B 17 – 20 20  
C 21

22

23

20

20

20

 
TOTAL   90  

 

SECTION A ( 30 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section

  1. Give three branches of horticulture farming (1½marks)

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. Name the parts harvested for each f the following crops             (1½marks)
  2. Onions………………………………………………………………………………
  3. Carrots………………………………………………………………………………
  4. Coffee………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. State three chemical agents of weathering (1½marks)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State four qualities of ascion for use in vegetative propagation materials (2marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. Outline four observable indicates of economic development of a nation (2marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6.(a) Name two field management practices that are carried out to obtain optimum plant population in a crop field                                                                                           (1mark)

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(b) Explain how each of the practices named in (a) above achieves optimum plant population

(1mark)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. State four types of records kept by a poultry farmer. (2marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. State four reasons for deep ploughing during land preparation (2marks)

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. State three advantages of adding organic matter to sandy soil. (1½marks)

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. Give four conditions of the land which may make it necessary to carry out reclamation practices. (2marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. State forms in which the following elements are absorbed by plants from the soil(2marks)
  2. Phosphorous…………………………………………………………………………….
  3. Potassium……………………………………………………………………………….
  • Sulphur………………………………………………………………………………….
  1. Nitrogen……………………………………………………………………………….

 

  1. List four examples of land reforms in Kenya (2marks)

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. State four symptoms of viral diseases in crop production (2marks)

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. Distinguish between under sowing and over sowing (2marks)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

  1. State four practices used to control smut in maize production (2marks)

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. Give four reasons for practicing Agro-forestry in Kenya. (2marks)

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

SECTION B ( 20 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section.

 

  1. The diagram below illustrates common weeds in arable land. Study them carefully and answer questions that follow.

 

 

 

(a) Identify the weed labelled D                                                                    (1mark)

D…………………………………………………………………………………………

 

(b) Classify weed C according to plant morphology                                    (1mark)

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

(c ) Give one reasons why it is difficult to control weed labelled D.                       (1mark)

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

(d) State three harmful effects of weed C in agriculture.                            (3marks)

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. Study a section of the diagram of soil conservation practice shown below then answer the questions that follow.

 

(a) Identify the method of soil conservation illustrated on the diagram above.       (1mark)

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

(b) Explain two ways in which the above method helps to conserve the soil and water

(2marks)

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. (a) Indicate the type of elasticity shown in diagram A and B (2marks)

 

 

 

 

A…………………………………………………………………………………….(1mark)

 

B…………………………………………………………………………………….(1mark)

 

 

(b) Give two factors that determine elasticity of demand                                        (2marks)

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

(c ) Give one example of a marketing agency in Kenya                                           (1mark)

 

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The illustration below shows a cropping programme. Beans, maize, Kales, Cassava, Cabbage Sweet potatoes.

 

Beans maize
Kales Cassava
Cabbages Sweet potatoes

 

(a) Identify the cropping programme                                                                        (1mark)

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

(b) Giving a reason, identify one mistake the farmer made when designing the above programme                                                                                                                 (1mark)

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c ) State two ways the above programme help in control of weeds                                    (2marks)

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

(d) State one advantage of this programme                                                              (1mark)

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION C ( 40 MARKS)

Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided after question 23.

 

  1. (a)Describe the transplanting of vegetables seedling (10marks)

(b) State factors to consider when drawing a farm plan                         (10marks)

 

  1. (i) The following is a farm record Mr. Makau had kept as at 30th June 2011. Study it carefully and prepare a balance sheet for the farm. (6marks)

 

Equity loan                 180,000

Equity overdraft         24,000

Working tools             30,000

Cash at hand               15,000

Cash at bank               50,000

Buildings                    60,000

Debtors                       18.000

Goats                           48,000

Land                            70,000

Creditors                     49,000

Ox plough                   20,000

 

(ii) Is Mr. Makau business solvent or insolvent? Explain                            (2marks)

 

(b) Describe cultural methods of pest control                                                           (6marks)

(c ) Outline six effects of high temperature on agricultural production       (6marks)

 

  1. (a) Outline eight principles of co-operatives (8marks)

(b) Describe advantages of land consolidation                                       (8marks)

(c ) State four factors determining the choice of a farming system        (4marks)

 

 

 

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MARKING SCHEME

443/1 AGRICULTURE 

  1. Give three branches of horticulture farming
  • Pomology/Fruit farming
  • Floriculture/Flower farming
  • Olericulture/vegetative farming  ( ½ x 2 = 1½ mks)

 

  1. Name the parts harvested for each f the following crops
  2. Onions – bulbs
  3. Carrots – roots
  4. Coffee – berries                                  ( ½ x 2 = 1½ mks)

 

  1. State three chemical agents of weathering
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon IV oxide
  • Water (½ x 3 = 1½ mks)

 

  1. State four qualities of ascion for use in vegetative propagation materials
  • Wood 1 year old or less
  • Healthy and well developed
  • Visible vegetative
  • Be mature and relatively hard shoots
  • Obtained from centre portion () of the shoot
  • Pathogen free
  • From high yielding mother trees (½ x 4 = 2mks)

 

  1. Outline four observable indicates of economic development of a nation
  • Development of infrastructure
  • Housing status of the cities
  • Increase in recreation facilities
  • Ratio of teachers to students
  • Improvement in the level of technology/more industrialization(½ x 4 = 2mks)

 

6.(a) Name two field management practices that are carried out to obtain optimum plant population in a crop field

  • Thinning (½mks)
  • Gapping (½mks)

 

(b) Explain how each of the practices named in (a) above achieves optimum plant population

  • Thinning- removes the excess seedlings from the field (2 x ½ = (1mk)
  • Gapping- Replaces seedlings/seeds that died/failed to germinate

                                                                                                           

  1. State four types of records kept by a poultry farmer.
  • Feeding records
  • Health records
  • Inventories
  • Egg production record
  • Marketing record
  • Labour records (4x½ = 2mks)

 

  1. State four reasons for deep ploughing during land preparation
  • To break hard pan
  • To improve water infiltration
  • For proper aeration
  • To bring leached nutrients to soil surface (4x½ = 2mks)

 

  1. State three advantages of adding organic matter to sandy soil.
  • Adds nutrients
  • Increases bial activities in the soil
  • Improves water holding capacity
  • Buffers soil pH
  • Moderate soil temperature (4x½ = 2mks)
  1. Give four conditions of the land which may make it necessary to carry out reclamation practices.
  • Very steep land
  • Water logged marshy area
  • Forested/ Bushy area
  • Rocky/Arid/Tsetse fly infected areas (4x½ = 2mks)

 

  1. State forms in which the following elements are absorbed by plants from the soil
  2. Phosphoros –           Phosphate ion – PO43
  3. Potassium –           Potassium ion, K+
  • Sulphur –           Sulpahte ions SO42

iv         Nitrogen          –           Nitrate ions, NO3/NH4+                     (4x½ = 2mks)

 

  1. List four examples of land reforms in Kenya
  • Land legislation
  • Land adjudication
  • Land registration
  • Land consolidation
  • Tenancy reform
  • Settlement (4x½ = 2mks)

 

  1. State four symptoms of viral diseases in crop production
  • Leaf chlorosis
  • Leaf curling
  • Mosaic
  • Malformation
  • Rosetting (4x½ = 2mks)

 

  1. Distinguish between under sowing and over sowing
  • Overgrowing- sowing of small seeded pasture grasses under the established arable crop
  • Undersowing- Sowing of one pasture crop in an established or existing pasture

(4x½ = 2mks)

  1. State four practices used to control smut in maize production
  • Early planting
  • Rogueing
  • Trap cropping (4x½ = 2mks)

 

  1. Give four reasons for practicing Agro-forestry in Kenya.
  • Trees act as wind breaks
  • Provide the soil with organic matter
  • Provide fine wood
  • Conserve fruits
  • Some trees used as fodder for feeding livestock (4x½ = 2mks)

 

SECTION B ( 20 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section.

 

  1. The diagram below illustrates common weeds in arable land. Study them carefully and answer questions that follow.

 

 

 

(a) Identify the weed labelled D

D –       oxalis spp (soriel)                                                      (1mk)

 

(b) Classify weed C according to plant morphology

  • Broad leafed (1mk)

 

(c ) Give one reasons why it is difficult to control weed labelled D.

  • Propagates itself vegetatively by bulbs and nuts (1mark)

 

 

 

(d) State three harmful effects of weed C in agriculture.

 

  • Reduces quality of the product
  • It competes for nutrients, water & sunlight reducing yield
  • Seeds have spikes that irritate workers reducing work output

(any 2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. Study a section of the diagram of soil conservation practice shown below then answer the questions that follow.

 

(a) Identify the method of soil conservation illustrated on the diagram above.

  • Fanya juu reracce (1mk)

 

(b) Explain two ways in which the above method helps to conserve the soil and water

  • Has a channel the drain water
  • Has grass on the ridge to reduce speed of running water
  • Grass trap eroded soil
  • Ridge reduce speed of run off & retains eroded soil (2×1=2mks)

 

(c ) Scoop soil from the lower side to make a ditch/tunnel

  • Throw the soil on the upper side of the hill to nake a ridge (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. (a) Indicate the type of elasticity shown in diagram A and B (2marks)

 

 

 

                       D                                                                 D

 

          P2

 

 

          P1                                      D

D

 

 

Q2             Q1                                           P2                Q1

 

 

 

(a) A – inelastic demand

     B  – Unitary demand                                                         (2×1=2mks)

 

 

(b) Give two factors that determine elasticity of demand

 

  • Availability of substitutes
  • Degree of necessity
  • The number of uses of produce can be put to use
  • Time lag
  • Time span
  • Proportion (any 2 x 1 = 2mks)

 

 

(c ) Give one example of a marketing agency in Kenya

 

  • Wholesalers
  • Itinerant traders
  • Retailers
  • Packers and processors (any 1 x 1 = 1mk)

 

  1. The illustration below shows a cropping programme. Beans, maize, Kales, Cassava, Cabbage Sweet potatoes.

 

Beans maize
Kales Cassava
Cabbages Sweet potatoes

 

(a) Identify the cropping programme

  • Crop rotation (1mk)

 

(b) Giving a reason, identify one mistake the farmer made when designing the above programme                                                                                                                 (1mark)

  • Planting kales after cabbage

 

(c ) State two ways the above programme help in control of weeds

  • Parasitic weeds one specific to certain crops of different families
  • Provide soil cover to smoothen weed                       (2×1 = 2mks)

 

(d) State one advantage of this programme

 

  • Maximum utilization of nutrients in soil
  • Control soil borne pests & diseases
  • Control weeds
  • Improvement of soil fertility
  • Improvement of soil structure
  • Control of soil erosion (  ½ x 3 = Any ( 1×1 = 1mk)

 

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION C ( 40 MARKS)

Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided after question 23.

 

  1. (a)Describe the transplanting of vegetables seedling
  • Water the nursery 1 day before
  • Select vigorous seedlings
  • Lift with a trowel
  • Lift seedlings with a ball of soil
  • Plant one seedling per hole
  • Plant early morning, evening or on a cool weather
  • Plant same depth as it was in the nursery
  • Firm seed around the roots in the hole
  • Incorporate phosphatic fertilizers in the hole 10 x 1 (10mks)

(b) State factors to consider when drawing a farm plan

  • Size of the farm
  • Current trend in labour market
  • Environmental factors
  • Farmer’s objectives and preference
  • Possible production enterprises
  • Exisiting market conditions and price trends
  • Availability and cost of farm inputs
  • Government policy or regulations
  • Security
  • Communication and transport facilities                                       10 x 1 = 10mks)

 

  1. (i) The following is a farm record Mr. Makau had kept as at 30th June 2011. Study it carefully and prepare a balance sheet for the farm. (6marks)

 

Equity loan                 180,000

Equity overdraft         24,000

Working tools             30,000

Cash at hand               15,000

Cash at bank               50,000

Buildings                    60,000

Debtors                       18.000

Goats                           48,000

Land                            70,000

Creditors                     49,000

Ox plough                   20,000

 

 

 

MAKAU’S FARM

Balance sheet As

At 30th June 2011

Liabilities shs cts Assets shs cts
Currents  liabilities

 

 

Creditors

Equity overdraft

 

 

Long term liabilities

Loan; Equity

Total liabilities

 

 

Total

 

 

 

49,000

24,000

 

 

 

 

180,000

253,000

 

253,00

 

 

 

00

00

 

 

 

 

00

00

 

00

Current assets

Cash on hand

Cash in hand

Debtors

Goats

Fixed assets

Ox plough

Working tools

Land

Net worth

 

 

15,000

50,000

18,000

48,000

20,000

15,000

 

 

70,000

17,000

 

 

253,00

00

00

00

00

00

00

 

 

00

00

 

 

00

 

 

                                                                                    (6mks)

(ii) Is Mr. Makau business solvent or insolvent? Explain

 

  • Its insolvent, the value at liabilities exceeds assets value the business can’t meet all that it owes other firm

 

(b) Describe cultural methods of pest control

  • Crop rotation – breaks life cycle of pathogens
  • Rogueing – chicks disease spread
  • Planting artificial/cle3an seeds- prevents introduction of pathogen into the field
  • Early planting/ timely planting crops establish faster before the outbreak of disease
  • Proper spacing- creates unfavourable micro-climate for some pathogen
  • Weed control- removes alternate hosts of some pathogens
  • Use of clean tools and equipment410
  • Pruning- removes diseases plant
  • Quantities’ prevents spread or pathogens
  • Heat treatments

(6mks)

(c ) Outline six effects of high temperature on agricultural production

  • Increases incidences of some pest and diseases e,g  leaf rust and aphids
  • Improve quality of certain crops produce e.g fruits
  • Lowers quality of certain crops e.g pyrethrum
  • Increases Aeration of evaporation
  • Increases rate of growth for early maturing crops

 

SECTION C

  1. (a) Outline eight principles of co-operatives (8marks)
  • A person should be 18 years and above
  • Membership is voluntary, no coercion
  • No prejudice against race, gender, religion or tribe
  • The co-operative should join with other co-operative movements
  • Loyalty & the co-operative – buy and sell materials in your own co-operative
  • Co-operative requires a membership minimum of 10 (ten) and any maximum
  • Co-operative should educate its members through workshops seminars
  • Dividends divided according & share limit of each member
  • There is minimum share and maximum share contribution
  • Withdrawal is voluntarily

(b) Describe advantages of land consolidation                                             (8marks)

  • Fluctuation- Market contract
  • Disaster –           insurances-   
  • Bad weather –           Preservation  
  • Lack of market- Contrast farming
  • Lack of market information – Advertisement
  • Poor communication & transport- improve infrastructure facilities
  • Perishable goods – Use of preservation facilities e.g freezers
  • Terrible losses in time of harvesting diversification

 

(c ) State four factors determining the choice of a farming system        (4marks)

  • Taste and preference of the consumer
  • Availability of capital/resources
  • Cultural/traditional/religious beliefs
  • Knowledge of the farmer about the enterprise
  • Government policy
  • The enterprise itself
  • Climatic factors
  • Farmers choice

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