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Not all syllables in a word are given equal emphasis. By the same token, not all words in a sentence are said with equal length.

The relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or certain words in a sentence is what we refer to as stress.

You say a syllable or a word is stressed when it is said louder or longer than the rest.

Stress is studied in two levels:

  • Word level; and
  • Sentence level.

Stress at the Word Level

A part of a certain word when said louder or longer then it is stressed.

Rules of Word Stress

  1. For two-syllable nouns and adjectives, stress the first, for example

Cloudy  carton    table

  1. For verbs with two syllables and prepositions, emphasize the second syllable, for example
  2. Words with three syllables.
  • Those ending in –er, -ly, emphasis put on the first syllable, for example,
  • Stress the first, for those ending in consonants and in –y, for example,
  • Stress the last syllable if the word ends in –ee, -ese, -eer, -ique, -ette, for example,
  • Look at the ones with the suffixes below, where stress is placed on the second,

-ary: library

Cial: judicial, commercial

-cian: musician, clinician

-tal : capital, recital

Stress is important in studying the heteronyms. A pair, or group of words is referred to as heteronym when those words are spelled the same way but have different pronunciation and meaning. We have two main categories of heteronyms:

  • Noun- verb pairs; and
  • Verb -and-adjective pairs.

We stress the first syllable if noun and the second if verb.

Examples of noun-and-verb pairs are included in the table below:



In sentences;

  • Many factories produce the produce we import.
  • Allan became a convert after deciding to convert to christianity.

Sentence Stress

Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence.

Most sentences have two basic word types:

  • Content words which are the key words carrying the sense or meaning- message.


  • Structure words which just make the sentence grammatically correct. They give the sentence its structure.


Look at the sentence below:

Buy milk feeling tired.

Though the sentence is incomplete, you will probably understand the message in it. The four words are the content words. Verbs, nouns, adjectives, are content words.

You can add words to the sentence to have something like:

Will you buy me milk since I am feeling tired?

The words: will, you, me, since, I, are just meant to make the sentence correct grammatically. They can also be stressed to bring the intended meaning.

Now let’s study the sentence below:

Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt.

Each word in the sentence can be stressed to bring the meaning as illustrated in the table.

Sentence Meaning
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt.She doesn’t think that, but someone else does.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt.It is not true that Joan thinks that.
Joan doesn’t thinkAkinyi stole my green skirt.Joan doesn’t think that, she knows that.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt.Not Akinyi, but someone else. Probably Njuguna or Adhiambo.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyistole my green skirt.Joan thinks Akinyi did something to the green skirt, may be washed it.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt.Joan thinks Akinyi stole someone else’s green skirt, but not mine.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt.She thinks Akinyi stole my red skirt which is also missing.
Joan doesn’t think Akinyi stole my green skirt.Joan thinks Akinyi stole my green shirt. She mispronounced the word.


Exercise 1


  1. The words that follow can be nouns or verbs dependingon the stressed syllable. Use each as both the verb and noun in a single sentence.


  • Cement
  • Address
  • Permit
  • Content
  1. Underline the part of the word in boldface you will stress in each of the following sentences.
  • The boy has been asked to sert the de.sert.
  • My handsome cortwilles.cort me to the dance.
  • After updating my sume, I will re.sume my job search.
  • They have to testin the annual Math con.test.
  • If you vict me, I will remain a con.vict for 5 years.

Exercise 2

Each word in the sentences below can be stressed to bring the meaning. What will be the meaning when each word is stressed?

  • I love your sister’s handwriting.
  • You came late today.




  • It is the rise and fall of voice in speaking.
  • Intonation is crucial for communication.
  • In English there are basically two kinds of intonation: rising and
  • We can use arrows to show the intanotion – whether rising or falling. ↘ represents falling intonation while ↗ represents the rising one.

Falling Intonation

  • Falling intonation is when we lower our voice at the end of a sentence.
  • This usually happens in:
  • Statements, for example,
  • I like↘
  • It is nice working with ↘
  • She travelled to↘
  • W/H Questions
  • What is your ↘name?
  • Where do you ↘live?
  • How old are↘ you?
  • Who is this young↘ man?
  • Commands
  • Get out ↘
  • Give me the ↘
  • Close your ↘
  • Exclamatory sentences e.g.
  • What a wonderful ↘present!
  • How ↘nice of you


Rising intonation

  • When we lower our voice.
  • Used in:
  • General Questionsg.

Do you visit them↗ often?

Have you seen ↗her?

Are you ready to ↗start?

Could you give me a↗ pen, please?

  • Alternative questionsg.

Do you want ↗coffee or ↘tea?

Does he speak↗ Kiswahili or ↘English?

  • Before tag questionsg.

This is a beautiful ↘place, ↗isn’t it?

She knows↘ him,↗ doesn’t she?

  • Enumeratingg.

↗One, ↗two,↗ three, ↗four,↘ five.

She bought ↗bread, ↗cheese, ↗oranges, and ↘apples.


Using an arrow, determine whether rising or falling intonation is used in the sentences.

  • This music sounds good.
  • I love watching horror movies.
  • My sister’s name is Amina.
  • Blue is my favourite colour.
  • Is that tv good?
  • Do you like that movie?
  • Are you hungry?
  • Get me my shoes.
  • Study your lessons now.
  • Are you insane?
  • How many more hours before you are done with your work?
  • Which novel is the best for you?
  • He is a little bit nervous, isn’t he?
  • You should listen to your parents’ advice.
  • Did you finish your homework?
  • Water is good for the body.
  • This is good!
  • What a crazy show.











  • Rhythm is the recurrence of a beat.
  • In poetry, it is the recurrence of a pattern that gives a distinct beat to a line(s) in a poem.
  • Rhythm is something that happens with regularity.
  • To create rhythm in a poem, a poet can use:
  1. Consonance which is the repetition of consonant sounds within the nearby words.
  2. Assonance which is defined as the repetition of vowel sounds within nearby words.
  • A word or phrase recurring.
  1. This is the repetition of initial consonant sounds in two or more words within a line.
  2. Rhyme which is the repetition of ending sounds, especially in two or more lines.
  • Study the poem below and identify ways in which rhythm has been achieved.


A sunshiny shower

Won’t last an hour.


Rain before seven

Clear by eleven.


March winds and April showers

Bring forth May flowers.



Won’t wash dishes.


Early to bed and early to rise

Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.

  • Rhyme has been used. Several pairs of words rhyme. Examples include:

Shower and hour

Seven and eleven

Showers and flowers

  • Won’t and wash are alliterative (the sound /w/.
  • Consonance in the words “healthy” and ”wealthy”


Read the poem below and  identify how rhythm has been achieved in it.

My dog has a special twist,

She can’t go a day unkissed


She’s not a normal dog,

Her furs the colour of a log


Her tails as pointy as a stick,

She’d get a 10 from a critic.


Her body is as long as a telephone pole,

She’s the total opposite of a troll.


Her name is Roxie,

Also known as a Doxie.




















Assonance and alliteration are sound patterns used in the poem. While assonance makes use of vowel sounds, alliteration makes use of consonant sounds. These sounds are repeated in the words close to one another.

Now read the poem below aloud by Steven Henderson.

Path Choices

Best, Boy, Believe

That, There, Two

Placed, Possible, Paths

Willing, Wanting, Waiting

Appraising, Asking, Applying

Lessons, Learned, Leads

Compass, Chosen, Course

Fools, Find, Fate

Sin, Street, Set

Driven, Determine, Destiny

Searching, Seeking, Seeing

Offering, Openly, Often

In the poem you realize there is repetition of the beginning consonant sounds. Look at the illustrations:

  • Best, Boy, Believes – sound /b/ has been repeated.
  • Placed, Possible, Paths – sound /p/ is repeated

This repetition of initial consonant sounds is alliteration.  Illustrate other instances of alliteration in the poem.

There is also repetition of vowel sounds in the words close to each other. Examples we have seen are:

  • Seeking, seeing – the sound /i:/ has been repeated.
  • Openly, Often – the sound /e/ has been repeated.

This repetition on vowel sounds in the nearby words is assonance .





Further Practice

Pick out all the instances of assonance and alliteration in the poem that follows.

My Puppy Punched Me in the Eye

My puppy punched me in the eye

My rabbit whacked my ear

My ferret gave a frightful cry

And roundhouse kicked my rear


My lizard flipped me upside down

My kitten kicked my head

My hamster slammed me to the ground

And left me nearly dead


So my advice? Avoid regrets;

No matter what you do

Don’t ever let your family pets

Take lessons in kung Fu



Just like alliteration, consonance makes use of consonant sounds, only that these sounds are in in the inner parts of the words (middle or end, but not beggining).

There are illustrations for this in the two poems we have read. In the poem ‘My Puppy Punched me in the Eye’ there are the illustrations as follow.

  • rabbit, wacked – the sound /t/ has been repeated.
  • hamster slammed – there is repetition of the sound /m/

Note: Alliteration, assonance, and consonance don’t have to have the same letters – it is the sound that must be repeated.

Role Played by Alliteration, Assonance, and Consonance

  1. Provide musical rhythm.
  2. Make poem interesting.
  3. Make the poem easier to memorize.


Read the poem below and then identify, with illustrations, instances of alliteration, assonance and consonance.


            By John Chizuba

Black breweries braveness

In ink incorporative individualism

Those tinny tracers ticking Time

Be-little black braveness baselessly

Mirror my motion moves momentously

Directed diagonal deeply

Hurt humans heart heavy

Because better black believes

Dedication, determined destinies

Of our oddity, obviously occupied

We welcome world words with warrant

Blacks built braveness buxom butterflies

Enlightment enchanting ego enlarged

Decade braveness debut delightfully.
















  • Register denotes the choice of language, whether that be formal or informal.
  • It is the choosing of appropriate language for the context.
  • There are factors that determine the language we use.
  • It is important to select the right language for the right situation.
  • The choice of register is affected by:
  • The setting of the speech;
  • The topic of the speech;
  • The relationship that exists between the speakers; and
  • The age.

The Setting

There are words we use depending on the field. There are those we use in the field of medicine, in the field of law etc. they are also those that we use at home when talking to family members. A chemist, for example, will ask for ‘sodium chloride’ while at the laboratory, while at home she will request for ‘salt’. At work place, people tend to use formal language while informal language at home.


  • If, for example, you want to ask for something valuable from a brother you would say: ‘I was wondering if you could lend me….’. This is a formal language even though it is your family member you are talking to.
  • When offering your boss tea or coffee, you will still use formal language for example: ‘Would you mind being served tea or coffee? ’ and to a friend you will say: ‘Tea or coffee?


There are words you use when speaking to different people in different situations. More often than not, an intimate couple will use words like ‘darling’, ‘honey’, etc. These words cannot be used to address your colleague at work place; or even your pastor.


There are ways to speak to a child and those of speaking to adults. To a baby, we use words like ‘popopoo’ while to an adult ‘long call’, etc.

The Words used in Different Fields

Field of Medicine

Some words used in the hospitals, clinics and other health stations include: X-ray, syringe, paracetamol, doctor, nurse, mortuary, patient, etc.

Police Station

Lockup, cell, bond, etc.


Aircraft, flight, air hostess, etc.

Information Technology

Computer, laptop, CPU, Monitor, software, hardcopy, hard disk, etc.


The words used by the teachers, students and others at school are: chalk, ruler, blackboard, senior teacher, deputy principal, dean of studies, etc.


Technical terms used by lawyers and in the courts of law include: adult probation, affidavit, alimony, Amicus Curiae brief, annulment, appeal, appellant, appellee, arrest, plaintiff, defendant, dismissal, oath, revocation hearing, learned friend, etc.


Read the conversation below and then answer question that follow.

Caller:Is this the Credex?

Receptionist:Yes, how may I be of help to you?

Caller:It’s Dorothy calling.

Receptionist:Oh, Dorothy! How is the going?

Caller: Lunch today?

Receptionist: Of course..

Caller: what time then?

Receptionist: After I have seen the deputy principal. There are packets of chalk I am supposed to deliver.


  • Giving the reasons, where is the Credex?
  • What is the relationship between the caller and the receptionist?
  • Explain the formality of the language the receptionist and the caller use.
  • Give illustrations for (c) above.





Have you ever stood in front of a big group of people to present your talk? Well here we shall learn how to prepare your speech and deliver it effectively.

Preparation for Speech Delivery

There are steps any speaker should follow in preparation for presentation of speech. They include:

  1. Doing some research on the topic to present. Get the facts about the topic. If you do enough research, your confidence level will be boosted.
  2. Practice in front of a group of friends or relatives. This can also be done in front of a mirror, or videotaping your rehearsals. You will be able to correct your gestures, postures etc.
  3. Write down the points about the topic on a note pad. You can refer to them when giving the speech.
  4. Plan on how to groom and dress decently. You should appear presentable to feel confident.

Grabbing and Keeping Audience Attention

Your opening determines how long your audience will listen to your presentation. Of they are bored from the beginning; the chance that your message will effectively get across is very little.

The most commonly used methods are:

  1. Asking a question. The question should make them think about the topic. For example, ‘How many of you would like to be millionaires?’
  2. Stating an impressive fact connected to the topic of your presentation. For example: ‘About 30% of Kenyans are millionaires.
  3. Telling a story closely connected to the topic. It should neither be too long nor intended to try to glorify the speaker. For example: “Dear audience, before I begin I would like to tell you a short story about Maina Wa Kamau became a millionaire. Don’t worry, it’s not too long. …..”

Other methods of beginning a speech are:

  • Using humour
  • Starting with a quote that ties with your topic.
  • Using sound effect.

Presentation of Speech

There are various techniques of delivering speech. They are what will ensure understanding of your message. Some of these techniques include:

  1. Use gestures effectively to reinforce the words and ideas you are trying to communicate to your audience. For example, when talking about love, you can use your hands to form a cup shape to indicate how tiny something is.
  2. Make eye contact with your audience members to study their reactions to you. If you sense boredom, you need to improve and if you sense enthusiasm, it will help pump you up.
  3. Use movements to establish contact with your audience. Getting closer to them physically increases their attention and interest, as well as encouraging response if you are asking questions.
  4. Your posture should be upright. The way you conduct yourself on the platform will indicate you are relaxed and in control. Do not lean or slouch.
  5. Wear appropriate facial expressions to show feelings and emotions. Smile to show happiness, for example.
  6. Speak loud enough to be heard by all your audience members.
  7. Pronounce the words correctly and speak clearly for your message to be understood.
  8. Pause at key points to let the message sink.

Stage Fright

Almost all speakers are nervous. Even the most experienced do. Fear of addressing a group is not wrong, but how we deal with it is what is possibly not good enough. Those speakers who seem relaxed and confident have learnt how to handle anxiety.

Symptoms of Nervous Speakers

An anxious speaker can be identified in case of:


  • Shaking hands
  • Sweating palms
  • Dry mouth
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Squeaky voice
  • Knocking knees
  • Facial flushes
  • Watery eyes
  • Mental confusions
  • jitters


Causes of Fear

  1. Past failures during presentation. Plan to succeed instead.
  2. Poor or insufficient preparation. Nothing gives you more confidence than being ready.
  3. Discomfort with your own body and movement.

Dealing with Anxiety

A speaker can try the suggestions below to deal with anxiety before and on the day of speech.

Before the day;

  1. Know your topic by doing adequate and thorough research. You will be sure of presenting accurate information and be able to answer questions asked by audience members.
  2. Practice delivering your speech several times. This helps you be sure of your organization of the main points.

On that day;

  1. Do some physical exercises like press ups, push walls, etc. to reduce anxiety.
  2. Use simple relaxation techniques like taking deep breath, tightening and relaxing your muscles, etc.
  3. Wear clothes that you feel confident in. when you feel good about of you feel, your confidence level is boosted. You don’t need to adjust your clothes or hair during your speech.
  4. Spot friendly faces in the crowd. These are people who give you positive feedback (e.g. nodding, smiling). Such faces give you encouragement to speak.
  5. Come up with ways to hide your anxiety. For example,
  • When mouth goes dry, drink some water
  • Incase of excessive sweating, wear clothes that will not allow your audience detect
  • If your hands shake, use gestures to mask the shaking.

Exercise 1

In the next three days, you are presenting a speech on the topic: Effects of HIV/AIDS.

  • Write down any three ways you would prepare for the speech delivery.
  • State the techniques you would employ to ensure your audience listens to you throughout and that they understand the message during the presentation.

Exercise 2

Makufuli is presenting his speech. Your friend, Makwere claims that Makufuli is not confident.

  • What could have warranted this claim?
  • State four reasons that could be behind Makufuli’s state?


  • Discussion is a process where exchange of ideas and opinions are debated upon in a group.
  • A group which comprises a small number of people is given a topic to discuss.

Preparation for Group Discussion

Do the following before you start the discussion:

  1. Select/choose group leaders. Choose the secretary to write the points down and the chair to lead the discussions.
  2. Research round the topic to make sure you have the points. You can get the points from the sources including:
  • Newspapers and magazines
  • Friends, relatives and teachers
  • Text books
  • Internet
  • Television
  1. Arrive early for discussions. It is advisable you do so so that you start early and finish early.
  2. Gather writing materials – pen and note book.
  3. Prepare with questions to ask.

Participating in a Group Discussion

Remember the tips below for success during the discussion:

  1. Learn to listen to each other and respond to what other people have to say.
  2. Speak with moderation. What you say is usually more important than how much you say. Quality is needed rather than the quantity.
  3. Back up each point you put across. You can explain your points in a number of ways including:
  • Providing facts or statistics to support it;
  • Quoting expert opinion;
  • Explain why said what you said; and
  • Referring to your own experience.
  1. Stay calm and polite. Use polite words like ‘May I ….?, please …, etc.’
  2. Take notes of important words and ideas.
  3. Speak clearly.
  4. Speak loud enough to be heard by all the group members.

The Common Discussion Mistakes

Having learnt what you should do during the discussion, let us now learn what under no circumstances y do. You should never:

  • Dominate the discussion;
  • Interrupt abruptly;
  • Be inaudible;
  • Carry out mini-meetings; or
  • Talk over each other.


You and your group members have been assigned the topic: ‘Responsibilities of a Good Citizen’ by your teacher of History and Government. You are supposed to discuss this before you give the presentation in two days.

  • State three ways in which you would prepare before you start discussing the topic.
  • How would you ensure your group members and yourself benefit from this discussion?




















  • It is a form of art verbalized, dramatized and performed.
  • Oral literature can be categorized as either fiction or nonfiction.
  • Nonfiction is informational text that deals with an actual, real-life subject.
  • Fiction is a text that deal with non factual subject.


  • There are various genres of literature.
  • These genres include:
  1. Oral narratives
  2. Oral Poems/Songs
  3. Proverbs
  4. Riddles
  5. Tongue-twisters
  6. Puns
  • Proverbs, riddles, tongue twisters, and puns are short forms of oral literature. This is because of their length.


Study of oral literature is important to a student since he/she :

  1. Is able to understand his/her culture and appreciate the culture of others.
  2. Is able to appreciate his/her history.
  3. Appreciates the creativity in oral literature as a means of understanding other African arts.





Definition of Fieldwork

  • It refers to the process of collecting oral literature material from the field.
  • Field study can be carried out by anyone including a student.

Importance of Fieldwork

  1. Since oral literature is a performed art, a student can witness and experience the performance. When this written, the live aspects are lost.
  2. It enables a student to have a contact with the community and the culture of that community.
  3. A student is equipped with research skills.
  4. It also enables for recording of history of a community.

Stages in Fieldwork

There are five key stages in fieldwork:

  1. Preparation

Adequate preparation should be taken in to consideration for a meaningful research. You can do the following:

  • Identify the narrator or informant.
  • Identify the location of the informant.
  • Plan when to visit the informant.
  • Plan the necessary tools for recording the materials.
  • Get the administrative permission to conduct the research.
  • Decide on the method of data collection to use.
  • Budget for the fieldwork.
  1. Material collection
  • This is where the actual information is gathered.
  • There are different methods of collecting oral literature materials:
  1. Observation
  2. Interviews
  • Participation
  1. Use of questionnaires, etc.
  • Do this carefully.
  1. Recording of information

You can record the material collected by:

  1. Writing the information;
  2. Taping the information; or
  • Filming it.
  1. Processing the information
  • In preparation for interpretation, analysis and dissemination, scrutinize the information.
  • Put down the recorded information in writing. You can do this word for word. This is called transcription.
  • You can translate it in the language you would like it to be shared. This is
  1. Analysis and Interpretation of material

At this stage:

  1. Classify the material into genres and sub-genres using particular criteria.
  2. Identify the themes.
  • Identify styles used.
  1. Identify functions of the item.
  2. Interpret the information.
  3. Draw conclusions.

Methods of Collecting Oral Literature Materials

  1. Interviews
  • An interview involves meeting the respondent face to face and verbally asking questions in order to seek the required information.


  1. Recording performance

First hand information on things like performance and chanting can be recorded using tape recorders, etc. during the festivals in which they are performed.

  1. Observation
  • This is a way of gathering information or data by watching behavior, events, or noting physical characteristics in their natural setting.
  • Observation can either allow one know he/she is being observed, or without him/her not being aware.
  1. Participation
  • The collector of the material can also participate in the enactment of the oral forms like dance and song, etc. if he/she has the skills to.
  • It is important to note that his/her participation should not distract him/her from her investigative roles.
  1. Administering Questionnaires
  • A questionnaire is a research instrument containing series of questions and prompt given to the informant for the purpose of gathering the information.

Methods of Recording Oral Literature Materials

  1. Memory of the Researcher. There are individuals who can remember all the information collected especially if it is not long.
  2. Use of tape recorders.
  3. Videotaping
  4. Written records. You can have writing materials to put down the information gathered.

Challenges Likely to be Encountered during the Fieldwork

  • An oral researcher can encounter problems while in the field.
  • Some of the challenges one is likely to face in an attempt to seek the required information are:
  1. Language barrier. If the researcher is unable to understand the language of the informant, and vice versa, no information is likely to be collected.
  2. Hostility of the informant community.
  3. Transport challenges.
  4. It might be expensive.
  5. The informant might ask for payments.







Definition of an Oral Narrative

  • A narrative is a prose that recounts events, people, and places.
  • A narrative can either be fictional (non factual) or nonfictional (factual).
  • The terms used to mean the same as a narrative are tale, folktale, or a story.
  • At its essence, an oral narrative is a story spoken to an audience.
  • An oral narrative is handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth.
  • As we learnt earlier, an oral narrative is one of the genres of oral literature.
  • A person who tells a story is known as a narrator.

Qualities of a Good Narrator

A good narrator :

  1. Is confident.
  2. Is able to use the non-verbal skills like gestures, facial expressions, etc.
  3. Uses stage well.
  4. Involves their audience in the narration.

Classification of Oral Narratives

  • Narratives are categorized into different classes.
  • These classes are:
  • Myths
  • Legends
  • Ogre or monster stories
  • Trickster stories
  • Etiological Narratives
  • Dilemma stories
  • Fables
  • Spirit tales
  • Allegory
  • Myths
  • Deal with origins.
  • There is a supernatural being involved.
  • They explain the origin of death, origin of a group of people, etc.

 Characteristics of Myths

  1. A story that is or was considered a true explanation of the natural world (and how it came to be).
  2. Characters are often non-human – e.g. gods, goddesses, supernatural beings, first people.
  3. Setting is a previous proto-world (somewhat like this one but also different).
  4. Plot may involve interplay between worlds (this world and previous or original world).
  5. Depict events that bend or break natural laws (reflective of connection to previous world).


  • Legends
  • A legend is a story about an outstanding person who has participated in the historical events of a community.
  • A legend is a story of a hero known to people.
  • Based on fact but also includes imagination material.
  • There is also an element of exaggeration.
  • There are also historical events.
  • Some well known legends are:
  1. Koome Njue
  2. Wangu wa Makeri
  • Mugo wa Kibiru
  1. Mekatilili wa Menza
  2. Fumo Liyongo
  3. Luanda Magere
  • The target audience of legends are usually the youth so that they can emulate the hero or heroine.

Main Features of Legends

  • There are extraordinary actions done by the hero.
  • Facts in such stories are historical.
  • Features mentioned are actual ones.
  • In some, there is an aspect of betrayal.
  • Element of exaggeration is common.
  • Birth or death is associated with some mystery.
  • Events are in the present world; the one we live in.
  • Ogre Stories
  • An ogre usually represents an evil.
  • Ogre are usually destroyed at the end.
  • They have happy ending.

Functions of Ogre Stories

  1. They warn against strangers.
  2. They caution youth against marrying the people they don’t know.
  • Trickster Stories
  • A character makes up for a physical weakness with cunning and subversive humour.
  • The trickster alternatives between:
  1. Cleverness and stupidity;
  2. Kindness and cruelty;
  • Deceiver and deceived; and
  1. Breaker of taboos and creator of culture.


  • Etiological Narratives
  • They explain the origin of a certain phenomenon.
  • An etiological narrative is an imaginative story triggered by question “how or why” something came to be in the world.
  • Examples are:
  1. Why rainbow appears in the sky after it rains.
  2. Why hare has a short tail.

Why Turtles Live in Water

Turtles used to live on the land, they say, until the time a clever

turtle was caught by some hunters. They brought him to their village

and placed the turtle before the Chief, who said, “How shall

we cook him?”

“You’ll have to kill me first,” said the turtle, “and take me out of

this shell.”

“We’ll break your shell with sticks,” they said.

“That’ll never work,” said the turtle, “Why don’t you throw me

in the water and drown me?!”

“Excellent idea,” said the Chief. They took the turtle to the river

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and threw him into the water to drown him.

They were congratulating themselves on their success in drowning

the turtle, when two little green eyes poked up in the water and the laughing turtle said, “Don’t get those cooking pots out too

fast, foolish people!” As he swam away he said, “I think I’ll spend

most of my time from now on, safely in the water.”

And it has been that way ever since.

  • Dilemma Stories
  • A dilemma story shows a character or a group of characters faced with two or more alternatives, none of which is easy to make.
  • The conflicting situation arises for a character to choose from.
  • A dilemma story is a morally ambiguous story, thus allows the audience to comment or speculate upon the correct solution to the problem posed in the story.
  • A dilemma story has a perplexing situation, which presents different possibilities, and both of them seem practically acceptable.

Functions of Dilemma

  1. Dilemma gives the audience an insight into characters’ lives.
  2. It also creates suspense. This is because the audience will be left wondering which choice the character will make.
  • Fables
  • Feature animal characters.
  • Animals speak as human beings.
  • Now read the story below.



Once upon a time, there was a hare who loved to boast of his speed in front of the other animals. He asked the tortoise to take up the challenge in the next competition with him.



All the animals were surprised that the tortoise took up the challenge. He was known to be a very slow animal. However, a day was fixed for the great race and all the animals looked forward to it.


On the day of the race, no animal went to the market. No one went hunting; all the animals gathered together, excited to watch the race between the tortoise and the hare. Both animals were ready, each of them felt confident and everyone wondered why the tortoise was so confident since they felt he was no match for the hare.


The elephant started them off when he blew his big whistle and the sound rang across the entire jungle. Every year was alert, every eye fixed on the two competitors. Who will win the greatest animal race in history?


The hare darted almost out of sight at once, but soon stopped. In order to show that the tortoise was no match for him and should not have accepted his challenge in the first instance, he lay down to have a nap.

Slowly but surely, the tortoise plodded on. He had a goal, he had a focus and he never looked back. When the hare awoke from his sleep, he saw the tortoise near the finish line. He jumped up and tried to catch up with him but it was too late. The deed had been done.


To the amazement of all the animals, the tortoise had crossed the finish line. It was unbelievable. The hare

was humbled. He had no choice but to congratulate the tortoise and accept him as the winner. All the animals learnt a very important lesson from the tortoise.


  • Spirit Tales

Ghosts or spirits feature in such stories.

  • Allegory
  • Real life is represented by characters and events.
  • Though embodies real life, it is presented as if it is fictional.

Setting in Oral Narratives

  • Through a community’s oral narrative, we can learn a lot about them.
  • An oral narrative give information on the following:
  1. The physical environment. Features like lakes, mountains, forests, etc. are mentioned.
  2. Economic activities.
  • These are the activities or occupations through which the community earns its livelihood.
  • These activities include:
  • Hunting
  • Livestock keeping
  • Crop farming or cultivation
  • Bee-keeping, etc
  • the mention of products like honey, tools, sorghum, milk, etc will lead us know the economic activities of that community.
  1. Social activities

These are activities like ceremonies, religious practices and forms of entertainment.

  1. Political activities

Here we learn:

  • The power structure
  • War activities


Oral narratives have many features. The main ones include:

  • Use of opening formula. This is used to indicate the beginning of a story. It also removes the audience from the world of reality and take them to the world of fantasy. A world of fantasy is where bones speak, a king is the lion, etc. some commonly used opening formula phrases are ‘ a long time ago…’, ‘once upon a time’, ‘there once was ….’, and ‘long, long ago…

Opening Formula serves the following functions:

  1. Announces the coming of a narrative.
  2. Gets the attention of the audience.
  3. Removes the audience from the world of reality.
  4. Identifies the narrator.
  • Use of Closing formula. It makes the end of a story. It also removes the audience from the world of fantasy and take them back to the world of reality. Here are examples of closing formulae:
  • And that is why …
  • And there ends my story.
  • From then onwards …
  • To come to the end of my story …

A closing formula serves such functions as:

  1. Announcing the end of the narrative.
  2. Momentarily releases the audience from concentration.
  3. Brings back the audience to the world of reality.
  4. Clears the way for the next narrative or activity.
  • Use of idiophones. There is the use of words that imitate the movement or sounds made by characters in the story. For example,
  • The bees flew buzz buzzbuzz.
  • The woman laughed hahahahaha.
  • The branch was cut kacha.
  • A word, phrase, a song, or even a sentence can occur more than once in a story. The repetition is meant to:
  1. Bring out the meaning.
  2. Emphasize a point.
  • Maintain the rhythm.
  1. Sustain the mood in the story.
  • Use of songs. Many narratives have songs. The songs perform the following functions:
  • Brings out the character traits.
  • Brings out the theme.
  • To entertain.
  • Imaginary and factually impossible things are created in the story.
  1. Familiar objects or persons well known are referred to.
  2. Complex problems are explained and clarified by referring to something the audience is familiar with, eg.
  • The bible
  • History
  • Famous people
  • Use of suspense.
  • Here the audience is left wondering what will happen next.
  • The climax is delayed.
  • There is also the use of dialogue. A character speaks directly to the other. Dialogue is used to bring out the theme, character traits as well as to develop the plot of the story.










  • There are several story telling devices a narrator can decide to use when delivering an oral narrative.
  • The techniques a narrator can use include:
  • Use of gestures. Gestures are meant to reinforce the idea. For example when talking about a character going, you can stretch your arm to show that.
  • Altering your facial expressions according to the emotion and feelings in the story. Do not frown when the emotion happy.
  • Varying the tone of your voice depending on what you are saying and who is saying it. The tone should be low when for example a small animal talks, and high when a big one speaks.
  • Changing the pace of narration. There are those unimportant details that can be said faster.
  • Involving the audience in the narration. Asking them to join you when singing will be okay.
  • Use of mimicry. Here a narrator imitates the speech, action or other mannerisms of the character, for example, the walking style of a character, etc.

Read the story below and then answer questions after it.

A long time ago, there was a pregnant woman whose husband had gone to work in a distant place. The husband was a blacksmith. At the woman’s delivery, an ogre played mid-wife to her. Apart from that the ogre also assisted her in gathering firewood from the forest and also cooked her food.

Every time the ogre came back from the forest, he would pretend to offer her food saying, “wagaciari nduke tuhiuhio” (Translated as: Newly delivered mother, take this delicacy). He then munched down the food himself. He would repeat this with whenever offering her gruel saying:”Wagaciari nduke gacuru. Wrega nganywa.” And drank it himself.

This continued for a while, and while the ogre became fat and sleek, the nursing mother became very thin and weak.

During those days, women used to put castor seeds out to dry in the sun. While the seeds dried,the doves could come and steal those  seeds. One day, the woman spotted a dove and said to him:

“You dove, you have eaten all my castor seeds. Now, if I send you on an errand, will you carry it out?”

“Yes, I can,” the dove answered.

“Right, I would like you to fly to the land of blacksmiths and once you get there, pass the following message:

Muthuri uguturai blacksmith                     I say, oh you

Cangarara-il-ca                                                 Ciangarara-I-ca

Taratura narua-il                                           Hasten to finish whatever you are doing.

Cangarara-il-ca                                                  Cangarara-I-ca

Mukaguo niaachiarire-I                                your wife is with child

Cangarara-i-ca                                                Cangarara-i-ca

Agiciaithio ni irimu-I                                       An ogre is playing nurse to her

Cangarara-i-ca                                                  Cangarara-i-ca

Ekwiruo nduke tuhiuhio-I                                She is being offered food

Cangarara-i-ca                                                   Cangarara-i-ca

Na warega ngaria-I                                            But the ogre eats eats it all

Cangarara-il-ca                                                   Cangarara-i-ca

The dove delivered the message as requested. When she got to the land of the blacksmiths, she sang the song. The blacksmiths heard the dove singing and asked each other, “Whose wife is expecting a baby?”

One of them confessed he had an expectant wife and he was asked by the rest to find out what was happening at home. When he  got home, the wife told him the whole story.

All this while, the ogre was in the forest gathering firewood. The husband sharpened the knife in readiness to face  the ogre. The ogre came back and dropped the firewood with a thud,thu. He then rebuked the mother saying: “Wagaciairi urogua na mururumo ucio.” (Newly delivered mother, may you fall with the same thud!)

The nursing mother responded back, “O nawe urogu.”(You too!)

The ogre was surprised. He said, “You surprise me with your arrogance today. Could it be that the blacksmith is back?”


The blacksmith got angry and even before the ogre finished talking, he speared him. Shortly, before the ogre died, he cried with aloud voice saying, “It is just as I had thought. The sojourners have come back. Oh dear me I am dying because of my greed!” And with these words, he died.

There ends my story.



  • What features of this story qualify it as an oral narrative?
  • If you were the one narrating the story, how would you have performed the last paragraph?


Read the narratives below and then answer questions that follow.

Girl and the King

Long ago there was a wealthy king who started off on a journey to visit the king of a neighbouring country. On his way he was accompanied by his bodyguard and a large group of ministers. Owing to the nature of the landscape, the only means of transport was by camel. Somewhere along the way, he found a group of girls fetching water from a well. At once he was struck by the resemblance of the girls, but on closer observation he identified one girl he had fallen in love with. He at once decided that he would do something to engage her. He gave the girl his blazer, which he instructed her to wear always as a sign of identify. He further promised that once he was back in his country, he would send for her and the emissary would identify her by her jacket.

After the king’s departure, the other girls begun to envy the lucky girl and constantly begged her to let them try the blazer on, but she wouldn’t budge. Days passed into weeks and the girl still faithfully kept wearing the king’s coat. Over time she begun to wonder whether the king had forgotten his promise but still she kept wearing the coat.

One day she went to collect firewood in the company of the other girls. As she was moving about in the bush she saw a pirate monkey admiring her and she stopped to give it the time. The pirate greeted her and commented on the beauty of the blazer she was wearing. She immediately told the pirate the story behind her acquisition of the coat. The pirate then requested that she let him try it on so that she could see how beautiful it was.

The girl reluctantly agreed to let the pirate try the coat on and no sooner had it done so than it jumped into a tree and left the girl in wonder. The girl begun to climb the tree and the pirate jumped to the next tree. As the girl ran from tree to tree, the pirate kept jumping and soon disappeared from the girl’s sight. The girl returned home miserable but consoled by the thought that after all the king had forgotten his promise.

Shortly after that incident the king sent his messengers to collect the girl and reminded them that they would find several identical girls and that they would identify the bride by a blazer bearing his seal which she would be wearing When the messengers came to the village where the girls lived they were unable to identify the one they were looking for, as all of them resembled one another. The particular girl tried to explain that she was the one but the messengers did not take her because she did not have the king’s coat.

They searched the whole village without finding the girl and eventually gave up, and were on their way home when one of them spotted the pirate in the tree.

The messengers then ran after the pirate and managed to arrest it and take it home to the king.


  • Classify this narrative.
  • Identify the features of oral narratives present in it.










  • Derivation is a word formation process in which there is addition of affixes to create new words.
  • A noun can be derived from the following categories:
  • verb
  • adjective
  • another noun

Deriving Nouns From Verbs

To derive a noun from a verb, add one of the following suffixes to the verb:

Verb Suffix Noun
DominateAnce /enceDominance








Deriving Nouns from Adjectives

To derive a noun from an adjective, add to that adjective, one of the following suffixes:

Adjective Suffix       Noun






Exercise 1

Create nouns from the words listed in the table below.

Word Noun


Exercise 2

Use the correct form of word in brackets to complete the sentence.

  1. Your _______________ to this job has been recognized. (commit)
  2. _______________ of this word is difficult. (pronounce)
  3. What is the ________________ of this table. (measure)
  4. There has been great ______________ in her language. (develop)
  5. I have heard this ______________ over and over. (narrate)
  6. I prefer ___________________ course to medicine. (engine)
  7. They should improve their level of __________________. (concentrate)
  8. This professor is a great _____________. (history)
  9. I will pay for this phone in ________________. (install)
  10. He can’t walk alone because of his _______________. (blind)



  • Gender sensitive/neutral language is that which is free of stereotypes and biases.
  • Avoid using gender-specific titles like poetess. Instead use “poet”.
  • Avoid using expressions with generic term For example, don’t say “layman”. Use ‘lay’ in stead.
  • Make sure you use parallel constructions in correspondence. For example, Mr. and Mrs. Gyle, but not, Alice and Mr. Gyle.
  • The table below shows the gendered nouns and gender-neutral nouns.
Gendered Nouns Gender-Neutral Nouns




The common man

To man






Dear sir

















First-year student

People/human beings/humanity


Average person/ordinary person

To operate

Mail carrier/letter carrier/postal worker

Police officer

Flight attendant


Congress person/legislator

Dear sir or madam

Cattle rancher





Business person

Shift boss/ foreperson/ supervisor



Clergy/ clergyperson

Fishes folk

Clan member

Security officer/security guard


Chief/ head/leader




With Pronouns;

  • Use sex-neutral third person as appropriate.
  • Write both pronoun options.
  • Use “she or he” or “she/he”


  • A pronoun can be effective when we use an appropriate case (form). If this does not happen, the reader may remain puzzled or distracted.
  • There are three common pronoun cases:
  • Subject pronouns (subjective case)
  • Object pronouns (objective case)
  • Possessive pronouns (possessive case)
  • Subjective Case
  • Used as the subject of a sentence or of a subordinate clause.
  • The pronouns used in this position are:
  • I
  • We
  • You
  • He
  • She
  • It
  • They
  • Also referred to “nominative case”. Examples,
  • You called me the new student.
  • We are ready for the race.
  • I like it.
  • He runs faster.
  • They never appreciate anything.
  • Objective Case
  • Pronouns in this case function as the recipients of the actions.
  • They are used as objects of verbs or prepositions.
  • The pronouns in this form include:
  • Me
  • Us
  • You
  • Him
  • Her
  • It
  • Them

Examples in sentences

  • It never rains on me.
  • Moraa bought him a flower.
  • She showed us around the town.
  • The baby has been named after you.
  • Possessive Case
  • They show who or what owns something.
  • The pronouns used in the possessive case include:
  • Mine
  • Ours
  • Yours
  • Hers
  • His
  • Its
  • Theirs

Examples in Sentences

  • The new phone is
  • Of all the songs, it is yours I enjoyed the most.
  • His son is coming soon.
  • All efforts should be made not to confuse one pronoun case with another.


In each sentence below, replace the underlined word(s) with an appropriate pronoun form.

  • I sold my bike to Abdi.
  • I sold my bike to Abdi and Yussra.
  • I sold my bike to Abdi and Yussra.
  • The bike’s brake was bad.
  • Abdi gave the bike to Abdi and Yussra’s
  • The son promised to pay his parents for the bike.
  • The son’s girlfriend rode the bike into a fish pond.
  • The pond belongs to me and my family, and my family and I are unhappy.
  • The fish’s temper is almost as bad as my temper.
  • Abdi and Yussra have offered to pay me and my family for the damage.








  • To demonstrate is to show, to indicate, or to point to.
  • A demonstrative pronoun represents a thing or things:
  • Near in distance or time, for example,
  • This
  • these
  • Far in distance or time, for example,
  • That
  • Those
  • Look at the examples in sentences
  • This lasts longer.
  • Have you seen that?
  • Those were the days.
  • Look at these.


Fill the blanks with: this, that, those, these.

  1. _____________ one here is my friend.
  2. I hate ____________ books over there. They lack so much.
  3. Could you bring me _____________ chair I left outside.
  4. ___________ bananas are sweet! Could you add me more?
  5. How could you buy a thing like __________? Get me the other one.













Transitive Verbs

  • A transitive verb has two features:
  • It is an action verb that expresses a doable activity. For example, eat, jump, click, etc.
  • It must have a direct object. A direct object is something or someone who receives the action of the verb.
  • A n indirect object can also be there but it preceds the direct object.
  • Look at the sentences below and say whether the verbs in them have direct objects.
  • Joan bought him an handkerchief.
  • Colman drew the picture.
  • I eat bananas and mangoes.
  • My wrist watch costs a lot of money.
  • Did you make coffee this morning?
  • My niece called me earlier yesterday.
  • In the sentences that follow, the direct objects are in boldface while the indirect objects are underlined.
  • We can call you Martha.
  • Our parents teach us poems.
  • Alice wrote June a love poem.
  • Bring me a cup of tea

Intrasitive Verbs

  • They can be followed by a complement.
  • The complement is usually an adjective or an adverb.
  • Study the sentences below.
  • The athletes ran fast.
  • The food tastes insipid.
  • The rain rains every morning.
  • In the three sentences above, the actions or states denoted by the verbs ‘ran’, ‘tastes’, and ‘rains’ are represented as remaining in the subjects ‘athletes’, ‘food’, and ‘rain’, and not as passing over to an object.
  • The three verbs do not require objects to complete the sense. They are called intransitive verbs.
  • An intrasitive verb is one that does not require an object to complete the sense.
  • Some verbs are used both as transitive and intrasitive. For example,
  • The bird flies. intransitive verb
  • The boy flies his kite. Transitive verb



Say whether the verb(s) in the sentence are transitive or intransitive.

  1. Junior likes phones.
  2. Jenifer brushes her teeth every morning.
  3. I smile whenever I play games.
  4. Richard sleeps 8 hours a day.
  5. My boss offered me a new job.
  6. The horse runs faster.
  7. She promised me she would visit.
  8. The family works in the field everyday.
  9. Njeri cooks me dinner.
  10. The food smells good.
  11. I owe you hundred shillings.
  12. All the candidates passed the test.

















  • An infinitive is a type of verbal consisting of the word ‘to’ plus a verb. Examples are
  • To fly
  • To enter
  • To catch
  • To belong
  • To become
  • To draw
  • To stand etc
  • The verb here should be in its simplest stem form.
  • An infinitive functions as a noun, an adjective or an adverb.

Examples in Sentences

  • Everyone wanted to leave.
  • To swim is my hobby.
  • You lack the strenth to resist.
  • An infinitive has the following functions in a sentence:
  1. As a subject of a verb, for example,

To cry is what I hate most.

  1. As an object of a verb, for example,

She wants to go.

  1. As a subject complement, for example,

My dream is to fly.

  1. As an adjective, for example,

He lacks the skill to swim.


Rewrite each of the following sentences using the verb in brackets. Be careful not to change the meaning of the sentence.

  1. I started reading. (read)
  2. He stopped smoking. (smoke)
  3. Writing is more difficult than reading. (write, read)
  4. Jogging is a good exercise. (jog)
  5. I like cycling. (cycle)
  6. I enjoy swimming. (swim)




  • A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb, or a combination of both, and which creates a different meaning from the original verb.
  • There are transitive phrasal verbs. They are those that can be followed by an object. Example

I ran into my old friend.

“my old friend” is the object of “ran into”

  • There are also intransitive phrasal verbs. They cannot take an object. Example

Did he show up?

  • Some transitive phrasal verbs have the object placed before the preposition. Example,
  • We kept our relationship from my friends for sometime.
  • Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. The object is only placed after the preposition. For example,
  • I always hand in my assignment in time.
  • She is looking forward to mid term break.
  • Some transitive phrasal verbs can take an object at both places – before and after the preposition. For example,
  • The brothers put out the fire before the firemen came.
  • The brothers put the fire out before the firemen came.


The Commonly Used Phrasal Verbs

  1. Ask (somebody) out – invite on a date
  2. Ask around – ask several people the same question.
  3. Add up to (something) – equal
  4. Back (something) up—reverse
  5. Back (somebody)up – offer support
  6. Blow (sth) up – explode
  7. Break down – stop working/functioning (of a machine, or a vehicle)
  8. Break down – to be upset
  9. Break (sth) down – divide it into smaller parts
  10. Break in – enter a building forcibly
  11. Break in – to interrupt
  12. Break into (sth) – enter forcibly (house, etc)
  13. Break out – escape
  14. Break out in (sth) – develop a condition (skin)
  15. Break up – end a relationship
  16. Break up – start laughing
  17. Bring (sbdy) down – cause the person to be unhappy
  18. Bring (sbdy) up – raise a child
  19. Bring (sth) up – start talking about a topic
  20. Bring (sth) up – vomit (one can bring the food up)
  21. Call around – make phone calls to several people
  22. Call (sbdy) back – return a phone call
  23. Call (sth) off – cancel
  24. Call on (sbdy) – ask for an opinion or an answer from someone
  25. Call on (sbdy) – visit someone
  26. Call (sbdy) up – phone the person
  27. Calm down – after being angry, one calms down
  28. Catch up – get to the same place/point as someone else
  29. Check in – arrive, and register at a hotel or airport
  30. Check out – leave a hotel
  31. Check out(sbdy/sth) – to look at
  32. Cheer up – become happier than before
  33. Cheer (sbdy) up – make someone happier
  34. Chip in—help
  35. Clean (sth) up – to clean, or tidy something
  36. Come across (sth) – unexpectedly find something
  37. Come apart – separate
  38. Come down with (sth) – become sick
  39. Come forward – to give evidence or volunteer do something
  40. Count on (sbdy/sth) – rely on
  41. Cross (sth) out – draw a line through
  42. Cut back on (sth) – consume less
  43. Cut (sth) down – make something fall to the ground
  44. Cut in – interrupt
  45. Cut in – start operating(engine or an electrical device)
  46. Cut (sth) off – stop providing (electricity, water, etc)
  47. Cut (sth) off – remove with something sharp
  48. Cut (sbdy) off – take out of a will
  49. Cut (sth) out – remove part of something (usually with a razorblade, or scissors)
  50. Do away with (sth) – discard
  51. Do (sth) up – close, or fasten
  52. Dress up – wear nice clothing
  53. Drop back – move back in a position
  54. Drop by/in/over – come without an appointment
  55. Drop (sbdy/sth) off – take someone/something somewhere and leave them/it there.
  56. Drop out – quit a class, school, college, etc
  57. Eat out – eat at a restaurant
  58. End up – eventually decide/do/reach
  59. Fall apart – break into pieces
  60. Fall down – fall on the ground
  61. Fall out – separate from an interior (pocket, for example).
  62. Fall out – become loose and unattached (hair, teeth, etc)
  63. Figure (sth) out – find an answer, understand
  64. Fill (sth) in– to write information in blanks (eg on a form, questionnaire)
  65. Fill (sth) up – fill to the top
  66. Find out – discover
  67. Get (sth) across/over – communicate, make something to be understood
  68. Get along/ on – like each other
  69. Get around – have mobility
  70. Get away – go on a holiday
  71. Get away with (sth) – do something without being punished
  72. Get back – return
  73. Get (sth) back – receive something you had before
  74. Get back at (sbdy) – take revenge
  75. Get back into (sth) – become interested in something again
  76. Get on (sth) – step onto a vehicle
  77. Get over (sth) – recover from an illness, loss, or difficulty
  78. Get over (sth) – overcome a problem
  79. Get together – meet (for social reasons)
  80. Get up – get out of bed
  81. Get up – stand
  82. Give (sbdy) away – reveal hidden information about someone
  83. Give (sth) away – ruin a secret
  84. Give (sth) away – give someone something for free
  85. Give (sth) back – return a borrowed thing
  86. Give in – stop fighting or arguing reluctantly
  87. Give (sth) out – give something to many people (normally for free)
  88. Give (sth) up – quit a habit
  89. Give up – stop trying
  90. Go after – follow someone
  91. Go after (sth) – try to achieve something
  92. Go against (sbdy) – compete, oppose someone
  93. Go ahead – start, proceed
  94. Go back – return to a place
  95. Go out – leave home to on a certain social event
  96. Go out with (sbdy) – date
  97. Go over (sth) – review
  98. Go over – visit somebody who is nearby
  99. Grow apart – stop being friends over a period
  100. Grow up – become an adult
  101. Grow into (sth)– grow big enough to fit
  102. Hand (sth) down– give something that has been used to someone else
  103. Hand (sth) in – submit
  104. Hand (sth) out – to distribute to a group of people
  105. Hand (sth) over – unwillingly give something
  106. Hang on – wait a short time
  107. Hang out – spend time relaxing
  108. Hang up – end a phone call
  109. Hold (sbdy/sth) back – prevent from doing or going
  110. Hold (sth) back – hide an emotion
  111. Hold on – wait a short time (formal)
  112. Hold onto (sbdy/sth) – hold firmly using hands or arms
  113. Hold (sbdy/sth) back – rob
  114. Keep on doing (sth) – continue doing
  115. Keep (sth) from (sbdy) – not tell
  116. Keep (sbdy/sth) out – prevent from entering
  117. Keep (sth) up – continue at the same rate
  118. Let (sbdy )down – disappoint, fail to help
  119. Let (sbdy) in – allow to enter
  120. Look after (sbdy/sth) – take care of
  121. Look down on – consider inferior, think less of
  122. Look for (sbdy/sth) – try to find
  123. Look forward to (sth) – be excited about the future
  124. Look into (sth) – investigate
  125. Look out – be careful, be vigilant, or take notice
  126. Look out for (sbdy/sth) – take notice
  127. Look (sth) over – check, examine
  128. Look (sth) up – search and find information about something
  129. Look up to (sbdy) – have a lot of respect for
  130. Make (sth) up – invent, lie about something
  131. Make up – forgive each other
  132. Make (sbdy) up – apply cosmetics to someone
  133. Mix (sth) up – confuse things
  134. Pass away – die
  135. Pass out – faint
  136. Pass (sth) out – give the same thing to several people
  137. Pass (sth) up – decline (normally something good)
  138. Pay (sbdy) back – return owed money
  139. Pay for (sth) – be punished for doing something bad
  140. Pick (sth) out – choose
  141. Point (sbdy/sth) out – indicate using a finger
  142. Put (sth) down – put what you are holding on a surface or floor
  143. Put (sbdy) down – insult, make someone feel stupid
  144. Put (sth) off – postpone
  145. Put (sth) out – extinguish
  146. Put (sth) together – assemble
  147. Put up with (sbdy/sth) – tolerate
  148. Put (sth) on – put clothing or accessories on your body
  149. Run into (sbdy/sth) – unexpectedly meet
  150. Run over (sbdy/sth) – drive a vehicle over a person or thing
  151. Run over/ through (sth) – rehearse, review
  152. Run away – escape, leave unexpectedly
  153. Run out – have none left
  154. Set (sth) up – arrange, organize
  155. Set (sbdy) up – trick, trap
  156. Shop around – compare prices
  157. Show off – act as though special.
  158. Sleep over – stay somewhere for the night
  159. Sort (sth) out – organize, resolve a problem
  160. Stick to – continue doing something, or limit yourself to a particular thing.
  161. Switch (sth) off – stop the energy flow, turn off
  162. Switch (sth) on – start the energy flow, turn on
  163. Take after (sbdy) – resemble a family member
  164. Take (sth) back – return an item
  165. Take off – start to fly
  166. Take (sth) off – remove something (especially clothing)
  167. Take (sth) out – remove from a place or a thing
  168. Take (sbdy) out – pay for someone to go somewhere with you
  169. Tear (sth) up – rip into pieces
  170. Think back – remember
  171. Throw (sth) away – dispose of
  172. Turn (sth) down – decrease the volume or strength (of heat, light, etc)
  173. Turn (sth) down – refuse
  174. Turn (sth) off – stop the energy flow, switch off
  175. Turn (sth) on – start the energy flow, switch on
  176. Turn (sth) up – increase the volume or strength (of heat, light, etc)
  177. Turn up – appear suddenly
  178. Try (sth) out – test
  179. Use (sth) up – finish the sipply
  180. Wake up – stop sleeping
  181. Warm (sth/sbdy) up – increase the temperature
  182. Warm up – prepare body for exercise
  183. Wear off – fade away
  184. Work out – exercise
  185. Work out – make a calculation
  186. Work out – be successful


Examples in Sentences

  1. I want to blow this balloon up
  2. My wife and I broke up last month.
  3. The thief broke out of the crowd without anyone noticing.
  4. We are going to a far off place so you have to dress up.
  5. We wanted to surprise her about the wedding but she found it out.


Fill in the blank with a phrasal verb beginning with the correct form of verb in brackets.

  1. ___________ the blanks with appropriate words. (fill)
  2. His child’s teeth started to ____________ at the age of six. (fall)
  3. I would advise we _____________ this syllabus. It has lost its meaning. (do)
  4. Do not ________________ me _____________ when I am listening to the music. (cut)
  5. Kimutai ___________________ malaria last week. (come)
  6. Akinyi is trying to ___________ her point ___________ but the other students are making noise. (get)
  7. All the students have ____________ from their long December holidays. (get)
  8. She ___________ free books to young children every month. (give)
  9. The bad boy has finally ____________ drinking. (give)
  10. They __________ their dog _________ whenever the visitors come. (hold)



















  1. 1.She was tickled pinkby the good news.

Made very happy

  1. You were hands downthe best player on the team.

There was no competition

  1. I’ve been feeling pretty down in the dumpslately.

Sad or depressed

  1. I’m feeling sick as a dog!

Very sick

  1. I’ve been feeling under the weather.

Not well

  1. Rise and shine!

Wake up and be happy!

  1. Close, but no cigar.

You were very close, but you did not make it.

  1. I could play outside till the cows come home.

For a very long time

9.      Acid Test:

Acid test proves the effectivenes of something.


10.    Cut the ground from under feet :

When you cut the ground from under someone’s feet, you do something which weakens their position.

11.   Chase your tail:

Spending a lot of time and energy doing a lot of things but actually achieving too little.

12.   Whole bag of tricks –

Means trying all the clever means to achieve something.

13.   Deliver the goods –

Do what is expected or promised.

14.   Fine-tooth comb –

Examining something carefully to not miss out any details.

15.   Explore all avenues

Trying out every possibility to get a result.

16.   Fast track something –

Rating something higher on your priority list to achieve the desired result.

17.     Get ducks in a row –

Getting your things well organized.

18.   Get the show on the road –

Putting up a plan or idea into action.

19.   Keep your fingers on the pulse –

Being constantly aware of the most recent developments.

20.   Mean business –

Being serious about what you announce.

21.   Think on your feet –

Adjusting quickly to changes and making fast decisions.

22.   Sail through something –

Being successful in doing something without difficulty.

23.   Tricks of the trade :

Meaning – Clever or expert way of doing something.

24.   Not let grass grow under feet –

Meaning – Don’t delay in getting something done.

25.   Work like a charm –

Works very well or has the desired effect.

26.   Back-room boys –

People who perform important work but have no contact with the public.

27.   Dead wood –

People or things which are no longer useful or necessary.

28.   Get the axe –

Meaning – lose the job.

Example – The projects team was undergoing a major restructuring, recruitment executives were the first to get the axe.

29.   Plum job –

Desirable position which is well-paid and considered relatively easy .

Example – This looks like a plum job but it has its own bunch of complications.

30.   Shape up or ship out –

This expression is used to warn someone that if they do not improvetheir ways, they will have to leave their job.

31.   Golden handshake –

Meaning – Big sum of money given to a person when they leave a company or retire.

32.   Separate sheep from goats –

Examining a group of people and deciding their suitability

33.   Waiting in the wings –

Waiting for an opportunity to take action, mostly to replace someone else in their job.

Examples in Sentences

  • Since the teacher is about to retire, there are five other teachers in the waiting wings to take his position.
  • At his retirement, he will be offered a golden handshake.
  • Teaching, to many, seems to be plum job to many young youths.



  • A participle is a type of verbal.
  • A verbal is a verb form that looks like a verb but does not act as the verb in a sentence.
  • A participle functions as an adjective to modify a noun or a pronoun.
  • There are three types of participles:
  • Present Participles which is the “-ing” form.
  • Past Participles. Regular verbs end in “-ed”, while irregular ones end in –en, -n, -t, or various other endings.
  • Perfect participle
  • Used to shorten or combine clauses that have the same subject.
  • One action is completed before the next one starts.

Examples in Sentences

Present Participle

  • I am running.
  • The lesson is boring.
  • He is afraid of swimming.

Past Participle

  • The door was opened.
  • I have written the letter.
  • He was really bored.

Perfect Participle

  • She bought a pen and ran to school.
  • She arrived home and ate her lunch










  • They are adjectives and adjective phrases that give approximate answers to the questions like:
  • How much?
  • How many?

Examples of Quantifiers

‘A few’ versus ‘A little’

  • A few (for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describe the quantity positively.
  • These words can be used in the following ways:
  • I have a few pens. This means perhaps not many, but enough.
  • There is a little money left. It means there is enough to live on.

Few versus Little

  • They describe quantity in a negative way.
  • They can be used in the following ways:
  • Few students visited the site last weekend. Almost none visited the site.
  • I have little money left. Almost no money

A great number of/a large number of/a large quantity of are also quantifiers.

Cardinal Numbers versus Ordinal Numbers

  • The cardinal numbers like one, three, ten, etc refer to the quantity.
  • The ordinal numbers like first, third, tenth etc refer to distribution.
  • In the sentences below, we can learn how they are used.
NumberCardinal NumberOrdinal Number
3Three days are enough.


We will be through by the third day.
13Call me the thirteen girls.


The thirteenth girl will be punished.
33There are thirty three students who sat for the exams.The thirty-third student will have to resit the exams.









  • A predicate adjective is an adjective that follows a linking verb and the subject of the linking verb.
  • A predicate adjective contrasts with an attributive adjective, which typically sits immediately before the noun it modifies.
  • Study the two sentences below.
  • The dress is expensive.
  • The expensive dress has been bought.
  • In the first sentence, adjective ‘expensive’ comes after the linking verb “is”. It is therefore predicative.
  • In the second sentence, it sits before the verb . it has been used attributively.
  • Look at the sentences and phrases below. The adjective in boldface has been used attributively, while the one underlined, predicatively.
  • This sea is blue.
  • The blue will be visited.
  • The boys are happ
  • The happy boys are coming.
















  • There are rules that help one form adverbs. These rules are:
  1. Adverbs are formed by mostly adding –ly to an adjective. Examples


Adjective        Adverb


Cheap              cheaply

Slow                 slowly

Quick               quickly

  • If the adjective ends in –y, replace the “y” with “i” and add “-ly”. For example,


Adjective          Adverb


Easy                   Easily

Lucky                 Luckily

Happy               Happily

Angry                Angrily

  • If the adjective ends in –able, “-ible”, or “-le”, replace the “-e” with “-y”. examples,


Adjective            Adverb


Probable           Probably

Terrible             Terribly

Gentle                Gently

  • If the adjective ends in “-c”, add “-ally”. Examples,


Adjective            Adverb



Basic                  basically

Tragic                 tragically

Economic          economically

  1. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective, for example,

Adjective            Adverb

Early                  Early

Fast                   Fast

Hard                  Hard

High                   High

Wrong              Wrong

Staright            Straight

Near                  Near

Late                   Late

Read the sentence and note whether the word has been used as an adjective or as an adverb.

  • It is a fast car.
  • The car was driven fast.
  • It is a hard assignment.
  • The assignment is hard.
  1. “Well” and “good”

Well is just an adverb correspondent of the adjective “good”.

Look at the sentences below:

  • She is a good pianist.
  • She plays piano well.
  • They are good writers.
  • They write well.























  • Adverbs are words which describe or modify other verbs. For example,
  • The athlete ran quickly.
  • The new student acts stupidily.
  • He left
  • Adverbs also modify other adverbs. For example,
  • The student very easily wrote the answers.
  • The student behaves really
  • Adverbs also modify adjectives. For example,
  • The very beautiful girl won his heart.
  • This tea is extremely
  • An adverb can also modify prepositional phrase, for example,
  • The boy was punished just outside the staffroom.
  • An adverb at times modifies the whole sentence, for example,

Luckily, we met the man we have always wanted to see.



Underline the adverbs in the sentences below and then identify how each functions in the sentence.

  1. The girl hardly ever believes what she is told.
  2. The very tall tree was cut this morning.
  3. Certainly, the man chose the wrong way.
  4. We noticed that the cow was almost in the water.
  5. The new student gladly followed all the instructions given.
  6. This wall was frantically painted.











The three are all used in joining ideas.


  • Connectors join separate ideas in two sentences or paragraphs.
  • Connectors usually come at the start of a sentence.
  • Examples are:
  • Firstly, next, meanwhile, consequently, etc

Examples in Sentences

  1. I like dancing. Furthermore, I enjoy
  2. John was on the way to my home. Meanwhile, my son was busy preparing them dinner.



  • They join ideas in a single sentence.
  • Examples of conjunctions are:
  • Even if
  • Because
  • Even though, etc

Example in a Sentence

I like him because he is kind to me.


  • They express relations between parts of a sentence.
  • The following are examples of prepositions:
  • Above
  • Against
  • Before
  • At etc









  • They connect two equal grammatical items.
  • They must always connect two elements that are grammatically similar, meaning same structure applies.If, for instance, a noun follows “either”, then a noun will also follow “or”. Look at these examples,
  • In the evening, Kilonzo will either wash the clothes or clean the house.
  • Neither the boy nor the girl has visited their parents in the past one week.
  • Below are some common correlative conjunctions pairs.
  • As—as
  • Both – and
  • Either – or
  • Neither – nor
  • Not only – but also
  • Whether – or
  • When using correlative conjunctions, be careful about:
  • Verb agreement;
  • Pronoun agreement ; and
  • Parallel structure.
  • Verb Agreement

The second subject must agree with the verb that follows it when you connect two subjects  with a correlative conjunction. For example,

  • Neither Kamau nor the two girls come to school late. Or
  • Neither the two girls nor Kamau comes to school late.

It is incorrect to say:

  • Neither Kamau nor the two girls comes to school late. Or
  • Neither the two girls nor Kamau come to school late.
  • Pronoun Agreement

When you connect two antecedents with a correlative conjunction, the second one must agree with the pronoun that follows it. For instance,

  • Neither Kamau nor the two girls understood why their teacher punished them. Or
  • Neither the two girls nor Kamau understood why his teacher punished them.
  • Parallel Structure
  • Maintain parallel structure when you use the correlative conjunctions. This is because the two connected elements must be balanced.
  • Most often you can correct any mismatched grammatical items that prevent parallel structure by simply adding a word to create the same type of phrase or by rearranging how a sentence is worded. The two sentences below are incorrect,
  • It was both a long name and difficult to pronounce.
  • Valentine is a time not only for exchanging flowers, but also for spending time with the loved ones.
  • When corrected they will be:
  • The name was both long and difficult to pronounce. Or

It was both a long name and a difficult one to pronounce.

  • Valentine is a time not only for exchanging flowers, but also for spending time with the loved ones.




















  • An adjective phrase tells us something about the noun it is modifying.
  • The principal word in an adjective phrase is an adjective. Examples,
  • Cheap but nice
  • Unhappy with
  • So hot
  • The examples in sentences are,
  • This dress looks cheap but nice.
  • Linet is unhappy with her boss.
  • This is so hot.
  • At times, a word group work as an adjective. Read the sentences below:
  • He is a doctor with a lot of experience.
  • He is an experienced doctor.


  • In the first sentence, ‘a lot of experience’ is an adjective phrase. In the second, ‘experienced’ has served the same purpose as the phrase in the first.


Replace the underlined adjective with an equivalent adjective phrase. The first one has been done for you.

  1. He has bought a metallic

He has bought a door made of metal.

  1. Husband wore a golden
  2. A white cow was slaughtered.
  3. He lives in a stone
  4. I have passed several sleepless
  5. The white used the Ugandan
  6. Heroic deeds are worth praises.
  7. Theirs was a brave
  8. It was a horrible
  9. Many Kenyans talk about English
  10. This teacher is a wealthy





  • A prepositional phrase will begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, which is the object of the preposition.
  • The object of the preposition usually has one or more modifiers descrbing it.
  • Below are patterns for prepositional phrases:
  • Preposition+Noun, for example, at home, on time
  • Preposition + Pronoun, for example, with him
  • Preposition + Gerund, for example, by dancing
  • Preposition + Clause, for example,

He is telling us a story about    the lion who killed my cat

Preposition Noun Clause

  • Preposition + modifier + noun/pronoun/geund/clause, for example,

Under   the   big   table

preposition modifiers          noun

  • The sentences that follow have prepositional phrases. Underline them and identify their parts.
  • I received this letter from my sister.
  • Before break, the teacher asked us to collect our books.
  • The pen on the floor is new.
  • He drove the car along the busy, two-lane


Complete the sentences below with appropriate prepositions. From the completed sentence, write the prepositional phrase in it.

  • Do your parents live _____________ Nairobi?
  • We will go out to dinner ___________ Friday night.
  • The keys are _______________ the kitchen cupboard.
  • He drove the car __________________ excessively worrying.
  • He is stiff ____________ yesterday’s long exercise.
  • Angela has been diognosed ___________ malaria.
  • The plane touched down ____________ difficulty.
  • A matatu transported them ___________ their hotel comfortably.
  • We all laughed when Njuguna came to school ___________ his pyjamas.
  • I would rather have coffee ________________ of porridge.
  • He is standing here_________ his friend.
  • ____________ fire, use the emergency window.
  • _______________ the rains, we went out.
  • ___________ the whole, they like that teacher.
  • We are pleased with your perfomance _________ general.




  • A dependent clause that acts as a noun is the noun clause.
  • A noun clause can begin in any of the following words:


  • When
  • How
  • What
  • Where
  • Whoever
  • Whichever
  • Whomever
  • Whom
  • Whether
  • Whatever
  • Why


  • Noun clauses perform the following functions in sentences:
  1. Act as subjects, for example,
  • Whoever wishes the king death is a big fool.

in above, “whoever wishes the king death” is the noun clause and acts as the subject.

This clause contains “whoever” which is the subject, and a verb “wishes”.

  • That he is a polygamist is known to you.
  1. Act as objects of verbs. Consider the sentence below.
  • The king ordered that the man should be stoned to death.

The noun clause in boldface is the object of the verb “ordered”.

  • Remember to buy whoever loves you a flower.

The clause in bold is the indirect object.

  • Act as objects of the prepositions, for example,
  • Give the pen to whomever you like to.

It is the object of the preposition “to”.


Exercise 1

Underline the noun clause in each sentence.

  1. That you hate him is your own problem.
  2. You cannot rely on what David says.
  3. It is true that his father has passed on.
  4. The news that more than 100 soldiers were killed is a big lie.
  5. It was unfortunate that the terrorist escaped.
  6. He wondered whether the King learnt of the news.
  7. I will punish whoever fails this test.
  8. I can give this to whomever pleases me most.





Exercise 2

Put the words in brackets in their correct order to fill the blank space.

  1. I wonder _____________________ wait for her. (should how we long)
  2. Do you know ________________ ? (be will what weather the )
  3. He told me _________________ . (not would that go he)
  4. I don’t know _____________ . (he gone has where)
  5. Moris asked _____________ . (was my how family )
  • I wonder how long we should wait for her.
  • Do you know what the weather will be?
  • He told me that he would not go.
  • I don’t know where he has gone.
  • Moris asked how my family was.



















  • Also referred to as adjectival or relative clause.
  • An adjective clause must meet such requirements as:
  • It contains a subject, and a verb.
  • It begins with a relative pronoun (like who, whom, whose, that, or which) or with a relative verb (for example, when, where, or why)
  • It functions as an adjective. The adjective in this case answers the questions, ‘Which one?’, ‘How many?’, or ‘What kind?’
  • There are two patterns followed by an adjective clause:
  • Relative pronoun/adverb + subject + verb, for example,
  • Whose bag    was stolen.

relative          subject     verbs


  • Why Kim cannot stand that smell.

relative    subject  verbs


  • Relative pronoun (which is the subject)+ verb, for example,
  • Who jumped    over the fence.

relative pronoun verb


  • In a sentence, we can have something like,
  • Juma is the boy whose bag was stolen.
  • He is allergic to bad smell is one reason why Kim cannot stand that smell.

Punctuating an Adjective Clause

  • Before you decide to use a comma, you have to decide whether the clause is essential or nonessential.
  • Essential ones require commas while the others do not.
  • The first example has an nonessential clause, while the second, a n essential clause.
  • Transline Galaxy, which people don’t like, is often fast.
  • The new boy who everyone likes is my favourite student.








Combine the pair of sentences to make one sentence using an adjective clause. The first one has been done for you.

  • I met Akinyi in town. Akinyi is a thief.

I met Akinyi, who is a thief, in town.

  • The man was sick. He looked very pale.
  • He was sitting in the emergency room. It was very crowded.
  • A nurse was nearby. The man called to her.
  • The nurse called the doctor. The doctor came quickly.
  • The doctor asked him to lie down. The doctor looked very worried.
  • The doctor gave the man an injection. The injection made him go to sleep.




















  • They are used to express that the action in the main clause can only take place if a certain condition is fulfilled.
  • There are various subordinating conjunctions used in joining the clauses. Some of them are:
  • If
  • Unless
  • Only
  • Until

“If” Clauses

  • It consists of two parts.
  • The first part is the condition. It is the half with the word “if”.
  • The other part is the action to occur if the condition is fulfilled. This half is the main clause.
  • Consider:

What will happen when you see the president?

If I see the president I will be very happy.

The action that will occur when this person sees the president is being happy.

Examples in Sentences

  • You will have to walk if you miss the 6 am bus.
  • If you find the door open, kindly close it.
  • If the Israelites had not broken the covenant, the covenant wouldn’t have been renewed.
  • If I have a problem, he always help.


Unless Clauses

  • Basically, it means the same thing as,”if ….not.”
  • Example in a sentence.

You will fail unless you work hard. Or

Unless you work hard, you will fail.

The first sentence means, “you will fail if you don’t work hard.”

The second means, “If you work hard, you will not fail.” Or “if you work hard, you will pass.”

More Examples

  • I will arrive at 9 unless I wake up late.
  • Unless I am very busy, I will write you a letter.
  • You will remain unhappy unless you stop seeing her.




Use the correct form of words in brackets to complete the sentences below.

  1. She _______________ (forgive) unless you tell her the truth.
  2. We _____________ (pass) the exams if we don’t work harder.
  3. _______________(if/unless) she ____________ (take) a painkiller, she _________ (feel) much better soon.
  4. _________ (if/unless) they __________ (be) here next week, they _________ (try) to go to Warda’s party.
  5. _____________ (you/go) to the party __________ (if/unless) she __________ (send) you an invitation card?




















  • We often have to give information about what people say or think.
  • To give such information, one has to use direct (quoted) speech, or indirect (reported) speech.
  • Direct/Quoted Speech
  • This is the saying of exactly what someone has said.
  • What a person says is within quotation (“….”)
  • What is said is word for word. For example,
  • “I will take you out tomorrow,” Timothy said.
  • He complained, “your phone is always off.”
  • Indirect/Reported Speech
  • There is no use of quotation to enclose what the person said.
  • What is said doesn’t have to be word for word.
  • The verb usually changes when reporting. This is because we normally report something said in the past.


  • The past tense is used as what was originally spoken was done in the past


Direct Speech                                                                    Indirect Speech

She said, “It is going to rain.”                                         She said it was going to rain.

The singer said, “I have been singing since 2010.”    The singer said he had been singing since 2010.

The teacher said, “I will teach tomorrow.”                 The teacher said he would teach the next day.


  • Expressions of Time if Reported on a Different Day
Direct SpeechIndirect Speech
This (evening/afternoon/month etc)


These (days/months etc)


(a day/a month etc) after

Last weekend


Next (week/year etc)


Day after tomorrow


The day before yesterday


That day



(a day/a week/ etc)Before

The weekend before or the previous weekend


the following

the next day/ the following day

in two days time

the day before/ the previous day

two days before






Exercise 1

Word Noun
GovernGovernor/ governance /government
NegotiateNegotiator/ negotiation



Exercise 2

  1. Commitment
  2. Pronunciation
  3. Measurement
  4. Development
  5. Narrative
  6. Engineering
  7. Concentration
  8. Historian
  9. Installment
  10. Blindness





  1. I sold my bike to Abdi. him
  2. I sold my bike to Abdi and Yussra. us
  3. I sold my bike to Abdi and Yussra. it
  4. The bike’s brake was bad. its
  5. Abdi gave the bike to Abdi and Yussra’s their
  6. The son promised to pay his parents for the bike. he
  7. The son’s girlfriend rode the bike into a fish pond. his
  8. The pond belongs to me and my family, and my family and I are unhappy. Us, we
  9. The fish’s temper is almost as bad as my temper. Its, mine
  10. Abdi and Yussra have offered to pay me and my family for the damage. They, us



  1. This
  2. Those
  3. That
  4. These
  5. That



  1. Junior likes Transitive
  2. Jenifer brushes her teeth every morning. Transitive
  3. I smile whenever I play games.

Smile: intransitive


  1. Richard sleeps 8 hours a day. Intransitive
  2. My boss offered me a new job. Transitive
  3. The horse runs Intransitive
  4. She promised me she would visit. Transitive
  5. The family works in the field everyday. Intransitive
  6. Njeri cooks me dinner. Transitive
  7. The food smells Intransitive
  8. I owe you hundred shillings. Transitive
  9. All the candidates passed the test. Transitive


  • Fill in
  • Fall out
  • Do away with
  • Cut, in
  • Came down with
  • Get, across/over
  • Gotten back
  • Gives out
  • Given up
  • Hold, back




  • I started reading.

I started to read.

  • He stopped smoking.

He stopped to smoke.

  • Writing is more difficult than reading.

To write is more difficult than to read.

  • Jogging is a good exercise.

To jog is a good exercise.

  • I like cycling.

I like to cycle.

  • I enjoy swimming.

I enjoy to swim.



  • Idiomatic Expressions


  1. The students worked around the clock. They completed the project.

              Working around the clock, the students completed the project.

  1. The student was frustrated by lack of progress. The student dropped out of school.

Frustrated by the lack of progress, the student dropped out of school.

The student frustrated by lack of progress dropped out of school.

  1. The dog was wounded. The dog stumbled through the muddy field.

The wounded dog stumbled through the muddy field.

Wounded, the dog stumbled through the muddy field.

  1. The man threw out the television. The television was broken.

The man threw out the broken television.

  1. Martha was listening to loud music. Martha could not hear her parent calling.

Listening to the loud music, Martha could not hear her parent calling.

  1. The man was sitting in the library. He was reading a newspaper.

Sitting in the library, the man was reading a newspaper.

  1. She walked home. She met an old friend.

Walking home, she met an old friend.

  1. The dog wagged its tail. It bit the thief.

Wagging its tail, the dog bit the thief.

  1. The technician was working in the lab. He cut his finger.

Working in the lab, the technician cut his finger.

  1. Njoroge was relaxing on his chair. Njoroge fell asleep.

Relaxing on his chair, Njoroge fell asleep.

  1. The man was disappointed. He stomped his foot and left angrily.

Disappointed, the man stomped his foot and left angrily.



  1. The girl hardly ever believes what she is told.

It modifies the adverb ‘ever’.

  1. The very tall tree was cut this morning.

It modifies adjective ‘tall’.

  1. Certainly, the man chose the wrong way.

It modifies the sentence, ‘The man chose the wrong way.’

  1. We noticed that the cow was almost in the water.

It modifies prepositional phrase ‘in the water’.

  1. The new student gladly followed all the instructions given.

It modifies the verb ‘followed’.

  1. This wall was frantically painted.

It modifies the verb ‘painted’.



  1. He has bought a metallic

He has bought a door made of metal.

  1. Her husband wore a golden

Her husband wore a ring made of gold.

  1. A white cow was slaughtered.

A cow with white skin was slaughtered.

  1. He lives in a stone

He lives in a house built of stone.

  1. I have passed several sleepless

I have passed several nights without sleep.

  1. The white used the Ugandan

The white used the railway running through Uganda.

  1. Heroic deeds are worth praises.

Deeds of heroism are worth praises.

  1. Theirs was a brave

Theirs was an act of bravery.

  1. It was a horrible

It was a movie full of horror.

  1. Many Kenyans talk about English

Many Kenyans talk about the league of England.

  1. This teacher is a wealthy

This teacher is a person of great wealth.



  1. In , in Nairobi
  2. On, on Friday night
  3. In, in the kitchen cupboard
  4. Without, without excessively worrying
  5. From, from yesterday’s long exercise
  6. With, with malaria
  7. Without, without difficulty
  8. To, to their hotel comfortably
  9. In his pyjamas
  10. Instead of, instead of porridge
  11. on behalf, on behalf of his friend
  12. in case of, in case of fire
  13. in spite of, in spite of the rains
  14. on, on the whole
  15. in, in general




Exercise 1

  • That you hate him is your own problem.
  • You cannot rely on what David says.
  • It is true that his father has passed on.
  • The news that more than 100 soldiers were killed is a big lie.
  • It was unfortunate that the terrorist escaped.
  • He wondered whether the King learnt of the news.
  • I will punish whoever fails this test.
  • I can give this to whoever pleases me most.

Exercise 2

  1. I wonder how long we should wait for her.
  2. Do you know what the weather will be?
  3. He told me that he would not go.
  4. I don’t know where he has gone.
  5. Moris asked how my family was.



  • I met Akinyi in town. Akinyi is a thief.

I met Akinyi, who is a thief, in town.

  • The man was sick. He looked very pale.

The man who was sick looked very pale.

  • He was sitting in the emergency room. It was very crowded.

The emergency room, where the he was sitting, was very crowded.

  • A nurse was nearby. The man called to her.

The man called the nurse who was nearby.

  • The nurse called the doctor. The doctor came quickly.

The doctor, who was called by the nurse, came quickly.

  • The doctor asked him to lie down. The doctor looked very worried.

The doctor, who looked very worried, asked him to lie down.

  • The doctor gave the man an injection. The injection made him go to sleep.

The doctor gave the man an injection, which made him go to sleep.


  1. She will not forgive you unless you tell her the truth.
  2. We will not pass the exams if we don’t work harder.
  3. If she takes a painkiller, she will feel much better soon.

Unless she takes a painkiller, she will not feel much better soon.

  1. If they will be here next week, they will try to go to Warda’s party.

Unless they will be here next week, they will not try to go to Warda’s party.

  1. Will you go to the party if she sends you an invitation card?




  • Cohesion refers to how a group of sentences “hang together.”
  • Consider the paragraph below:

Some astonishing questions about the nature of the universe have been raised by scientists studying black holes in space. A black hole is created by the collapse of a dead star into a point perhaps no larger than a marble. So much matter compressed into so little volume changes the fabric of space around it in puzzling ways.



  • Transitions are words or phrases that specify a relationship between sentences and between paragraphs.
  • They help direct the reader from one idea to another.
  • Below are some common transitional words:
To Specify Sequenceagain, also, and, and then, besides, finally, first . . . second . . . third, furthermore, last, moreover, next, still, too
To Specify Timeafter a few days, after a while, afterward, as long as, as soon as, at last, at that time, before, earlier, immediately, in the meantime, in the past, lately, later, meanwhile, now, presently, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, then, thereafter, until, when
To Specify Comparisonagain, also, in the same way, likewise, once more, similarly
To Specify Contrastalthough, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the one hand . . . on the other hand, regardless, still, though, yet
To Specify Examplesafter all, for example, for instance, indeed, in fact, of course, specifically, such as, the following example, to illustrate
To Specify Cause and Effectaccordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if . . . then, since, so, then, therefore, thereupon, thus, to this end
To Specify Placeabove, adjacent to, below, beyond, closer to elsewhere, far, farther on, here, near, nearby, opposite to, there, to the left, to the right
To Specify Concessionalthough it is true that, granted that, I admit that, it may appear that, naturally, of course
To Specify Summary, Repetition, or Conclusionas a result, as has been noted, as I have said, as mentioned earlier, as we have seen, in any event, in conclusion, in other words, in short, on the whole, therefore, to summarize


















The Colon

  • The colon expands on the sentence that precedes it, often introducing a list that demonstrates or elaborates whatever was previously stated.


  • There are three things I hate: eating while walking, being late for the lesson, and being abused.
  • She brought various fruits: bananas, mangoes, guavas, and apples.
  • Your problem is one: talking too much.
  • The colon is also used to divide the hour from the minutes in writing a time in English.


  • 12:30
  • 11:10


  • The semicolon is somewhere between a full stop and a comma.
  • Semicolons can be used  to join phrases and sentences that are thematically linked without having to use a conjunction, for example,

I did not go out; it was raining.

Jane is tall; Albert is short.


  • Dashes can be used to add parenthetical statements or comments in much the same way as you would use brackets.
  • In formal writing you should use the bracket rather than the dash as a dash is considered less formal.
  • Dashes can be used to create emphasis in a sentence.
  • He might emerge the winner – you can’t tell..
  • She might come to the party – you never know.





  • We keep track of everything we need to do.
  • Your reminder will help you get things done by including relevant information like phone numbers.
  • A reminder helps one remember important occasions and appointments.

Sample Reminder 1



DATE: 11th February, 2016

TIME: 4.15 p.m.

PLACE: Staffroom

I will be having an appointment in the staffroom with Mr. Kanjira. To carry with me are:

·        Two pens (blue and black)

·        Notebook

I should be punctual.


Sample Reminder 2

                      MY REMINDER

Saturday13th March3.00 pmPschology LecturesRoom 45
Friday19th March2.00 pmAppointment with Dr JamesSt Joseph’s Hospital
Monday22nd March8.00 amGuidance and counselling lessonCollege chapel
Tuesday23rd March4.30 pmShoppingTRM


  • Personal Journals

As discussed earlier.







  • A Thank You Note is thoughtful way to express your gratitude and appreciation for someone who has done something great for you.
  • The note doesn’t have to be long to be meaningful. Your thoughts count more.

Elements of a Thank You Note

  1. Date
  2. Salutation
  3. Personalizing the note. Think of one or two specific instances when you were helped by the person.
  4. Concluding the note. Say thank you again to the person.
  5. Sign

Sample Thank You Note

9th April, 2016


Dear Ms Becky:


I am writing to thank you for everything you did last year to help me prepare for my exams.


I really appreciated when you asked me to be coming to see you whenever I had difficulty in your subject. You also advised me to work harder in class. But more than that, you guided me on how to answer questions in the exams.


All the support you gave me helped me receive the grade I have received. I could have never received anything near this grade without you. Thank you.




Murkomen Abdi









  • We always recognize the accomplishments by others.
  • Writing a congratulatory note adds warmth to the relationships.
  • We write congratulations notes incase of the following achievements:
  • Promotion(job, class)
  • Retirement
  • Graduation
  • New title
  • New job
  • Scholarship
  • Successful speech
  • Birth
  • Engagement
  • Marriage
  • Winning competition

The Dos when Writing Congratulations Note

  • Write soon after hearing the news.
  • Use the word “congratulations” early.
  • Tell the person how impressed you are.
  • Express your wishes for the person’s continued success.

Steps to Writing Congratulatory Note

Writing SalutationThe person might like see their own name written.Dear Aliow,
Offering Congratulations·        Done early.

·        Mention the occasion.

Congratulation on your promotion to deputy principal!
Express your happiness.Tell them how impressed you are.I was thrilled when I heard the news!
Relate the person’s achievement with something.Relate something about the person that could have led to their achievement.Ever since we worked together at Maragua Muslim Girls’ School, I knew you were one of the best. I am very glad that your passion for teaching has been recognised.
Sending wishes for continued success.·        Assure them that there achievement is just one of the many others on nthe way.

·        Wish them the best.

Best of luck in your new position. I hope that this is just the start of the many more successes to come.
Closing·        Add a closing remark.

·        Choose from the list:

(i)               Sincerely,

(ii)             Sincerely yours,

(iii)           Regards,

(iv)            Warm regards,

(v)             Yours Truly,

(vi)            Cordially,

(vii)          Best wishes,

·        Write your name after this

Best Wishes,


Fardoly Mohamed



Juma Maxwel, your elser brother has just got a new job after working in another company for two years. In his new place of work he will be receiving twice the salary he used to be offered in the previous company. Write him a note congratulating him.

  • Condolences Notes
  • Writing a condolence note is not an easy thing to do. This is because we often don’t know what to say. Because of this, we may even put the task off until the time to write has seemingly passed.
  • In a condolence note, we reflect our genuine thoughts and feelings.
  • Keep your message short yet thoughtful.
  • Try as much as possible to mention a fond or funny memory of the deceased if you knew them.

Steps to Writing Condolence Note

  • Introduce your note. Example,

I was deeply saddened when I learned about Joan’s passing.


I was deeply saddened by the news of Joan’s passing.


We are very saddened to hear your recent loss of Joan.

  • Express your condolences, referring to the person’s death as a “loss”. For example,

Please accept my heartfelt sympathies for your loss. My thoughts are with you and your family during this difficult time.

  • Share a short story or memory you have about the deceased. It will allow the bereaved know how much their loved ones meant to you. Probably it will give them a reason to at least smile if not to laugh. If possible, tell them that the deceased will be missed. For example,

Joan was a source of inspiration to me. I will never forget her!


Joan spent her time serving others. I am very grateful o have known her.

If you don’t know the person who has passed, you may say:

I will always remember your stories about…..


I will always remember how much you loved ….

  • Acknowledge the cause of death especially if it comes after a long period of suffering or illness. For example,

I know Joan experienced a great deal of suffering since she was diognosed with cancer. I pray that you find comfort in knowing that she is no longer in any pain.

  • Offer some assistance. Give specific ways in which you would like to help. For example,

In this stressful moment, please let me know whether I can help in any way. I would like to ……….

  • Sum up your note using an appropriate phrase. You can choose from the list below:
  • You are in my thoughts
  • With Deepest Sympathy
  • With Heartfelt Condolences,
  • Thinking of you
  • My sincere sympathy
  • I’m praying for you


Your friend’s sister has passed on following the road accident on the eve of the new year. That same day you spend most of the time with her before she meets her tragedy. Write a note to Angela expressing how you feel about the sudden death of Mary, her sister.





























  • A telegram is a text message sent by wire using Morse code.
  • The codes are transcribed into language and printed.
  • Telegrams can be sent all over the world within a couple of hours.


  1. Wording telegrams
  • The right way of wording is economical, while the wrong way is wasteful.
  • Avoid unnecessary words—words that might be omitted without impairing the sense of the message.


  1. Writing figures
  • The suffixes ‘th’, ‘rd’, ‘nd’ appended to figures are counted as words.
  • Spell the words as ‘fourth’ instead of ‘4th ’etc.
  1. Get rid of small connecting words such as ‘a’, ‘the, etc’.
  2. Make use of sharp sentences and phrases.



Sample Telegram

                           KENYAN POST AND TELEGRAM


Sender’s Name: _______________________________________________-

Sender’s Address: _________________________________________________

Receipient’s Name: ________________________________________________

Receipient’s Address: ______________________________________________


Dear Allan,





Your sister who lives in Chicago, USA, has delivered of a baby girl. Write her a telegram congratulating her on arrival of the new baby.





  • Letters of Application
  • Also known as cover letter, a letter of application is a document sent together with your curriculum vitae to provide additional information on your skills to your prospective employer.
  • Detailed information on why you are qualified for the job should be provided.
  • This letter will let your prospective employer know what position you are applying for.

Letter of Application Format

In the table that follows, all that should be included in a letter of application are captured.

Item Explanation Example
Sender’s Address·        Write the name(yours or an institution’s)

·        Postal address follows.

·        Write the name of the city after.


P.O. BOX 777 – 40400


DateIn full23RD July, 2016
Receiver’s Address·        Start with the position of the recipient.

·        Write the name of the institution.

·        Add the box number.

·        Lastly, write the town or city.

SalutationLet it be formal.
In regards to (written ‘RE’)
First ParagraphHere:

·        Mention the job you are applying for.

·        Mention where you found the listing.

Middle Paragraphs·        Mention why your skills and experience are a good fit for the job.


Last Paragraph·        Say thank you to your recipient for considering your letter.

·        Note how you will follow up.

Signature·        End your letter with your signature.

·        Write your name after it



Sample Letter of Application

                                                                                                           Vijana Werevu High School

P.O. Box 888 – 30200



31ST January, 2016



The Director

Makusudi Secondary School

P.O. Box 434 – 50000



Dear Sir/Madam:




I am writing to express my interest in the position of teaching English and Literature that has arisen with your school and that was listed in the Wednesday Nation on 31st  December, 2015. I believe I am an excellent fit for this position, given a chance. Besides teaching the two, I also teach History and Physical Education. I am a 2013, diploma graduate from Nikufunze Teachers’ Training College.


I am a conscientious person who works hard and pays attention to details. I am also quick to learn new skills as well as to learn from others. I am keen to work for a school with a great reputation like Makusudi Secondary School. I have the enthusiasm and determination to make ensure that I make success  of the position when offered it.


I enjoy training students and helping them build confidence in their ability to achieve, both academically  and socially. In addition, I have computer skills that will be a great asset when developing class resources.


Find my curriculum vitae attached.


Thank you for taking the time to consider this application and I look forward to hearing from you at your earliest convenience.


Yours faithfully,

[sign here]


Seen Later





A job has just been advertised. You have been a doctor for three years. When you see this advert you feel like you have to apply for the job. Write your curriculum vitae you will attached in your letter of application.


  • Synopsis answers the question: What is the story of the novel, play, etc?
  • Just write what happens in the book.
  • Often not long, so try to capture only pertinent details.
  • Go into the detail about the setting.

The River and the Source Synopsis



The novel begins with the birth of a girl child.  ……….………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………



Assume you are the author of “Caucasian Chalk Circle”. The play has not been published. When you ask the publishers to publish it, they tell you to write the synopsis of the play before they consider publishing it. Write its synopsis.














  • A report is a systematic, well organized document which defines a problem, and analyses it.
  • Reports are written following research or study on a currently trending topic.
  • There are short and long reports.
  • A report has sections, and sub sections
  • There are elements found in both the short and the long reports. They include:
  • Heading
  • Here we include things such as:
  • Date
  • Officer to whom the report is presented
  • Committee members (if done as a group)
  • Terms of reference. This is where we write the objective of the study.
  • Methods of data collection. How the information was gathered is discussed here. The different methods of collecting data are use of:
  • Questionnaires
  • Observation
  • Interviews


  • State what you learned.
  • Conclusions
  • State how the findings can help improve the situation.


  • Reports are always:
  • Accurate;
  • Concise;
  • Clear; and
  • Well structured.

Sample Report



The principal asked a group of students to find out the reasons why there is high drop out among girls at Naivasha School. The committee included:

1.      Njagi Cool

2.      Kimotho Macha

3.      Jane Kilonzo

The study started on 3rd February and ended on 10th of the same month.



 The group used different methods to gather the information. The following are the methods used collect data:

(a)   Questionnaire

About five students, among them three girls were issued with questionnaires that they filled with ease. At first they were not ready to do so but when they were assured a token, they were more willing to respond. They took approximately ten minutes each to provide response to the questions and prompts.


(b)   Interviews

One of the committee members, Kimotho Macha, was appointed to lead in interviewing two students. The two students gave several reasons for the high drop out. One of them even wanted to have been included in the committee. The interviews were conducted at the school quadrangle.


(c)    Observation

One week was enough for the committee members to study the other students. It was noted, in the way they talk in small groups, why they drop out. In fact one of the female students left the school before the actual day of submitting this report.  




It was found out that:

(a)    Since most girls are idle during the weekends, they yield to pressure from the fellow students who push them into leaving the school. While at home, majority fail to get admission in other schools.

(b)   Some of the students are not satisfied with the quality of the meals cooked . They feel they don’t match the amount of money they pay.

(c)    Add other two



The committee concluded that:

(a)    Some of the girls do not know how to make use of their free time.

(b)   Some of the students value food more than education services offered at the school.



(a)    The students should be guided on how to benefit from their free time.

(b)   The quality of meals should be improved or at least provide alternative diet to those not satisfied.

Report compiled by: Amos Ngotho


Position:  FORM 2 STUDENT




It has been noted that students at Kinya High abuse drugs. The deputy principal calls you one day and asks you to form a committee to investigate the causes of drug abuse at your school. Write the report to contain:

  • Introduction
  • Three methods of data collection
  • Four findings
  • Four conclusions
  • Four recommendations.


  • The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner.
  • The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following.
  • A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay.

In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way.

  • Clear and logical transitions between the introduction, body, and conclusion.

Without logical progression of thought, the reader is unable to follow the essay’s argument, and the structure will collapse. Transitions should wrap up the idea from the previous section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next section.

  • Body paragraphs that include evidential support.

Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea.

  • Evidential support (whether factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal).

The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view.

  • A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it in light of the evidence provided.

Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of more research that should be completed in light of your work.









  • A notice of meeting is sent to members of a particular group to inform them of the:
  • Time of the meeting
  • Date of the meeting
  • Location of the meeting
  • Information to be discussed. This is where the agenda come.

Writing a Notice of Meeting

To write a good notice of meeting, follow the steps that follow:

  • Write the name of the organization/institution at the top of the page.
  • Write “Notice of Meeting” a few lines down. Write “Notice of Public Meeting” if your meeting will be open to the public.
  • Below write the name of the group.
  • In the body of the notice, include such things like:
  • Time of the meeting
  • Date of the meeting
  • Location of the meeting
  • Agenda of the meeting
  • Any pertinent information
  • Sign off


Sample Notice of Meeting



                                                           DRAMA CLUB


To All Drama Club Members:




This is to inform all members that the club will hold a meeting on 2nd February,2016 from 4.20 p.m. at the school chapel.

The following business will be transacted during this meeting:

·        Preliminaries;

·        Confirmation of previous minutes;

·        Matters arising;

·        Rehearsals for drama festival;

·        Welcoming the trainer;

·        Raising money to buy costumes;

·        Any other business; and

·        Adjournment.

You are requested to be punctual for the meeting and to come with writing materials. Refreshments will be served.


Yours Sincerely

[sign here]

Kijiko Kirefu





You are the school head prefect. You want to call for the urgent  prefects’ meeting.  Notify them of the meeting.



















  • An agenda is the list of activities in a meeting and the order in which they should be taken up.
  • Any organized meeting requires a well written agenda.
  • If the agenda is not clearly written, the result will be that the meeting will become over-long, inefficient, or even slog.
  • Agenda is written and handed to the members participating in a meeting prior to the meeting.
  • Most secretaries prefer including the agenda in the notice of meetings.


Steps to Writing an Agenda

  • Write the name of the institution. If possible, have a the institution letterhead.
  • Give your agenda a title. Write “AGENDA”, “MEETING” and the name of the group to hold the meeting.
  • Include the date, time, and venue of the meeting.
  • Introduce your agenda.
  • List the items to be discussed. Start with preliminaries, then reading and confirmation of previous minutes, followed by matters arising(some people write: unfinished business), then list all the other items to be discussed. From there add “any other business” and lastly, “adjournment”.

Sample Agenda Note to Group Members

                         NIPE NIKUPE MUSLIM BOYS’ HIGH SHOOL

                                   AGENDA OF THE MEETING OF SCOUTS CLUB


TIME: 9.00 AM



There will be the second meeting of the year with the following items to be discussed:

·        Preliminaries

·        Reading and confirmation of previous minutes

·        Matters arising

·        Camping trip

·        Planting flowers

·        Any other business

·        Adjournment



Denis Benjam






  • Minutes of what is discussed is written soon after the meeting.
  • During the meeting, the secretary only takes notes.
  • Minutes are the official records of a group in an organization.
  • It is crucial that they be accurate as they are legal record of the proceedings of that group.

Minutes Format

HeadingThe heading comprise:

·        Name of the group;

·        Date of the meeting;

·        Time of the meeting; and

·        Place where the meeting was held.

PresentWe write the names of all the members present here.
Not Present·        Members who fail to attend the meeting.

·        At times they are classified first, as Absent with Apology, then, as Absent.

·        In other organizations, secretaries only write “Members Absent”. They write in brackets “Pre-Arranged” for those who send their regrets.

·        Either ways seem acceptable.

In AttendanceName(s) of people who attend the meeting but are non members of the group are written under this.
Preliminaries·        It is the introductory remark made before the meeting.

·        Included are prayers, welcoming members by the chair, and congratulating members on being punctual.

Confirmation of Previous MinutesWe include:

·        Reading of the minutes;

·        Confirmation of the minutes by a member, and seconding by another;

·        Approval of the minutes.

Matters Arising·        Problems or questions arising from the previous meeting are discussed here.

·        It is also referred to as “unfinished business”.

New BusinessKey to be captured are:

·        The issue discussed as a problem.

·        The solution reached.

Any other BusinessSubjects that members mention after the main subjects have been discussed. Not discussed exhaustively as the main ones.
AdjournmentWhen meeting ends. Date and time of the next meeting is usually announced.
Approval of Minutes·        The minutes of one meeting are normally approved at the next meeting.

·        Once approved both the secretary and the chair append their signatures.


Sample Minutes






1.      Noisemaker Awuor – Chair

2.      Beaker Laboraory – Secretary

3.      Catherine Njagi – Treasurer

4.      Sukuma Wiki – Member

5.      Kijiko Povu

6.      Jemimah Akinyi

7.      Jeremy Kanyari


1.      Alot Manumu

2.      Kiny Abiro


Kibaki Akello – Club Patron

MIN 1/2/2016: Preliminaries


Meeting was called to order at 4.01 pm by the club chair. She welcomed all members and congratulated everyone on keeping time.


MIN 2/2/2016: Confirmation of the Previous Minutes


Minutes from the meeting on 12th January, 2016 was read. It was confirmed as the true records of what was transacted by Annabel and seconded by Felix Kimutai. It was therefore approved without modification.


MIN 3/2/2016: Matters Arising

1.      A member wanted the date for commencing trees planting be announced.

2.      A member asked that drinks should be served whenever a meeting is held.

MIN 4/2/2016: Registration of New Members


It was discussed that new members was to be registered. This was a result of many students who had completed school last year. Registration was to start in a week’s time. Each new member was to pay sum of sh. 250 before being registered.

MIN 5/2/2016: Trip to Mau Forest


Members discussed the trip to Mau Forest scheduled for 1st March. Each registered member was requested to remit their Sh. 300 contribution through the club patron before the end of February. A member requested that the school management be asked to assist in making the trip a success.


Other things to carry included:

·        Toiletries

·        Snacks

·        Enough clothing

MIN 6/2/2016: Any Other Business

1.      A member asked whether new members were eligible to visit the Mau Forest.

2.      A member wanted to know when the rabbits owned by the club could be sold in order to supplement their budget for the trip.

MIN 9/2/2016: Adjournment

12th March,2016 5.00 pm and school refectory were fixed as the date, time and place for the next meeting.  There being no other business, the meeting was adjourned at 6.13 pm.




                                                 SECRETARY                                                            CHAIRPERSON

NAME             …………………………………………………………………….  ………………………………………………………………

SIGN                …………………………………………………………………….   ……………………………………………………………..

DATE               ……………………………………………………………………..  ………………………………………………………………



















  • A memorandum is a brief written message sent from one person or department, to another person or a group in an organization.
  • A memo has twofold purpose:
  • It brings attention to a problem; and
  • It solves that problem.
  • They inform the reader about new information such as price increases, or by persuading them to take an action.

Memo Format

Institution/Organization’s NameIf possible add the letterhead.HABA NA HABA MIXED SECONDARY SCHOOL
Heading·        State that this is a memorandum.

·        The words “internal memo” are usually written then underlined.

Internal Memo
ReferenceWritten differently depending on the organization.Ref 3/2015
“To” field·        Write the job title of the person you are sending the memo.TO: All Teachers
“Cc” field·        Indicate who will receive a “Courtesy Copy” of the memo.

·        It is directed to a person who should remain informed.

CC: Principal
“From” fieldWrite your job title.FROM: The Deputy Principal
DateWrite the complete date, spelling out the monthDATE:11th January,2016 or

DATE: January 11th, 2016

“Subject” field·        It is a line that gives the reader an idea of what the memo is about.

·        Be specific but concise.

Body·        Two issues are discussed: the problem and the solution.

·        Introduce the problem in the first paragraph.

·        Give the solution to the problem in the second paragraph. Suggest the actions that should be taken.

·        The third paragraph(normally the last) close the memo with a positive and warm summary.

As of 3rd August, 2015, only two teachers had submitted the end of term two examination results. The results were supposed to have entered into the computer by 3rd.


You are requested to increase your speed in marking the remaining papers. Before 7th of this month, ensure you have entered the marks.


We will be glad to see all that done by the newly set deadline. We wish all the best as you work towards meeting that deadline.

Signing off·        Sign

·        Write your name

Yours Sincerely,


Mr. Mamboga Japheth



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