This English Revision questions and marking schemes pamphlet is a compilation of 2021 KCSE English Paper one examinations from across the Country.

The development of this booklet has taken time and hardwork on the side of the Department of Languages members. It is hoped that this pamphlet will help our 2021 KCSE candidates acquaint themselves with the KSCE English paper one setting and the necessary techniques of answering questions in the same paper.

I take this opportunity to wish our students all the best as they prepare for their final high school examinations. Please put your best foot forward.

Best wishes,


Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education







“You have read the novel “The Blossoms of The savannah” and really enjoyed and are now ready to tackle it in K.C.S.E. You overheard some of your friends in form three complaining that it should not been included as one of the texts to be done in K.C.S.E

Write a book review encouraging them to read since it will be examined in their year.


      Fill in the blank space with the most appropriate words.

A new research title “Underage Drinking in Kenya” has (1) _______________   that nearly one third of form four students aged below 18 years take alcohol (2) _________________. As our society ponders this sad (3) __________________, the urgent message to children who are taking alcohol

(4) ______________, do not drink another sip. Advice to those children is to strongly say “no.”

(5) _________________ irresponsible behavior to alcoholism, there are many (6) _____________                  effects of alcohol. It is wrong and illegal for children to drink alcohol.

The report also states that 46 percent of the children receive (7) ________________    first pint from friends and (8) _________________    .Do you offer alcohol to child? As a parent or guardian, do you nurture (9) _______________    ? How much time do you spend with them? Notably, (10)  __________                 of guidance and supervision are stimuli to underage drinking.



(a)  Read the following poem and answer the questions that follow.


Ah, Are you digging on my grave?

“Ah, are you digging on my grave,

My loved one?- planting rue?”

“No ; yesterday ‘he went  to wed ‘

One of the brightest wealth has bred.

‘It cannot hurt her now,” he said,

“ That I should not be true.


“Then who is digging on my grave?

My nearest dearest kin?”

“Ah, no: they sit and think, ‘what us!

What good will planting flowers produce?

No tendance of her mound can loose

Her spirit from Deaths gin;”



(a)  (i)    Supposing you were to perform this poem to your class how would you prepare?                                                                                                                         (3marks)

(ii)   How would you say line two stanza 1 and why?                                                                                                                                                                              (2marks)

(iii)  Identify an instance of alliteration in stanza 1                                                                                                                                                                                  (1mark)

(iv)  Describe the rhyme scheme of stanza 2                                                                                                                                                                                           (2marks)

  1. b) For each of the following words, provide another word with similar pronunciation            (4marks)

(i)   gate

(ii)  bread

(iii) you

(iv) rest

  1. c) You recently attended an interview which you failed. Mention some of the reasons that could have contributed to your failure.                                           (4 marks)
  2. d) Mutiso recently brokered a deal for your school with a contractor which other teachers given the responsibility before had failed to negotiate. What skills could have given Mr. Mutiso an upper hand over teachers in negotiating the deal.                                                                                                                                  (5marks)
  3. e) Study the following genre and answer the questions that follow.

Hurry hurry has no blessing

(i)   Identify the genre                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (1mark)

(ii)  Identify and name two parts of the above genre                                                                   (2marks)

(iii) Identify and illustrate any two aspects of style employed in the above genre                         (4marks)

  1. f) For each of the following words, construct two sentences to convey two different meaning as indicated


(i)    early (as an adverb and as an adjective)

(ii)   Surprise (as a noun and as a verb)



Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education




  1. Must have a layout of a review.

(i)   Format:

Heading – Book Review                  (1mk)

Title                                               (1mk)

Author                                           (1mk)

Publisher                                        (1mk)

Year of publication                   (1mk)

Reviewer                                        (1mk)

(ii)  Body:

  • The candidate should be able to at least capture the main character(s) – as he /she brings out the plot and thematic concern(s) in the novel.                                       (3mks)
  • The candidate should bring out some styles used in the poem                  (2 mks)
  • The candidate should show the strength and weaknesses of the work of art                         (2 mks)
  • The candidate should conclude by encouraging the form threes to read the novel since it is one of the examinable text.                         (1mk)

(ii) Language                                                                                                                                             (5 mks)

  1.      CLOZE TEST.



  1. Shown
  2. regularly
  3. revelation
  4. is
  5. From
  6. negative
  7. their
  8. relative
  9. them
  10. lack.



a    (i)

  • read the poem to myself to understand it.
  • recite the poem in front of a mirror
  • As my classmates to observe as I rehearse my performance.
  • Decide on the intonation I would use at what point.
  • Decide on when and where to use gestures.
  • Ask myself and decide on the pace of delivery                                                                        (any 3 x1=4 mks)
  1. ii) With a rising intonation – it is a yes / no question

iii)  Went to wed

  1. iv) a, bcccb – irregular rhyme
  2. b) i)    gate – gait
  3. ii) bread – bred

iii)  you – ewe

  1. iv) rest – wrest
  2. c)
  • Lateness
  • Lack of etiquette
  • Improper dressing
  • Poor research / preparedness
  • Lack of confidence / obvious show of nervousness
  1. d)
  • Good listening skills
  • ability to quickly and accurately grasp the issues at stake
  • ability to comprehend the conflicting views of a matter
  • Capacity to assimilate, interpret and use figures and facts in a manner to support a given view.
  • determining the bottom line beyond which he couldn’t go
  • Exercise patience and restraint
  • Ability to extract information without being offensive
  • Maintain confidentiality       (5 x 1 =5 mks)
  1. e) i)    proverb                                                                                                                   (1 mk)
  2. ii) hurry hurry has no blessings,                                                                            (2 mks)

Proposition    competition


  • Repetition – hurry hurry
  • Alliteration hurry hurry has
  1. f) i)  We went home early. (adverb)

The early bird catches the worm. (adjective)                                                                  (2 mks)

  1. ii) It was a surprise that he came to my wedding. (noun)

I will surprise you one of these days, (verb)                                                                   (2 mks)





September 2021.                                                                                                                           

ENGLISH – Form 4

Paper 1

(Functional Skills)


You are the manager of Quick Safaris Transport Company. Of late you’ve realized that the workers, mainly drivers and conductors have lost discipline, and this has made the company incur a lot of loss.

  1. Write an internal memo to them, warning them of dire consequences if they do not change their behaviour and attitude.

Some of the areas you wish to address are:

  1. Punctuality
  2. Foul language
  • Lack of courtesy
  1. Policy bribery
  2. Any other relevant area from your observation

(13 marks)

  1. Design a Card inviting the workers to a motivational talk with an aim of changing their behaviour and attitude. (7 marks)


  1. Close text.                                                      (10marks)

Read the passage below and fill in each blank space with an appropriate word.

Poaching is increasing (1)  ____________________ a menace, not just in Kenya, (2) _______________ also in other parts of the continent, (3) _________________ a grave danger to the survival of various animal species particularly the elephant. Whereas, there have been (4) ___________________  to raise awareness about the danger posed by the menance, not enough has been done to (5)______________ it out and punish offenders.

As it is, poaching is becoming a crisis, threatening species like elephants, which are hunted (6) ____________ for their ivory, rhinos which are targeted because of their horns and other game like lions.

The Kenya Wildlife Service has been doing well to combat (7) _____________  but it appears that more is needed if the criminals (8) _______________ to be stopped. If the killers have more sophisticated weaponry, then KWS must (9) _____________ its game or call (10) _________________ the military to assist.


  1. Oral Skills (30 marks)
  2. a)  Read the following oral narrative and answer the questions that follow.                                  (10mks)

One day, the chameleon and the donkey were arguing as to who could run faster than the other. The donkey said, “You chameleon, you are very old and tired. You can’t compete with a man like me in a race.”  The chameleon replied,” Don’t blow your own trumpet. I am not going to praise myself, but you know you can’t defeat me in a race. We shall be equal.”

The race began and without donkey’s knowledge, the chameleon jumped on the donkey’s tail. They ran and ran, until the donkey was so tired until he stopped to rest. As soon as the donkey stopped, the chameleon jumped from the donkey’s tail and said, “Now my friend, are you any faster than I?”

“No, now I know that you are a man,” answered the poor donkey.

  1. What would you do in order to capture the attention of the audience before you begin to tell the story?                                                                                                   (2 marks)
  2. How would you make the narration of the line indicated in bold effective?    (4marks)
  • If you are part of the audience for this story, explain two things you would do to show that you are participating in the performance. Identify the intonation that would be present in the following sentences                                                                                          (4mks)
  • What idea did the three work on? …………………………………………………………………………………
  • Did you see the students? ………………………………………………………………………………..
  • I have donated more blood …………………………………………………………………………………
  • The tapper taps much, doesn’t he?       …………………………………………………………………………………
  1. Put the words below in the correct column according to the pronunciation of the vowel sound (Night, school, floor, write, you, oar)                                                 (3mks)
1.          /ai/ 2.          /u:/ 3.         /    :/
  1. Give a word with a similar pronunciation (4 marks)
  2. Muscle ………………………………………..
  3. Owe …………………………………………..
  • Rain ……………………………………………
  1. Which …………………………………………..
  2. Scent ……………………………………………
  3. A boy went home after a street fight and narrated what happened to his father.

“Didn’t I warn you against fighting? See you have now lost two front teeth!”Barked the angry man.

To this, the boy retorted, “I didn’t lose my teeth Dad. Both are in my pocket.”

  1. Classify the item above.                                   (1 marks)
  2. What kind of audience is best for this type of item? (1 mark)
  • How would the audience respond to this item (1 mark)
  1. Identify one function of this sub-genre in society. (1 mark)
  2. The following is a conversation between a father and his daughter. Identify six shortcomings in the father’s listening skills. (6mks)

DAUGHTER: (Shortly after having arrived home from school) Good afternoon, Daddy.

FATHER:        (Sitting complacently in the sofa, reading a newspaper. Looking up……..)

Good afternoon.(Resumes reading).

DAUGHTER: (Holding out her school report form) Daddy, I’m excited. My classteacher said

I was the best improved.  I was…

FATHER:        Oh, you were? Me, I used to be number one. I was absolutely unbeatable.

DAUGHTER:  Chemistry has been a particular headache (now looking at the report form which she

                         thought her father would wan see), but this time…

FATHER:        (Stretching his arms, looking preoccupied)

Chemistry for me was particularly easy.

I never scored anything less than 90%.

DAUGHTER: Dad, I was going to tell you that this time…

FATHER:        (Absent-mindedly) By the way, where is your mum?

DAUGHTER: Mum is in the garden picking vegetables. But Dad, you are not listening to my story.

I was   telling you about Chemistry.

FATHER:        You mean you have a story about Chemistry? Chemistry is not about stories. It is hard


DAUGHTER: It’s about my improvement…

FATHER:        (Laughing) Me, it wasn’t a matter of improvement. I was always at the top of the class.

DAUGHTER: Daddy, I give up. You are not listening.

FATHER:        (looking surprised) Listening? I heard you: you were talking about improvement in

Chemistry, weren’t  you?

DAUGHTER:  Anyway, Dad. Thank you for paying attention. Enjoy your newspaper.

FATHER:       Oh, yes  I’m reading an interesting story about politics.




September 2021.                                                                                                                           

ENGLISH – Form 4

  1. Internal Memo.. POINTS OF INTERPRETATION            (12 MKS)


Sample Memo











Format         F = 4

Content        C =5

Language      = 3


  1. Sample Card




















The Manager,

Quick Safaris Transport Co. Ltd,     OR

P.O BOX 10000-111101


TEL NO: 0727722700









Format    F = 2

Content   C =3

Tone       T  =1

Borders  B = 1



2.. Cloze test                                       (10 Marks)


  1. becoming
  2. but
  3. posing
  4. attempts/efforts
  5. stamp
  6. down
  7. poaching
  8. are
  9. up
  10. in



  1. a. Narrative      (8 marks)
  2. What would you do in order to capture the attention of the audience before you begin to tell this story?                                                                                                                                     (2 marks)

Ask a relevant question to audience- who is faster between a donkey and a chameleon.

Sing an appropriate/ related song.

Give an appropriate proverb, riddle or puzzle.

Clap to attract attention

Clear your voice

Call the name of one of the people in the audience etc.

  1. Explain the verbal and non-verbal cues you would use to make a narration of the line indicated in bold effective. (4 marks)
  2. Tonal variation – use an authoritative arrogant tone to show the donkey’s confidence.
  3. Voice projection- raise your voice towards the end of the sentence.
  4. Gestures – Donkey can point at the chameleon threateningly
  5. Facial expressions – Show a bright face of confidence arrogance etc.(Accept 2 verbal and 2 non-verbal appropriately illustrated)
  • If you were part of the audience for this story, explain two things you would do to show that you are participating in the performance. (2 marks)
  • Maintain eye contact
  • Nod In agreement
  • Answer any question regarding the story by the narrator during narration
  • Laugh at funny instances
  • Respond to narrator’s use of tonal variation, gestures, facial expressions etc.
  • Ask questions at the end


  1. (i)   Falling                        (4 marks)

(ii)  Rising

(iii) Falling

(iv) Rising


  1. /ai/ /u:/                   /Э:/                  (3 marks)

Night               School              Floor

Write                You                  Oar



  1. similar sounding words. (5 marks)
  2. muscle – mussel
  3. Owe- Ore
  • Rain- reign
  1. which- witch
  2. Scent- sent



  1. Joke     (1mk)


  1. Children (1 mark)

iii.. laugh at the joke    (1 mark)

iv.. Entertainment/ Creativity   (1 mark)


  1. The father does not prepare to listen, i.e does not adopt a listening posture.
  2. He interrupts severally i.e does not adhere to the turn-taking rule.
  • He is not emphathetic – he does not put himself in the shoes of his daughter in order appreciate where she is coming from.
  1. He is full of self-importance / self-praise. This prevents him from reaching out to his daughter.
  2. He is absent-minded – he changes the topic abruptly thus interrupting the flow of the conversation.
  3. He has pre-conceived ideas about Chemistry. He doesn’t give the daughter a chance to explain herself.
  • He is unwilling to see his own shortcomings as far as listening skills are concernrd.

e.g he says, “I heard you” – he believes he was listening.

  • He is insensitive – he does not realize he has hurt his daughter by not listening to her.

       (Any 6 points ×1=6pnts)








Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

101/1  ENGLISH  Paper 1

September 2021

(Functional Skills)

  1. FUNCTIONAL WRITING.                                                                                           (20 marks)
  • Your brother who has been studying abroad is coming home and the family has organised a party. Write an e-mail inviting two of your friends; Sabina and Kioko and copy your brother who is organising. (10 Marks)

(b) Your friend Sabina is flying into the country from Addis Ababa Airport-Ethiopia. Write clear

directions on how she can come to your home.                                                                    (10 marks)

  1. CLOZE TEST       (10 marks)

      Fill in the blanks with the most suitable word.

The purchasing of a motor vehicle or (1) _________________ a driving licence is a satisfying achievement for most Kenyans.  Few, however, (2) _______________ that their achievement can, and (3) __________________ does, amount to a passport to prison.  A driver in prison?   Yes, an individual can be (4) __________________ to jail even when he is not driving.

To curb the increasing (5) ______________________ of accidents in the country, the courts are taking a very (6) _________________view and as a result sentences are being (7) __________________   including imprisonment.

Under the (8) _________________________ Act, any person who causes the death of another, be it a passenger in the driver’s car or a( 9) _________________ crossing the road, or another motorist, by reckless driving or speeding or even leaving any vehicle on a road in such a position as to be dangerous can be (10 ) ______________________ for the offence of causing death.


  1. ORAL SKILLS (30 marks)
  2. a)  Read the following oral narrative and answer the questions that follow.                                  (10mks)

One day, the chameleon and the donkey were arguing as to who could run faster than the other. The donkey said, “You chameleon, you are very old and tired. You can’t compete with a man like me in a race.”

The chameleon replied,” Don’t blow your own trumpet. I am not going to praise myself, but you know you can’t defeat me in a race. We shall be equal.”

The race began and without donkey’s knowledge, the chameleon jumped on the donkey’s tail. They ran and ran, until the donkey was so tired until he stopped to rest. As soon as the donkey stopped, the chameleon jumped from the donkey’s tail and said, “Now my friend, are you any faster than I?”

“No, now I know that you are a man,” answered the poor donkey.

  1. What would you do in order to capture the attention of the audience before you begin to tell the story?                                                                                                                                      (2 marks)
  2. How would you make the narration of the line indicated in boldeffective?    (4marks)
  3. If you are part of the audience for this story, explain two things you would do to show that you are

participating in the performance.                                                                                                                                                  (4marks)

  1. b) For each of the following words write another that is pronounced the same.                                                                                          (3 marks)
  2. Quay ………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………….
  3. Seed   …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

iii.    Not ……………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………..

  1. c)   There is need to light a night light on a light night like tonight.
  2. i)         Identify the above genre.                                                                                         (1 Mark)
  3. ii) Give two functions of the genre.                                                                             (2 Marks)
  4. d) For each of the following words, write two sentences to bring out two different meanings.       (4 Marks)
  5. i)    Polish
  6. ii) Intimate
  7. e) Imagine you have passed your K.C.S.E exams well and you are being interviewed for a scholarship abroad. Write four ways in which you would ensure you succeed in the interview. (4 Marks)
  8. f) Complete the following conversation appropriately


Delphine:         (Telephone rings), Hello, …………………………………………………………

Trevor ………………………………………………………………………………………              (1 mark)

Delphine:         I’m sorry. Ms Oketch is in a conference out of town. Could you kindly leave a

message for her?

Trevor:                ………………………..…………………………………………………………… (1 mark)

Delphine:         Sorry, I didn’t get the last two digits of the number.

Trevor:             ……………………………………………………………………………………..   (1 mark)

Delphine:             …………………………………………………………………………………….. (1 mark)

Trevor:             Correct.

Delphine             ………………………………………………………………………..…………… (1 mark)

Trevor:             Yes, let him know I’ll be expecting his call.

Delphine:         Okay, goodbye.

Trevor:             ……………………….…………………………………………………………….   (1 mark)


101/1 ENGLISH Paper 1

Marking Scheme

  1. Functional Writing
  2. a) Must be an email.

Format should include the following:

  • From: sender’s email address (1/2 )
  • To: recipients email address (1/2 *2)
  • c: (1/2)
  • Date: relevant dates(1/2)
  • Subject: (relevant subject related to invitation) (1)
  • Closing tag: name – not full names (1/2)

Total 4 marks


  • Polite invitation (1 mark)
  • Occasion (1 mark)
  • Date, time, venue (2 marks)

Total 4 marks


  • Appropriate /correct language use.
  • Appropriate tone Total 2 marks
  1. b) Award a mark for each of the following:
  • The heading-Directions to the venue
  • Mention airport of origin
  • Mention the destination airport
  • Mention mode of transport (accept any mode of transport). E.g. by Kenya Airways bound for JKIA and Matatu Number 6 plying the Jogoo road route.
  • distance/duration
  • Permanent landmarks. Eg Bus stops or buildings. Don’t award temporal landmarks.
  • Turnings-turn right or left

Language                                                                           (3 marks)

  • Award for clear and precise instructions
  • Award for appropriate register eg. Board a plane etc.
  • Award for logical flow of directions


  1. obtaining
  2. realise
  3. often
  4. send
  5. rate
  6. serious
  7. imposed
  8. Traffic
  9. pedestrian
  10. convicted



  1. Narative
  2. What would you do in order to capture the attention of the audience before you begin to tell this story?                                     (2 marks)

Ask a relevant question to audience- who is faster between a donkey and a chameleon.

Sing an appropriate/ related song.

Give an appropriate proverb, riddle or puzzle.

Clap to attract attention

Clear your voice

Call the name of one of the people in the audience etc.

  1. Explain the verbal and non-verbal cues you would use to make a narration of the line indicated in bold effective. (4 marks)
  2. Tonal variation – use an authoritative arrogant tone to show the donkey’s confidence.
  3. Voice projection- raise your voice towards the end of the sentence.
  4. Gestures – Donkey can point at the chameleon threateningly
  5. Facial expressions – Show a bright face of confidence arrogance etc.(Accept 2 verbal and 2 non-verbal appropriately illustrated)
  6. If you were part of the audience for this story, explain two things you would do to show that you are participating in the performance. (4 marks)
  • Maintain eye contact
  • Nod In agreement
  • Answer any question regarding the story by the narrator during narration
  • Laugh at funny instances
  • Respond to narrator’s use of tonal variation, gestures, facial expressions etc.
  • Ask questions at the end
  1. For each of the following words write another that is pronounced the same. ( 3 marks)

quay                 key

seed                  cede

not                   knot

  1. There is need to light a night light on a light night like tonight.
  2. Identify the above genre. (1 Mark)

Tongue twister

  1. Give two functions of the genre. (2 Marks)
  2. Entertainment – cause humour and amusement because they are spoken rapidly
  3. Used to teach good pronunciation
  • Trains in memory skills/develops one ability to recite
  1. Trains language skills i.e fluency as it requires a speaker to utter without hesitation or faltering the sentences provided

v )         Educates on the society in question as images and items used reflect a particular community

(any 2 points 1 mark each)

  1. For each of the following words, write two sentences to bring out two different meanings            (4 Marks)


  1. The soldier was ordered to polish his boots.
  2. He used the wrong colour of polish because he had no otherwise. /She is Polish.(Adjective)


  1. Jara has become an intimate friend
  2. Intimate to him that the guests will arrive early (1 mark each)
  3. Imagine you have passed your K.C.S.E exams well and you are being interviewed for a scholarship abroad. Write four ways in which you would ensure your success in the interview. (4 Marks)

Consider 2 points before and during the interview

  • be punctual
  • be modestly/appropriately dressed
  • be courteous
  • answer politely even to rude questions/uncomfortable questions
  • avoid exaggeration of courteous statements
  • avoid pleading
  • do not show tension (4 points 1 mark each)
  1. f) Complete the following conversation

            Trevor:            Could I speak to Mr. Oketch, please?

            Trevor:            Tell him Delphine called in regard to ………….. (leave a number)

Trevor:            The number is ……………..(give number again)

Delphine:         You mean ………..(repeat number)

Delphine:         Anything else?

Trevor:            Goodbye




Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education



Imagine that you are the Organizing Secretary of Virginia Mwende’s Graduation Party. Mwende has graduated with a First Class Honours Degree from the University of Nairobi.

  1. Design an invitation card to be sent to the guests                   (12mks)
  2. Write a congratulatory note to Mwende to be presented on that day       (8mks)


Read the passage below and fill in each blank space with an appropriate word                                        

Alcohol impacts people and societies in different (1)__________________ and is determined by the (2) _________________ of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking, and, on rare occasions, the quality of alcohol (3)_________________.  Alcohol is a psychoactive substance and its harmful use is known (4) _________________________ have dependence – producing properties and cause (5) ____________________ than 200 diseases among drinkers as well as devastating effects to innocent victims such as unborn children.


Drinking alcohol (6)_______________________ pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, preterm birth, still birth, spontaneous abortion, and contribute to a range of disabilities known  (7) ____________________ foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD is an umbrella term (8) _______________________ to an array of conditions involving impairments of the growth and development of the central  (9)______________________ system caused by (10) ________________ intake during pregnancy.

(Adapted from DN2 – The Daily Nation 19th May 2021)



Read the poem and answer the questions that follow.




I see his blood upon the rose,

And in the stars the glory of his eyes,

His body gleams amid eternal snows,

His tears fall from the skies.

I see his face in every flower;

The thunder and the singing of the birds

Are but his voice – and carven by his power

Rocks are his written words


All pathways by his feet are worn,

His strong heart stirs the ever beating sea

His crown of thorns is twined with every thorn,

His cross is every tree.


  1. Describe the rhyme scheme of the poem                         (2mks)
  2. Which words would you stress in the last two lines of the last stanza and why?             (2mks)
  • Apart from rhyme, identify and illustrate one sound device in this poem                         (2mks)
  1. Give two effects of the above sound pattern             (2mks)
  2. How would you say the last line of the poem             (2mks)
  3. b) For each of the following words, underline the silent letters
  • Juice
  • Solemn
  • Island (3mks)
  1. c) Identify the intonation that would be present in the following sentences       (4mks)
  • What deal did the two agree on?
  • Did you see the summary?
  • I have donated more blood
  • The farmer harvests much, doesn’t he?
  1. d) Give the meaning of the following sentences when the underlined words are stressed.
  • James was humbled by the experience
  • James was humbled by the experience
  • James was humbled by the experience

e).  Put the words below in the correct column according to the pronunciation of the vowed sound (Night, school, floor, write, you, oar)                                                                                                                 (3mks)


1.          /ai/ 2.          /u:/ 3.         /    :/


  1. Your former primary school has invited you to give a talk on how to improve performance. You decide to focus your talk on the value of listening skills. Write down three points on how you would ensure the listening is effective                                                                                                                                (3mks)
  2. There were two candidates for an interview. One was successful while the other one was not.  State and explain his/her conducts during the interview that could have made him or her to be successful.              (4mks)







  1. Functional Writing
  • Invitation Card
  • Format 2mks
  • Inset 1mk
  • Letterhead 1mk
  • Title (1/2 mk) and space for recipient’s name (1/2 mk) 1mk
  • Sader’s address (R.S.V.P)         1mk
  • Tone – must be formal 1mk
  • Content 3mks
  • Time ½ mk
  • Venue 1mk
  • Date ½ mk
  • Chief guest 1mk
  • Language

A – Script                                 4mks

B – Script                                 3mks

C – Script                                 2mks

D – Script                                 1mk

  • Congratulatory note
  • Inset 1mk
  • Date 1mk
  • Salutation 1mk
  • Writer 1mk


  • Must be informal



  • Congratulation / or related word mentioned
  • Reasons for congratulation
  • Compliment remarks


  1. Ways
  2. Volume
  3. Consumed
  4. To
  5. More
  6. During
  7. As
  8. Referring
  9. Nervous
  10. Alcohol


  • (i) Rhyme scheme – ababcdcdefef – The rhyme scheme is regular

(ii)  Line 1 crown thorns twined thorn Line 2 cross tree – They are content words

(iii) Alliteration:                  Stanza 2 Line 1 face flower

Stanza 3 Line 2 strong stirs sea

Assurance:                    Stanza 1 Line 8 his written (i)

Consonance:                 Stanza 1 Line 8 Rocks…his…words

Stanza 2 Line 3 Crown… thorn

Identification  – 1 mk

Illustration – 1mk

    • Creation of rhythm / musicality
  • Memorability
  • Makes the poem enjoyable
  • Creates mood (2 points = 2 mks)
  • With a falling intonation use a gesture 1 point every tree
  • (i)         i

(ii)        n

(iii)       s

  • (i)         Falling

(ii)        Rising

(iii)       Falling

(iv)       Rising


  • (i)         Not anyone else, but the subject mentioned (James)

(ii)        Not made arrogant but humbled

(iii)       It was the experience not any other thing

  • /ai/                   /u:/                   /Э:/

Night               School              Floor

Write                You                  Oar


  • Involve  the audience fully by asking them questions
  • Vary the tone of voice
  • Be properly groomed
  • Use language that is of the level of the listeners
  • Use gestures to emphasize on some points
  • Be audible (Any 3 points x 1 = 3mks)
  • The successful candidate must have done the following:
  • Prepared adequately before coming for the interview
  • Read something about the place or institution that he/she was being interviewed
  • Was properly dressed/groomed
  • Arrived in time for the interview
  • Carried all the required documents
  • Had documents that were genuine
  • Demonstrated etiquette to the interviewers (Any 4 points x 1 = 4mks)





Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

101/1  ENGLISH  Paper 1

(Functional Skills)


FUNCTIONAL WRITING                                                                                                      (20MKS)

You are the secretary of Debating Club in your school, recently the club held a meeting and the following issues were discussed;

  • Election of officials
  • Income generating activities in the club
  • Preparation for the great debate.

In the meeting, 8 members were present, 3 including the vice chairperson sent apologies and the whereabouts of 2 members were unknown. The club patron also attended the meeting. Apart from the main issues, members raised some issues from the previous meeting. Write down the minutes of the meeting.


CLOZE TEST                                                                                                                         10 MARKS

There is this bizarre preoccupation with  1…………………………   class among us such

2…………………………. what happened at Langa’ta was bound to happen. Our greed 3……………………… wealth and standing considers nothing sacred, nothing immoral, nothing offensive to everyone, which is why some people were wondering why the children were protesting 4……………………… they were supposed to be in class! Our preoccupation with private academies for our children is partly what made the “private developer” target public school 5…………………….., only that for the “developer’”, the police who came to secure the interests of one against many used tear gas on children.

If most of us decided to 6………………………. our children to public schools and worked collectively to make them better, chances are this particular “private developer” and many 7………………………..  would avoid school land for fear of reaction. But many of us have 8………………………. to this mess by avoiding public facilities— schools, hospitals 9………………………. even parks — because using them does not speak 10……………………..of our social standing.


ORAL SKILLS                                            30 MARKS

a). Read the following poem and then answer the questions that follow.      (8marks)

The  Bride.

Why do you wear that dress so white?

Why do you wear that veil so light?

Why do your young eyes shine so bright?

Is it your wedding?


I wear dress and veil to show

That gladly to my love I go

My young eyes shine because I know

It is my wedding.


(i)      Identify the rhyme scheme of this poem?                                                                            (2 marks)

(ii)     Using illustrations show how rhythm has been achieved in the poem.                                  (3 marks)

(iii)    Would you use the rising or the falling intonation in reading line 3 in stanza one in this poem? Give reason.                                                                                                                                     (1 mark)

(iv)    How would you say the last line of the second stanza?                                                                     (2 marks)

b). Identify the silent letters in the following words                                                                       (6 marks)

  1. Practically
  2. Ballet
  • Bristle
  1. Guilt
  2. Baguette
  3. Psychotic

c). Underline the stressed syllables in the following words.                                                             (3marks)

  1. Palatial
  2. Rejuvenation
  • Police

d). Underline the stressed syllable of the following words when used as verbs.                                 (2marks)

  1. Ridicule
  2. Suspect

e). You are going to attend an interview for your first job in a bank. You want to look presentable to create a good

impression. What would you do before and during the occasion to achieve this?                         (4marks)

f).   Complete the telephone conversation below between a parent and a student acting as a receptionist at her school.

Mrs. Wanjau: ………………………………………………………………………………               1mark

Joan: Hallo. Yes, this is Makutano High School. How can I help you?

Mrs. Wanjau: ………………………………………………………………………………….…… ………………………………………………………………………………………………              2marks

Joan: I am sorry the Principal is not in at the moment. Can you leave a message?

Mrs. Wanjau:………………………………………………………………………………                1mark

Joan: I am Joan, a form 4 student stepping in for the receptionist who has gone out shortly.

Mrs. Wanjau: ………………………………………………………………………………               1mark

Joan: Yes once in a while students of office practice and typing are allowed to step in for the receptionist as part of their practice.

Mrs. Wanjau: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………              2marks

Joan: Thank you very much. I will let the Principal know that you will call tomorrow.



ENGLISH 101/1   



FORMART                             8marks

Heading: Minutes of Debating Club… must have purpose, venue, date and time @ ½ mk (2mks)

List of attendance; Present ½ mk

Apologies ½ mk

Absent ½ mk

In attendance ½ mk

Preliminaries          1mk

Matters arising        1mk

A.O.B                   ½ mk

Adjournment          ½ mk

Signing off (the secretary and chairperson- must be left blank)         1mk

CONTENT                                                             8marks

Matters arising- should mention 2 @1mk –(2mks)

Election –must have a list of officials     2mks

Income generating activities- at least 2 @1mk  (2mks)

The great debate    2mks

LANGUAGE                   4mks

  • 4
  • 3
  • 2
  • 1



  1. social
  2. that
  3. for
  4. when/while
  5. land
  6. take
  7. others
  8. contributed
  9. and
  10. well



a). (i)    the rhyme scheme is aa ab cc cb

It is regular and the next pattern is predictable.

(ii)   Through use of

  • Repetition of words/lines eg “ why do you”
  • rhyme eg white light bright
  • alliteration eg why wear white
  • assonance eg shine bright
  1. Any three: Identification ½ mk; illustration ½ mk

(iii) Falling intonation. It is a why- question

(iv) With a falling intonation to show finality (repeat a no verbal cue which should also be centralized or linked to the line) 1mk eg appropriate facial expression, body movement, use of gestures, tone variation etc

b). Identify the silent letters in the following words

  1. Practically
  2. Ballet
  • Bristle
  1. Guilt
  2. Baguette
  3. Psychotic

c). Underline the stressed syllables in the following words.  (3marks)

  1. Palatial
  2. Rejuvenation
  • Police

d). Underline the stressed syllable of the following words when used as verbs.  (2marks)

  1. Ridicule
  2. Suspect

e). You are going to attend an interview for your first job in a bank. You want to look presentable to create a good

impression. What would you do before and during the occasion to achieve this? 4mks

  • Ensure all documents are in order
  • Proper grooming
  • Keep time- arrive in time
  • Do a research on the institution
  • Appropriate dressing
  • Be audible
  • Maintain meaningful eye contact
  • Be calm
  • Maintain an upright sitting posture

Use polite formal language

(Mark 2 points before and 2 points during)

f).   Complete the telephone conversation below between a parent and a student acting as a receptionist at her school.

Mrs. Wanjau: Hallo. Is that Makutano High School?

Mrs. Wanjau: I am Mrs. Wanjau. Can I speak with the Principal?

Mrs. Wanjau: Who am I speaking with?

Mrs. Wanjau: You mean students are allowed to step in for the receptionist?

Mrs. Wanjau: That is good for you. When the Principal comes tell him I will call tomorrow.










  1. FUNCTIONAL WRITING                                                                   (20mks)

Your school is organizing the staging of The River and the Source by Margaret Ogola.  As the Secretary of Drama Club:

  • Write an internal memo to club officials inviting them to a meeting to plan for the function.(8mks)
  • Write synopsis of the adapted play from Margaret Ogola’s The River and The Source paying particular attention to events that affect the character of Akoko, Chief Owuor Kembo and Otieno Kembo. (12mks)
  1. CLOZE TEST       (10mks)

Read the passage below and fill in the gaps using the most appropriate words.


The classification (1) _________ any material refers to (2) _________ division of such materials into specific classes according to established (3) _____. The categories developed should (4) ____ be able to accommodate all manner of material considered.  We can then talk of literary classification as a  (5) __________ of categorizing, characterizing, describing, typifying, labeling etc.  In literature (6) _________, classification is done according to the content or (7) ________ of the material.  Content refers to the subjects, ideas, people, objects and situations presented in the work.  The latter refers to the how, the shapes, patterns, appearances, dimensions and textures.  Written literature comes to us in the form of novels, short stories, poems (8) __________ plays.  They are in a graphic form.  But oral literature comes (9) __________ the form of narratives, poetry, riddles and proverbs.  They are transmitted by (10) ___________ of mouth and therefore have an oral form.


  1. ORAL SKILLS       (30mks)
    • Read the Oral Narrative below and answer the questions that follow.

In a town called Irandunwo, lived a loose talker called “Elenuobere” – “sharp mouth.” One day it was rumored that a man had seduced the Oba’s wife.  He went and said he had designed the plan by which that act was accomplished.  He was taken to court and convicted of talking rubbish hence fined one pound and five shillings.  He had no money and so went to prison.

But a kind farmer agreed to bail him out if he would work on his farm for five days.  The next day on the way to the farm, they heard a sound in the bush.  Elenuobere burst out, “surely that is a horse grazing, and its left eye is blind.” The farmer betted with him that if that was true he would strike off five shillings from the debt.  If not, the debtor would give one extra day of work. When they reached the animal, Elenuobere was proved right and so his debt was reduced.

Soon afterwards, they came across a wet spot and he claimed it was the piss of a pregnant woman.  Once again, he was right and the debt was reduced.  At the farm when they sat to eat, the farmer sighed three times and each time Elenuobere claimed he knew what was in his thoughts.  The argument that ensued led them to the king’s court for a settlement.  The farmer all the time was confident that he could deny whatever Elenuobere would say.

Before the royal assembly, Elenuobere then stated: “The first thought was: May God Almighty give long life to the king.  Your second thought was: may this royal family continue to rule long in our town. And your third thought was: May God grant the king’s heir who will rule after him.”  The whole gathering, including the farmer, affirmed saying “Amen.” The could not deny lest he annoyed the king.

Elenuobere got his acquittal and relief from the labour. “The mouth that commits an offence must talk itself out of punishment.” The story illustrates the quoted final adage.




  • State three things that the narrator must do in order to capture the audience’s attention before beginning to tell the story.                                                 (3mks)
  • The narrator mid-way of the story telling session notices signs of inattentiveness among the audience. What are the signs of inattentiveness?                                                                                                     (3mks)
  • How do you say Eleneuobere’s words, “surely, that is a horse grazing, and its left eye is blind.” (2mks)
  • Give an example of a proverb that can be used to describe Eleneuobere’s behaviour.             (2mks)





  • Read the poem below and answer questions that follow.

The sweetest thing by Ibid.


There is in this world something

That surpasses all other things

In sweetness.

It is sweeter than honey

It is sweeter than salt

It is sweeter than sugar

It is sweeter than all

Existing things.

This thing is sleep

When you are conquered by sleep

Nothing can prevent you

Nothing can stop you from sleeping

When you are conquered by sleep

And numerous millions arrive

Millions will find you asleep


  • Identify and illustrate two sound patterns used in the poem.             (4mks)
  • Write down words from the poems that have the following sounds;             (3mks)

/ i: / …………………………………………

/ S / …………………………………………

/ D / ………………………………………..

  • Underline the stressed syllables in the following words drawn
    • Surpasses
    • Conquered
    • Numerous
  • Identify silent letters in the following words:
  • Badge:………………………………………………..
  • Sleigh:……………………………………………….
  • Consider the following dialogue and describe the shortcomings of Orgon’s listening skills.       (8mks)

ORGON:              Ah, good morning, brother.

CLEANTE:          I was just going.  I’m glad to see you back again.  There isn’t much life in the

countryside just now.

ORGON:              Dorine – (to Cleante) a moment brother, please – excuse me if I ask the news of

the family first and set my mind at rest. (To Dorine).

Has everything gone well the few days I’ve been away? What have you been doing? How is everyone?

DORINE:             The day before yesterday, the mistress was feverish all day.  She had a dreadful


ORGON:              And Tartuffe?

DORINE:             Tartuffe? He’s very well: hale and hearty: in the pink.

ORGON:              Poor fellow!

DORINE:             In the evening she felt faint and couldn’t touch anything, her headache was so


ORGON:              And Tartuffe?

DORINE:             He supped with her.  She ate nothing but he very devoutly devoured a couple of

partridges and half a hashed leg of mutton.

ORGON:              And Tartuffe?

DORINE:             Feeling pleasantly drowsy he went straight to his room, jumped into a nice warm

bed, and slept like a top until morning.

ORGON:              Poor fellow!

DORINE:             Eventually she yielded to our persuasions, allowed herself to be bled, and soon felt

much relieved?

ORGON:              And Tartuffe?

DORINE:             He dutifully kept up his spirits and took three or four good swigs of wine at

breakfast to fortify himself against the worst that might happen and to make up for the blood the mistress had lost.

ORGON:              Poor fellow!

DORINE:             They are both well again now so I’ll go ahead and tell the mistress how glad you

are to hear that she’s better.

(From the Misanthrope and other Plays by Moliere)







  1. (a) Internal Memo √1


  • Letterhead√1
  • To: √1
  • From: √1
  • RE: √1
  • Signature, name√1
  • √1


  • Information about meeting√½ and reasons. √½
  • Time√½
  • Venue√½


F =       06 marks

C =       02 marks

08 marks

  • Synopsis

The first conflict.

  • Akoko’s low rate of reproduction attracts attention of her√1 mother-in-law and Otieno Kembo who demand to know why and accuse her of bewitching her son. √½

Attempts to resolve this conflict.

  • Akoko goes to her maternal home. √1
  • Chief Owuor Kembo assembles the council of Jodongo who resolve the issue. √1


The second conflict

  • Chief Owuor Kembo dies and as tradition demands, Otieno Kembo takes over leadership since heir to the seat is still young. √1
  • Otieno Kembo uses his position as a chief to oppress Akoko and even attempts to grab her wealth.√1


Attempts to resolve the conflict.

  • Akoko sets for an epic journey to Kisuma to seek justice from the Provincial administration. √½
  • The provincial administration in liaison with the council of Jodongo confiscates stool of leadership√1 from Otieno Kembo.

Language accuracy (4 marks)

A – 04 marks

B – 03 marks

C – 02 marks

D – 01 marks


  • Conflicts (c) –           04 marks
  • Attempts to resolve conflicts –           04 marks
  • Language and Tone –           04 marks

Total                                              –           12 marks


Use the acronym                 C          –           04 marks

A         –           04 marks

L          –           04 marks

T          –           12 marks



  • of
  • the
  • criteria
  • then
  • way
  • generally
  • form
  • and
  • in
  • word Penalize for – punctuation / spelling by awarding zero (0) mark.


  1. (a) (i)    clear his / her throat.

(ii)   clap his / her hands.

(iii)  sing a relevant song.

(iv)  Use an appropriate proverb.            (consider any three relevant illustrations)                      (1 x 3 each)


  • Yawning
  • Looking out through the window.
  • Looking at their watches.
  • Exchanging notes.
  • Day-dreaming.
  • Lack of eye contact. (consider any three illustrations)                                   (1 x 3 each)
  • You say them with appropriate facial expression, hand gesture accompanies by a falling intonation to indicate surety.
  • Ulimi hauna mfupa (Kiswahili)

A tongue has no bone (English)

Consider any relevant proverb.                                                              (1 x 2 = 2mks)

  • (i)       Assonance

There is in this word nothing.

It is ….


  • It is sweeter than s
  • It is sweeter than s
  • There is in this world


  • suggested by repetition of; “it is sweeter than.”

Consider any two illustrations.                                            (2 x 2 = 4mks)


  • / i: / sweeter, sleep

/ s /- Sugar

/ D / Conquered


  • Surpassed


Numerous                                            penalize for wrong syllable boundaries.

  • Badge-d


  • Shortcomings of Orgon’s listening skills.

Expect the following:-

  • Orgon is a poor listener; √2 he wants to know only of Tartuffe. √2
  • He has misplaced√1 sympathy – he does not feel sympathy for √2 his daughters.

Expect full illustrations.



Kakamega High School 2021



  1. Imagine you had some guests from Sweden who visited you to celebrate your birthday. They enjoyed the special meal that you had prepared for them. One of them has requested for the recipe.  Send it by e-mail.                                                                                                                                      (20mks)

The broadened freedom of speech bestowed upon  people ————————— the rise of social media  platforms does have its merits, as many now ————————–a platform where they can ——————— their concerns about injustices within the society. ———–, everything has its good things and bad things as  ———————-.  The freedom on social media has also rendered these avenues ————————grounds for hate ——————–.  Many use it to promote their bigoted ideology.  They encourage hatred ———————— warring individuals or parties simply because they are ———————– to the views, beliefs, or behavior that differ from —————————.


Read the oral  poem below and respond to the questions that follow.


A barefoot boy!  I mark him at his play…

For May is here once more, and so is he,…

His dusty trousers, rolled half to the knee,

And his bare ankles grimy, too, as they:

Cross- hatchings of the nettle, in array

Of feverish stripes, hint vividly to me

Of woody pathways winding endlessly

Along the creek, where even yesterday

He plunged his shrinking body – gasped and shook

Yet called the water ‘warm’ with never lack

Of joy.  And so, half enviously I look

Upon this graceless barefoot and his track,…

His toe stubbed…, his big toe-nail knocked back

Like unto the clasp of an old pocketbook.


  1. Identify and illustrate two devices that make the poem musical.             (2mks)
  2. How would you effectively recite line 13 of this poem?             (2mks)
  • Which word would you stress in line 12? Give a reason.                                                                        (2mks)
  1. b) One of the features in listening skills is maintaining a meaningful eye-contact with the speaker. Why do you think it is important to do so?                                                                                                        (3mks)
  2. c) Consider the following oral literature item.

Mi moet moet a moita (There is a wound in a calf’s stomach)

  1. Classify the above genre             (1mk)
  2. Identify and illustrate two features of sound in the above genre.             (2mks)
  • Explain what is lost if the item above is translated from its original language.             (2mks)
  1. Give one role of the above item             (1mk)
  2. d) Underline the silent letter(s) in the following words       (3mks)
  3. i) sword iv)  bouquet
  4. ii) debris v) victual

iv)grandmother                         vi)corps

  1. e) Which is the odd one out in the following groups of words based on the underlined sounds? (3mks)
  2. a) beer bare                              bear                                          pair


  1. b) tough giraffe dough                                       photograph
  2. c) honest honour heifer                                       heir
  3. f) For each below, provide another that is identical in pronunciation.       (4mks)
  4. i) clue iii) board
  5. ii) sole iv) tear
  6. e) Imagine you are the leader of a discussion group in your class. How would you ensure that the discussion is fruitful.                                                                                                                                        (5mks)


Kakamega High School 2021



  2. i) by vi)        breeding
  3. ii) social vii)       speech

iiii) voice / air                                 viii)      between

  1. iv) however ix)        intolerant
  2. vi) well x)         theirs
  4. a)
  5. i) Alliteration ‘….water ‘warm’ with ‘ /w/

‘ …. barefoot boy ….’   /b/

‘ …. Woody …. Winding …. ‘   / w /

Rhyme                   –     The following rhyming words contribute to the musicality of the poem.

  • Play / array / they / yesterday
  • He / knee/ me
  • Shook / lack / look / track / back / pocketbook

Any one + illustration = 2 marks

  1. ii) I would use the appropriate gestures/would use my index finger to point my toe; the injured finger.

I would use an appropriate facial expression by frowning my face to show the pain suffered by the barefoot boy after stubbing.

I would stress the following content words: toe, stubbed, big, knocked.

Any one + illustration –  2 marks

iii) I would stress the words, ‘graceless,’  ‘barefoot’ and track.  They are contentÖwords.

Any one stressed word  +7 reasons   – 2 marks


  • It enables one to assess the concentration of the audience
  • It influences their mood
  • It gives the audience a positive impression about you. 3 points x 1    = 3 marks
  1. c) i) It is a tongue twister                                                                                                     1mk
  2. ii) Alliteration – ‘mi moet moet a moita ‘ /m/

Repetition – ‘…. Moet moet ..’ The phrase

‘ moet’ is repeated                                         2 features/ illustration   =  2 marks


  • The sound features ( repetition and alliteration) are lost
  • Originality/authenticity
  • Local flavour 2 x 1  =  2 marks
  1. iv)
  • It is used for speech therapy
  • It is used for entertainment
  • It tests reading speed 1 x 1 = 1 mark


  1. i) Sword iv)        bouquet
  2. ii) debris v)         victual

iii) grandmother                                         vi)        corps                ½ x 6 = 3

               N/B The candidate must underline the silent letter

  1. e) beer


heifer                                                                                                                     1 x 3  = 3 marks

  1. f) i) clew                                                                   iii)          bored
  2. ii) soul iv)          tier                        1×4 = 4 marks
  3. g) I would:
  • be a good listener
  • allow everyone to have his / her say
  • allow members to take turns in speaking
  • interrupt politely
  • acknowledge other people’s points even if you don’t agree with them 1 x 5 = 5 marks




Paper 1

(Functional writing, cloze test and oral skills)

  1. Having completed the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education successfully, you are invited to speak at the annual county education day in your county. Unfortunately, you are to attend an interview for a scholarship to an international university the same day. Fax the speech to your former class teacher who will read it on your behalf at the event.                                                                                                       (20mks).
  2. Cloze Test.

Read the passage below and fill in the blanks with the most appropriate word.

The country  (1)……………benefitted greatly from reduced fuel prices in the past year (2)……………………… from favourable international market dynamics. (3)…………………. is a major production cost and when the prices go (4)..……………………, commodity prices stabilize, which is good for the economy.(5)……………………………, something untoward has been happening lately. Fuel (6)…………………………has become erratic, causing distress to motorists. According (7)…………… the Petroleum Institute of East Africa, which is the industry lobby, the intermittent supply is artificial. Some industry players are (8)………………………oil for speculation, hoping to (9)………………………………shortage and, in turn, influence the regulator, the Energy Regulatory Commission, to raise the (10)……………………………..


  1. Oral Skills

a). For each of the following words, write another that is pronounced the same as the one given.         (4mks).

i).   Miner         ……………………………

ii).  Suite          ……………………………

iii). Throws       ……………………………

iv).  Flew          ……………………………

b). Identify the silent letters in each of the following words.                                                                 (3mks).

            i).Soften           …………………….

ii).  Corps         …………………….

iii). Exhaust      ……………………..

c). Indicate the correct intonation for the following sentences.                                                        (3mks).

            i).    Can I take you home?

ii).   How did she travel to Nairobi?

iii). I have been working very hard for the coming examination.

d). Pick the odd one out in the pronunciation of the following words in each group, with reference to the letters in bold.                                                                                                                                      (4mks).

  1. i) motion, visual, passion, machete                …………………………..

ii).  Hook, food, would, too                               ………………………….

iii). axe, xenon, tax, maximum              ………………………….

iv). Charade, church, chauffeur, chasis  ………………………….

e).  (i)    A local television station is holding interviews for the position of a news anchor. You are invited to attend

the interview. Explain three things you would do to ensure you are well prepared for the interview.                                                                                                                                                               (3mks).

(ii). Unfortunately, you fail to secure the job. What could you have done wrong during the interview that led    to this failure?                                                                                                        (3mks).

e). Read the genre below and answer the questions that follow.

‘Slipperiness knows no king.’

i).    Classify the above genre                                                                                              (1mk).

ii).   What is the most appropriate audience for the above genre.                                                      (1mk).

iii).  What would be lost if the above genre is translated into another language.                    (1mk).

f).   Read the telephone conversation below and answer the questions that follow.

Francis:     Hello, is that Chileka International Airport?

Edith:        (Picking the phone) The mushrooms are 500 kwacha per kilogram.

Hello, is anybody on this line?

Francis:     Hello, is that Chileka International airport?

Edith:        What do you want?

Francis:     Please confirm for me whether I called the right place, Chileka International Airport?

Edith:        (Frowning) Which other airport shares a similar phone number as this?

Francis:     May I then speak to the Managing Director?

Edith:        I don’t mind a baby….(on phone), what did you say ?Oh, the Managing Director can’t talk to you.

Francis:     Can I then leave a message which you can pass to him?

Edith:        Why can’t you call him on his personal line…(away from the receiver) serve me a cup, tea tastes better when hot.

Francis:     (Surprised) Hello, excuse me madam, I am Francis Chumachamara and am requesting to talk to the Managing Director over an important matter concerning one of your employees…

Edith:        I told you the Managing Director is not in (hangs up).


i).   Explain four things that make Edith an ineffective communicator.                                 (4mks).

ii). Explain three things that one should observe if they are to communicate effectively over the phone.





Paper 1 Marking Scheme.

(functional writing, cloze test and oral skills).

  1. (20mks).

Sample format of the fax.

To:Elimu High School   (1mk)

Fax No: 254-037335                 (1mk)

Number of pages: 2                  (1/2 mk)

Attention: Mr. Otieno Otieno (1mk)

From: Mwangi Matu                 (1mk)

Date:25th March, 2021. (1/2 mk)

Subject/Title:A speech on … (1mk)


Introduction           2mks.

Introduction must list the names of the guests present at the event in order of seniority.

A catchy/interesting  remark in the introduction e.g an anecdote.

Body                      6mks

Points presented in a logical manner

Statistics could be given

Conclusion 2mks

Must be a strong conclusion

Language and Tone 4mks


  1. Cloze Test.



  1. has
  2. arising
  3. Fuel
  4. down
  5. However
  6. supply
  7. to
  8. hoarding
  9. cause
  10. price/cost


  1. Oral Skills

a). For each of the following words, write another that is pronounced the same as the one given.(4mks).

i).  Miner          minor

ii). Suite           sweet

iii). Throws       throes

iv). Flew           flu/flue


b). Identify the silent letters in each of the following words.                                   (3mks).


ii).  Corps

iii). Exhaust

c). Indicate the correct intonation for the following sentences.                    (3mks).

            i).         Can I take you home?

Rising intonation

ii).        How did she travel to Nairobi?

Falling intonation

iii).       I have been working very hard for the coming examination.

Falling intonation

d).                                                                                      (4mks).

  1. i) motion, visual, passion, machete           Visual

ii).        Hook, food, would, too                         would

iii).       axe, xenon, tax, maximum                    xenon

iv).       Charade, church, chauffeur, chasis        Church

e). (i)    You should do some research on the television station; this will give you an idea of what to expect at the interview.

  • Role play the interview with a friend.
  • Ensure that you carry all your documents.
  • Prepare some questions that you may ask the panel in case you are given an opportunity.
  • Take care of your appearance and grooming.
  • Arrive at the venue of the interview in good time.
  • Switch off your mobile phone and any other gadget that may cause distractions.

(ii). Unfortunately, you fail to make it for the job. What could you have done wrong during the interview that

led to this failure?                                                                                                               (3mks).

  • You may have failed to maintain appropriate eye contact with the interviewer(s).
  • You may have sat before being ushered to do so.
  • You may have argued with the interviewer(s).
  • You may have taken a posture that indicated overconfidence or arrogance making you appear proud and rebellious
  • You may have answered questions without really thinking about what you were required to do.

e). Read the genre below and answer the questions that follow.

‘Slipperiness knows no king.’

i). Classify the above genre (1mk).

Political proverb.

ii). What is the most appropriate audience for the above genre. (1mk).

People in positions of leadership.

iii). What would be lost if the above genre is translated into another language. (1mk).

The sound pattern such as alliteration


i).   Explain four things that make Edith an ineffective communicator.(4mks).

  • Edith is rude, she asks ‘what do you want’
  • She is not a keen listener, picks up the phone but goes on talking with someone else.
  • She is impatient, hangs up before Francis finishes talking.
  • She does not introduce herself or even the organization she works for.

Any other relevant answer. 4×1= 4mks

ii). Explain three things that one should observe if they are to communicate effectively over the phone. (3mks).

  • Use polite language.
  • One should introduce his/herself
  • Greetings, help in creating rapport
  • Be keen so as to get the details of the message by the other person. Any other relevant 3×1=3mks




Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education




(Functional skills)

  1. Assume you are Grusha. Write a private journal you would prepare to keep the following experiences memorable.
    • The day Governor Abashwili was beheaded.
    • The day you arrived at your brother’s place, Lavrenti, in the Northern Mountain.
    • The day your fiancé, Simon Shashava, came in search of you once the war is over.


Email the journal to one of the late Governor’s servants known as Maro; with whom you would  like to share your experiences. Copy the email to the cook who later decides to attend your trial in Nuka. You have nicknamed her Maisha.                                                                                                                                         (20 marks)


  1. As Kenya celebrates two years f devolution, today is a moment of serious __1_____________ and of sharing information on the achievement reached in the __2___________________ of county policies, the challenges _3_______________________ National values and principles of governance. Kenya is _4________________ with the implementation of constitution that has been __5_______________ globally as one of the most __6_____________________ constitutions in Africa.

However, we have witnessed attempts to __7_________________ back the cloth through enactment of National legislation __8________________ tends to recentralize and claw back some devolved functions going __9________________ the spin of constitution. The _10_____________________ for devolution was all about devolving exercise of state power and resources.


  1. (a) Read the following oral poem and answer the questions that follow.


She was gone by and by

The lights sprang up again

The wind whirled in full sight

Of the fantastic fairy palace over the arches

near – little felt amid the jarring

of the machinery and scarcely heard

above its crash and rattle

silver and gold she searched.


  • How is rhythm achieved in the oral poem?       (3 marks)
  • How would you say the idiophone in the poem?       (3 marks)

(b) Provide another word that is identical in pronunciation as the words in boldface in the sentences below.                                                                                                                                                           (6 marks)

  • Why did the idlebridal party groan?
  • The beercaught the whale

( c)             Underline the syllable you would stress in the words in bold face in the following sentences.

  • Did the suspect suspect the policemen had been bribed?
  • Why did the workers refuse to collect the refuse?
  • The government has invented new means of transport to transport
  • The government is not content with the content of the letter.
  • Are you fit to contest for the marathon contest?

(d) You are invited by a neighbouring school to debate on the motion ‘Gender balance in the parliament is paramount’. As the secretary of the Debating club in your school you are elected with a few other members to represent the club.

Explain what you would do to make your presentation successful.                                             (6 marks)

(e)             Read the following conversation and answer the questions that follow.


A dormitory captain reports a theft case to the dormitory master. The captain is accompanied by the suspect to the office.


John: (Knocks the door and opens) Good morning Mrs. Juma.


Mrs. Juma: Good morning John. What can I do for you?


John: I have come to report a theft case. Morris is suspected to have stolen a pair of trousers from a form one who………….


Morris: (Interrupting rudely) The captain is a liar. He is always picking on me.


Mrs. Juma: Could you be a bit courteous Morris. Give John a chance to explain himself (Morris looks outside through the window sneeringly).


John: (Producing the pair of trousers from a paper bag) We got him wearing this pair of trousers. It bears the form one admission number. You see……….


Morris: (Shouting and banging the teacher’s table) Shut up! This is my pair of trousers.


Mrs. Juma: (Looks at the trouser keenly and sees the admission number.) This is a form one’s admission number . I will suspend you with immediate effect.


Morris: (Glaring at the teacher) Okay!


Mrs. Juma: Thank you captain for being competent. Morris, Let us meet at the principal’s office.


John: Thank you  Mrs. Juma.



  1. Cite incidents of lack of etiquette in the above conversation.                   (3 marks)
  2. How should have Morris interrupted politely?                   (2 marks)






To: [email protected]                Name                               ½ mark
From: [email protected]        must be                             ½ mark
Cc: [email protected]      joined                              ½ mark
Subject: My most memorable experiences                                          1 mark
Date: June 28th, 2021                                                                       ½ mark



Dear Maro,

I would like to share my most memorable experiences especially about that horrifying day of a coup.

(1 mark)


I reminiscence the gloomy day of the execution of our Governor Abashwili. A day of fantastic and horrific memories. Simon Shashava my love betrothed me; he hang a beautiful chin around my neck. Reluctantly we parted. Simon promised to come to me after the war.


Oh! Horrible memories I nurse; Georgi beheaded. The egocentric wife and mother Natella Ambaswili abandoned her innocent child Michael. The brute is only concerned about her clothes and boots to match. She escaped to save her dear life. Overwhelmed by humane, feeling I had to guard little Michael. With much persuasion did my fellow servants urge me to escape. The fat prince with drunken ironshirts did carry Georgi’s head on a lance; with a nail the soldier fastened the head on the wall by its hair. The sight was horrific. In dilemma I stood still, torn between my love for Michael and for my life. I heard or I thought the child called to me. Full of compassion, I sat down waiting, watching hoping someone should come for the child.  At the break of dawn, I picked the child as stolen goods and I crept away.


Seven days I trudged with Michael a sweet load on my back across the glacier in the Northern Mountain. Exhausted, I arrived at my brother’s house, Lavrenti Vashnadze I hoped he would arise and embrace me. How disillusioned I became. A cold reception I received, what a mean, eccentric wife Aniko is! The puritanical, insensitive sister-in-law viewed me like I had the plague. Scared I had scarlet fever, worse still a contagious disease. Tuberculosis superciliously calling out to a servant to mind the cake. Like a police officer she interrogated me. Concerning my husband. The henpecked Laverenti fearful, lied to her that my husband is coming to a farm after the war. I was going to wait for him I longed to sit and eat but this was an illusion. I placed Michael in Lavrenti’s hand. Oh! Brother, only promised a bed after supper. My goodness! I collapsed.


As I sat by the stream washing linen long after Lavrenti forcefully married me off to Jussup. Almost forgetting my frustrations I laughed as Michael and other kids enacted the Head-off Game. He, like his father, Georgi, outwits other kids. I am elated to see Simon, he is thrilled. What a reunion. Sadly, I explained I had changed my name: Simon could not understand that nothing stood between us, yet there was something. He saw the cap on the grass and wondered whether I got a baby. Hastily, he concluded, the wife need not say no more.  Frustrated, he demanded his cross. Angrily he said “Better still throw it in the stream,: I pleaded desperately, passionately, the child is not mine,” What a day, I stood aghast. Two ironshirts had abducted Michael. In a moment call Simon. My! He is gone.


Determined to fight for the child, I had adopted and brought up and nurtured, I risked my life. I boldly followed the ironshirts to the city. What a day!


Love                         ( ½ mark)

Grusha                      ( ½ mark)

Format                   (5 marks)

Introduction:          (1 mark)

Body/content          (3 x 3 = 9 marks)

Language               (01 – 05 marks)


NB/ Consistency of punctuation in the e-mail should be maintained.

  1. reflection
  2. implementation
  3. on
  4. grappling, struggling
  5. hailed
  6. progressive
  7. roll
  8. that
  9. against
  10. clamour
  1. a) How is rhythm achieved in the oral poem?                      (3 marks)
  • Punctuation: Use of commas and hyphen (1 mark)
  • Assonance: Sprang, again   (1 mark)
  • Consonance: Wind, whirled (1 mark)
  • Alliteration: Whirled, whale (1 mark)                                  (Any 3 pnts)


(ii)   How would you say the ideophone in the poem?

With a falling intonation.                                                          (1 mark)


Enunciate the carefully and deliberately stress on crash and rattle because they are content words. (1 mark)

Use appropriate gestures, for example, bringing the hands together to demonstrate the words crash,and rattle.

(1 mark)

(b) (i)         idol



  • bier


wail, wale                                                                                           (6 marks)

(c)  (i)    Did the suspect suspect that the policemen had been bribed?

(ii)   Why did the workers refuse to collect the refuse?

(iii)  The government has invented new means of transport to transport the goods.

(iv)  The governor is not content with the content of the letter council members.

(v)   Are you physically fit to contest for a gold medal in the next marathon contest?

(d)  (i)   Preparation

  1. a) Thorough research:
  • I would research on all the information and facts about the motion.
  • Find out points/facts about the opponents side in anticipation of their argument.
  • Prepare a comprehensive outline as a point of reference during my presentation.
  1. b) Mastery of content:

I would take full command of the presentation by mastering the points in order to enhance confidence,

credibility and be trustworthiness.

  1. Rehearse:

I would rehearse in front of a mirror or before a   friend to ensure I correct any noticeable errors.

I would do some physical exercises before the debate to release nervousness.

(ii) Delivery: During the delivery of my points, I would use both verbal and non verbal cues.

  1. Tonal variation to avoid boring monotone.
  2. Voice perfection/audibility to ensure everyone captures my argument
  3. Appropriate facial expressions
  4. Apply pregnant pauses stressing emphatically on new information and pause after every utterance to make the debate exciting to listen to.
  5. Employ proper enunciation of every word.
  6. Proper grooming: be smart/presentable.
  7. Adopt appropriate body posture i.e. relaxed and natural body posture.
  8. Establish eye contact with individual members especially those on the opponent side.
  9. Employ appropriate gesture.
  • Conviction/passion

I will present my points with passion or conviction to demonstrate that I sincerely believe in my


  • Time management: ensure I manage the time allocated efficiently.
  • Be courteous

Ensure I appeal to participants and my opponents by using polite language.

Avoid offensive argument or bias against any gender.

  • Making concessions

I will recognize points of merit firm my opponents’ side and make concessions but still holding onto my points of argument intelligently.

(e) (i)  Cite incidents of lack of etiquette.                            (2 marks)

  1. i)  Morris interrupts rudely when John is explaining himself to the teacher.
  2. ii)  Morris refuses to pay attention and sneers

iii) Morris shouts and bangs at the teacher’s table.

  1. iv) Morris fails to use courteous language: He tells John to shut up.
  2. v) Morris glares at the teacher (any 3 points)


  1. ii) How should have Morris interrupted politely? (2 marks)
  2. i) Morris should have excused himself: “Excuse me”
  3. ii) He should have signaled John by smiling at him.

iii) He should have allowed John to complete his statement instead of shouting and banging the

teacher’s table.                                                                                           (Any 2 points)




Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education                                                    



(FUNCTIONAL SKILLS)                                                


JULY/AUGUST, 2021      




  • The performance of the Business Studies as a subject has been declining in the KCSE examination, in your district for last four years.  Imagine you are the patron of the Commerce and Business Studies club in your school and is concerned about the decline in the performance.  Design a questionnaire that you would use to gather the information you require to tackle the problem.                                                                                 (12 marks)
  • Your club has come up with a school magazine that is designed to help boost students’ performance in the above subject. Advertise the magazine.                                                                                           (8 marks)



Fill in each of the blank spaces in the passage below with the most appropriate word.               (10 marks)

We all have certain goals in life.  Goals vary among people.  For someone, a goal would be to get (1)______________ of debt, while for another person it would be to (2) ________________ a house, while for someone else; it could be a (3) ______________ in an exotic location.(4) ______________, a bad goal can sap your energy and distract you (5) _________________ making progress.  A good goal, on the other hand, can provide the clarity and motivation you need to (6) _____________ your dreams.(7) ______________, people confuse a goal (8) _______________ a wish.  A goal is (9) ______________ from a wish.  For example, you may want to be a rich person; this is a wish and not a goal.  A goal has to be realistic, measurable and has to be (10) ________________ within a specific time frame.


  1. (a) Read the poem below and then answer the questions that follow.



Does it matter? Losing your legs? ……………..

For people will always be kind,

And you need not show that you mind

When the others come in after hunting

To gobble their muffins and eggs.


Does it matter? – losing your sight? …………..

There is such splendid work for the blind;

And people will always be kind,

And sit on the terrace remembering

And turning your face to the light.


Does it matter? – those dreams from the pit? ………..

You can drink and forget and be glad,

And people won’t say that you are mad,

For they will know you’ve fought for your country.

And no one will worry a bit.




(i)   Write the rhyme scheme of the poem.                                                                                 (2 marks)

(ii)  How has rhythm been achieved in the poem?                                                                      (3 marks)

  • Which lines would you stress most if you were to say this poem aloud and why? (3 marks)

(b)  In the following sets of words identify the underlined speech sound that is odd.                   (4 marks)

(i)         Gene, Judge, June, Gore                       __________________________________

(ii)        Exhort, Exist, Exile, Exhibit      _________________________________

(iii)       Joy, Just, Gaoler, Gate              __________________________________

(iv)       Ambush, Amass, Amoeba, Amaze ________________________________


  • You are chosen by your school to represent them in inter-schools public speaking. Explain how you will prepare to win their confidence in you and bring home a winning trophy for the school.                    (6 marks)
  • If you went out to research without an audio-visual device, what aspects of performance might you miss when collecting an oral literature material?                                                 (4 marks)
  • Read the following telephone conversation between Pato and the secretary, and then answer the questions that come after it.


PATO:              I am and want to speak with the manager.

SECRETARY: Why? What do you want with him?

PATO:              That is none of your business.  I want to speak with the manager now.

SECRETARY: He is not in.  Say what you wanted and I will tell him.

PATO:              Why are you wasting my time? Tell him to call me.

SECRETARY: How will he reach you? What is your telephone……..

(phone is disconnected).


(i)   Identify any four instances of lack of telephone conversation etiquette.                                (4 marks)

  • Observing proper telephone etiquette. Rewrite the telephone conversation between Pato and the secretary.                                                                                                                                              (4 marks)








e.g. In the last four years, the performance of Business Studies has been declining in the KCSE examination

in ABC district. This questionnaire seeks information that will help establish the causes of the decline.  The information collected will be treated with confidentiality and will be used in the efforts to try and boost the performance of Business Studies in the District or county at large.

Section 1

  1. Name …………………………………………………………………………………………………..(optional)
  2. Gender……………………………………………. Class…………………………………………………
  3. What category is your school? (Tick as appropriate)
  • National
  • Extra-county
  • County
  • District Boarding
  • District Mixed Day
  • Others: Specify:__________________


Section 2

  1. What was your rank in class last term? (Tick as appropriate)
  • Top 10
  • Between 11 – 30
  • Between 31 – 50
  • Above 50


  1. What was your grade in Business Studies last term? (Tick as appropriate)
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D


  1. Are you satisfied with the grade in (2) above?

Yes                        No


  1. If your answer to question (3) above is yes, what do you attribute your achievement to?
  • Own initiative and hardwork
  • Encouragement from your teachers
  • Encouragement from your parents.
  • Encouragement from guest speakers.


  1. If your answer to question (3) above is no, explain why you are not satisfied with your grade.


  1. Does your school motivate you?

Very much                         Not quite                      Not at all


  1. If your school motivates you, indicate how it does by ticking the appropriate box or boxes.
  • It has enough teachers for this subject.
  • It invites national examiners for the subject to talk to the students.
  • It provides sufficient teaching / learning materials.
  • It rewards good performance.
  • Any other: Specify:_____________________________________________________________
  1. What do you think could be done to motivate you further?




NB: A student must have items seeking information as to why the performance has been declining and other  seeking possible solutions to the problem.              Award 4 marks for items

3 marks for solutions                            (2 marks)

For language and presentation                                                                                                               (TOTAL – 12 MARKS)

(b)  Advertisement  (1mk)

Look out for:-

  • Catchy word(s)      (1mk)
  • Selling points of the product – points to counter competition from similar products. (2mks)
  • Use of pictures. NB: There must be a balance between the pictures and the words.      (2mks)
  • Grammar and presentation.                  (1mk)
  • Border lines.      (1mk)




  1. out
  2. own / build
  3. vacation
  4. However (NB: must be capitalized)
  5. from
  6. attain / achieve / realize
  7. Often (NB: Must be capitalized)
  8. with
  9. different
  10. achieved (attained/realized)



  1. (a)

(i)   Rhyme pattern  ab bc a db bc d ef fg e.                                                                                (1mk)

Rhyme scheme regular rhyme scheme since it is not possible to predict where the

rhyming words would occur.                                                                                               (1mk)

(ii)  Rhythm has been achieved through:

  • Repetition of phrases e.g. Does it matter?       (1mk)
  • Use of sound patterns e.g. consonance

You can drink and forget and be glad


Does it matter? – those dreams from the pit? ………………


Kind           legs                  sight

Mind          eggs                 light                                                                                   (1mk)

  • Use of lines of equal length.                   (1mk)


(iii)  1st line of every stanza.

Reasons:- every 1st line has the content / idea / the point of discussion in the stanza.

– 1st line would also be stressed to show the beginning of a new stanza e.g.

– Indicate what is being emphasized e.g.

Stanza 1 – losing your leg.

Stanza 2 – losing your sight.

Stanza 3 – the dreams from the pit.                                                                                          (3mks)

(b) (i)         Gore

(ii)        Exile

(iii)       Gate

(iv)       Ambush                                                                                                                       (4mks)



  • Prior preparation to remove fear and anxiety.
  • Practice in front of my school at least three times prior to the inter-school competitions.
    • This enhances mastery of techniques, gaining confidence.
  • Consult an expert (teacher) to confirm what you have done is correct.
  • Use conventional formula of attracting attention e.g. clearing throat, creating rapport, smiling etc.
  • Costume (school uniform) must be clean and ironed for neatness.(3 well explained points x 2 = 6 marks)


  • Gestures / gesticulations.
  • Use of pause and rhythm.
  • Facial expressions.
  • Tonal variation.
  • Involvement of the audience. (any 4×1 = 4mks)

(e) (i)

  • When the Secretary asks – who is this?
  • When Pato says – I want to speak …
  • When the secretary asks why? What do you want with him …
  • When the secretary says – say what you wanted …
  • When Pato rudely disconnects the phone.             (4mks)


(ii)        SECRETARY: Hallo! This is …………..x…… company / institution, whom am I speaking to?

PATO:              I am Pato may I speak with the manager please.

SECRETARY:  Is the issue official or personal?

PATO:              It is personal.  May I speak with him now please?

SECRETARY:  I am sorry he is not in at the moment.  Will you leave a message?

PATO:              Please tell him to call me when he arrives.

SECRETARY:  How will he reach you? Please give me your telephone / cell number.

PATO:              My cell phone number is (0123456789)                                     (4mks)





Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education                                                    




JULY/AUGUST, 2021      

  1. FUNCTIONAL WRITING                                                                   (20 marks)

You are the Dean of Studies in your school.  The Principal reminds you about the bench-marking visit to Masomo Bora National School by some students and teachers.  The Principal writes you a reminder.  The bench-marking is expected to take three days.

  • Write the reminder that the Principal might have written to you.                        (12 marks)
  • Prepare a diary for the three days.                        (8 marks)
  1. CLOZE TEST       (10 marks)


      Fill in the blank spaces, with the most appropriate word.

Poaching is increasingly (1) __________________ a menace, not just in Kenya, (2) ____________  also in other parts of the continent, (3) _____________  a grave danger to the survival of various animals species, particularly the elephant. Whereas there have been (4) _______________ to raise awareness about the danger posed by the menace, not enough has been done to (5) ____________ it out and punish offenders.As it is, poaching is becoming a crisis, threatening species like elephants, which are hunted (6) _______________ their ivory, rhinos which are targeted because of their horns and other game like lions.The Kenya Wildlife Service has been doing well to combat (7) _______________ but it appears that more is needed if the criminals (8) _________________ to be stopped. If the killers have more sophisticated weaponry, then KWS must (9) _______________  its game or call (10) _______________ the military to assist.


  1. ORAL SKILLS (30 marks)
    • Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow.


The Seed Shop

HERE in a quiet and dusty room they lie,

Faded a scrumbled stone or shifting sand,

Forlorn as ashes, shrivelled, scentless, dry–

Meadows and gardens running through my hand.


In this brown husk a dale of hawthorn dreams,

A cedar in this narrow cell is thrust

That will drink deeply of a century’s streams,

These lilies shall make summer on my dust.

Here in their safe and simple house of death,

Sealed in their shells, a million roses leap;

Here I can blow a garden with my breath,

And in my hand a forest lies asleep.


(i)   Describe the rhyme scheme of this poem.                                                                     (2 marks)

(ii)  What is the effect of rhyme in the poem?                                                                     (1 mark)

  • Giving one example, show how else the poet has achieved the effect in (ii) above?        (2 marks)

(iv) Which word would you stress in the last line of stanza one and why?                                        (2 marks)


  • A flea and a fly flew up in a flue.

Said the flea, “Let us fly!”

Said the fly, “Let us flee.”

So they flew through a flaw in the flue.

  • Identify the genre above.                         (1 mark)
  • Identify and illustrate the dominant sound pattern in the genre above.             (2 marks)
  • Two friends, Mutunga and Mutiso, have a debate. Mutunga strongly feels that a man should marry more than one wife.  Mutiso, on the other hand, argues that a man should only marry one wife.  Advise them on fivethings they should do in order to disagree in an agreeable manner so that their conversation does not degenerate into a quarrel.                                                                                                  (5 marks)

(d) For each of these two words, make two sentences of each to bring out the difference in their meaning.                                                                                                                                                  (4 marks)

  • Beat .

(e) Provide a word that is pronounced the same way for each of the words below.                            (5 marks)

(i)   Bean: _______________________________________________________

  • Lichen:______________________________________________________
  • Kernel:______________________________________________________
  • Mere:_______________________________________________________
  • Cue:________________________________________________________

(f)  You are invited as a motivational speaker to give a talk to a group of people.

  • State three factors about the audience that you must consider before giving the speech. (3 marks)



  • State three factors the listener ought to observe in order to gain from the speech.       (3 marks)








(a)  Reminder




TO: ü½                  THE DEANü½ OF STUDIES

FROM: ü½                        THE PRINCIPALü½

DATE: ü½             25TH MARCH 2021ü½



Please remember about our bench-markingü½ visit to Masomoü½ Bora High School starting on 1st April 2021 to 3rd April, 2021. ü½  kindly inform the teachersü½ and the students involved.

(Signature) ü½

Msomi Halisiü½

Principal. ü½


F –  07

C – 02

L –  03


  • Diary

Tuesday, 1st April, 2021

8.00a.m. – Departure (At least one entry – 1mk)

10.00a.m. – Arrival

10.15a.m. – 4.00 Attending lessons in classes


Wednesday, 2nd April, 2021

8.00a.m. – 4.00p.m. – Attending lessons

4.00p.m. – 5.00p.m. – Games (at least one entry – 1mk)


Thursday, 3rd April, 2021

8.00a.m. – 12.30pm – Lessons

2.00p.m. – 3.00p.m. – Meeting in the Assembly Hall

4.00p.m. – Departure (At least one entry)

F –  03

C – 03

L –  02




  • becoming
  • but
  • posing
  • attempts / efforts
  • stamp
  • for
  • poachers / poaching
  • are
  • up
  • in NB:      If the words are misspelled, do not award.

If the words begin with capital letter, do not award.

If there are two alternatives in a black space and one is wrong, do not award


  1. (a) (i)         a b a b c d c d ef ef


  • Creates rhythm / good flow / musicality.
  • Repetition – here

Alliteration – drink, deeply.

–  safe, simple

Sibilance – stone shifting sand.

  • – meadows, ü½  gardens, ü½  running, ü½  hardü½

–  content words.

  • (i) Tongue-twister


(ii)  flea, fly, flew up in a flu. (fl)

NB: The fl sound must be underlined.


  • (i) Should observe turn-taking skills.
    • They should respect each other’s opinion.
    • Focus on win-win.
    • Should observe polite language.
    • Should avoid shouting at each other / calling each other names.
    • Should interrupt politely. (any five)


  • (i)  Beat
    1. I will beat (verb)
    2. The beat of the song is rhythmical (Noun)

(ii) Produce

  1. The produce was adequate (Noun)
  2. Produce the books I gave you. (verb)

NB: Form of word should not change.


  • (i)    been
    • liken
    • colonel
    • mayor
    • cueue


  • (i)    (i)         The age group

(ii)        Gender

  • Education background.


(ii)    I.          Observe eye contact with the speaker.

  1. Avoid distractions.
  • Sit in an upright posture.
  1. Take brief notes.
  2. Observe non-verbal cues. (any three)





Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E.)



(FUNCTIONAL SKILLS)                                                


JULY/AUGUST, 2021                             

  1. FUNCTIONAL SKILLS.                                                                                           (20mks)

Imagine that you have just celebrated your 17th birthday together with friends.  You served them fried rice with chicken.

(a)  Design the telephone message left to your brother on your behalf.                                       (8mks)

(b)  Write the recipe for fried rice you sent to your friend.                                                          (12mks)

  1. CLOZE TEST                                                                                                                   (10mks)


Fill in the blank spaces, with the most appropriate word.

Sister Stefani (1) _______________ sent to serve with other nuns at Gikondi Parish as a nurse.  She (2) ______________herself to caring for the sick.  It is said by  (3) ___________ of her contemporaries that many were the  (4) _____________ that she spent entire days (5) ________________ eating so as to serve her many patients.  Because of this loving service (6) ____________ dedication, the people  of that  (7) _____________ nicknamed her as “Nyaatha” which means “a merciful person.”

According to the document that missionaries kept in Gikondi Parish, there was an (8) ______________ of plague and Sister Stefani  (9) ________________the disease as she was treating one of her patients.  Other nuns had requested her  not to attend to the patient to avoid being (10) ______________.


  1. ORAL SKILLS       (30mks)
    • Read the poem below and then answer the questions that follow.


Thou art indeed just, Lord, if I contend

With thee; but, sir, so what I plead is just.

Why do sinners way prosper? and why must

Disappointment all I endeavour end?

Wert thou my enemy O thou my friend

How wouldst thou worse, I wonder, than thou dost

Defeat, thwart me? Oh, the sots and thralls of lust

Do spare hours more thrive than, that spend,

Sir, life upon thy cause. See, banks and breaks

Now, leavèd how thick! lacèd they are again

With fretty cherril, look, and fresh wind shakes

Them; birds build – but not I build; no, but strain,

Time’s enough, and not breed one work that wakes.

Mine, O thou lord of life, send my roots rain.



  • Identify four examples of assonance in the poem.          (2mks)
  • Write out and describe the rhyme scheme of the poem.                      (2mks)
  • How would you perform the last line of the poem?          (2mks)
  • Indicate whether the following lines in the poem would be said with a falling or rising intonation.


  1. Why do sinners way prosper?
  2. Disappointment all I endeavor end?


  • Complete the following sentences by giving another word pronounced in the same way as the word underlined.                         (5mks)


Around this place you are not allowed to play the music (i) _______________.  The (ii) ___________ caused havoc to the house of our aunts.  We could not bar the children to touch the bear with (iii) ____ hands.  By six o’clock, the men who (iv) ___________ bread had not said bye to their colleagues.  The (v) ___________

is full of nonsensical statements.  They dry (vi)_________ was pounded to fine floor.


  • A leader of a theatre group is visiting your school to arrange for the staging of some set books. You have been appointed by your class to negotiate for favourable entry fees for your class and you are meeting the leader for the first time.
    • State any three points of procedure you would follow before the actual negotiations.             (3mks)
    • Explain any three negotiation skills that you would employ to ensure successful negotiations. (3mks)
  • (i) Underline the stressed syllable in the words below.                                                         (3mks)
  • cere
  • serve
  • deed

(ii)   List three non-verbal cues of communication.                                                               (3mks)

  1. You attend a public lecture on how to prevent cheating in exams on a very hot afternoon.

How would you ensure you pay attention despite the heat and congestion?                                (3mks)

  1. Underline the odd one out in each set of words according to the pronunciation of the underlined letter. (2mks)

(i)   Change, chic, chauvinist


(ii)  Stir, word, star






  1. (a) Relevant costumes.

(b)  Attractive and relevant décor

(c) Appropriate make-up e.g. facial point.

(d)  Use of drum.




  • was
  • dedicated
  • some
  • times
  • without
  • and
  • area / place / region
  • epidemic
  • contracted
  • infected


  1. (a) (i)         Indeed, if; but, just; endeavour, end; wonder, dost, (any other answer) (4 x ½ = 2mks)
    • abba abba     cdcdcd – Regular
    • I would kneel and raise my eyes, use a low, prayerful tone to capture the essence of

prayer.                                                  (Any other appropriate verbal + non verbal cue).

  • (1)  aloud
    • ants
    • bare
    • buy
    • flower            (5mks)
  • (i)    (i)  Book an appointment – by visiting or calling the other party – set up a meeting.

(ii) Be clear on what you want to get out of the deal by:

  • Setting your minimum demands
  • Your actual demands
  • Your optimistic demands

(iii) Know your subject well and the order in which you present your arguments.


(ii)    (i)         Do not always take no for an answer.

(ii)        Be enthusiastic and positively believing in your product.

(iii)       Be flexible – be ready to compromise.

(iv)       Speak simply – avoid jargon.

(v)        Keep cool – observe turn-taking, no irritation etc.

(vi)       Maintain good relations – politeness and goodwill.


  • (i)    Sincere



(ii)    Bowing and curtsying

Good grooming

Use of gestures

Facial expressions

Eye contact

Body postures                                                                                               (any 3)

  1. – Dress lightly.

– Sit near a window (fresh air coming in).

– Sit at the front (to avoid distractions from the back and to hear the speaker clearly).

(Any other logical answer)                                                        (3mks)

  1. (i) Change.

(ii)        Star



Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education.







You are chairperson of your school’s Drama Club.  Your group has participated in the just concluded  National Drama Competition in Nakuru.

Write a report to the patron about the trip.  In your report indicate what you accomplished, the problem you experienced and what cautionary measures you would take during such trips.



Read the following passage and fill in each blank space with the most appropriate word.

(10 marks)

Moi High School Kabarak produced a superhuman performance with close to half their students getting As in KCSE 2014.  More (1) __________________ 90 per cent of their 274 students got either an A or A-, a performance which ought to be (2) ___________________ by all.

It is easy to hothouse a small group of students, but to (3) ________________ top performance across board for such a large and diverse group is beyond excellence.

I was shocked by Alliance’s performance last year, even (4) _______________ I still thought it could be equaled.  Well Kabarak, bettered the result, and they (5) ____________________ so with a large group.  Congratulations to the school, the students and the management.

It also has not (6) _____________________ my eye that Kabarak is co-educational.

How serendipitous (7) ______________________ so soon after my article on why we need co-educational schools one such institution tops the nation!

The logic (8) ______________________ the decision to segregate schools has always been spurious.  It always claims that single-sex schools perform better than co-educational facilities.  This (9) _____________ is not only wholly wrong, but also ends up hurting girls (10) _____________________ there are more national schools reserved for boys.                                           Adapted by daily nation 9th March, 2021


  1. (a) Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow;

When my love swears that she is made of truth,

I do believe her, though I know she lies.

That she might think me some untutored youth,

Unlearned in the world’s false subleties.

Thus vainly thinking that she thinks me young,

Although she knows my days are past the best.

Simply I credit her false speaking tongue

On both sides thus is simple truth suppressed.

But wherefore says shes not unjust?

And wherefore says not I that I am old?

O love’s best habit is seeming trust,

And age in love loves not to have years told.

Therefore I lie with her, and she with me,

And in our faults by lies we flattered be.


(i)  Identify and illustrate the sound patterns in the poem.                                                               (6 marks)

(ii)  Explain and illustrate the rhyme scheme in the poem.                                                               (2 marks)

(ii)  “Therefore i lie with her, and she with me.  And in our faults by lies we flattered be.”  Identify and explain the pun.                                                                                                                                         (2 marks)

(b)  In the following groups of words one of the bolded sounds is different from the rest, underline theword.                                                                                                                                                           (5 marks)

  1. comfort                        communion                  compare                       confess
  2. saw                  sort                              hot                               caught
  3. fair                   here                              appear                          beer
  4. pool                  poor                             insure                           pure
  5. ensign              assign                           consign                         resign
    (c)  When you are having a conversation with a friend, how would you know that it is your turn to speak?  (3 marks)

(d)  You are attending an English symposium for all students in your sub-county.  When a student from your school takes the pondium, you notice that she/he is afraid.  Give three indicators of ear that would be

exhibited by that student and suggest how those could be overcomed.                                                    (6 marks)


Oral skills

(e)  The following conversation is between you and the manager of the company to which you have applied for employment.  Fill the missing blanks with the appropriate responses.                                                (6 marks)

MANAGER:           Ah good morning, Mrs. Matiang’i.

YOU:                     __________________________________________________________          (1 mark)

MANAGER:           Of course you’ve applied for a position in the company.  Do sit down and please tell me about

your education.

YOU:                     ___________________________________________________________  (1 mark)

MANAGER:           How did you perform in college in academic and extra curricular activities?

YOU:                     ___________________________________________________________ (1 mark)

MANAGER:           I see.  Why did you not advance your academic further?

YOU:                     ___________________________________________________________  (1 mark)

MANAGER:           Did you have any particular reason for applying to us?

YOU:                     ___________________________________________________________ (1 mark)

MANAGER:           Okey, that will be enough for now.  We will contact you.

Thank you.

YOU:                     ____________________________________________________________      (1 mark)








  1. Functional Skills.

Point of interpretation.

Functional composition marked out of 20 mks.

Must be report.


Report layout. 2 mks

Report tone of language (formal, passive voice)2 mks

Grammar (Tenses, punctuation, agreement)2 mks

The report must address the following;

Introduction: Purpose and preparation of visit /

reason for writing a report. 2 mks

Body: Activities you participated in  and your


Achievement of the trip.

Problems encountered

Precautions to be put in place

Conclusion: Recommendations.

Signing off 1 mk

  1. Cloze test.
  2. than
  3. lauded
  4. produce
  5. though
  6. did
  7. escaped
  8. that
  9. behind
  10. argument

10 since

  1. (a)

(i)   Alliteration: Thus, Thinking, That   – line 5

Rhythm: Created by the regular beat.

Monosyllabic and bisyllabic wards.

Monosyllabic : Thus that she-   line 6

Bisyllabic : Vainly, thinking   –  Line 5                          any three illustrated points – 6 mks

(ii)  Regular scheme – ab ab cd cd ag dg hh

(iii) Lie to sleep.

Lie to cheat

(b) 1. comfort

  1. hot
  2. fair
  3. pool
  4. resign


  • When a speaker asks a question.
  • When the friend/speaker pauses.
  • When the speaker uses a rising / falling intonation to indicate they have finished talking.
  • When the friend uses fillers such as: You know… You see.
  • When the speaker hits that you may add something to his suggestions 3 mks

(d)  (I)

  1. Trembling hands.
  2. Beads of sweat of the forehead.
  3. Stammering and trembling lips.
  4. Avoiding eye contact with audience.
  5. Shaky paper or the reading material he/she is holding. 6 mks

(II)       How to overcome.

  • Taking a deep breath before presentation.
  • Mastering the content.
  • Organising the presentation / points in a logical manner.
  • Looking over the audience instead of looking at them directly.
  • Reheasing well before the presentation with a friend or in front of a mirror.


  1. You: Give name and state the job applied for.
  2. You: Education levels in primary and secondary grades.
  3. You: College area of study and attained (grades)
  4. You: Reason for not proceeding. e.g need to practice skill acquired before furthering etc.
  5. You: e.g vacancy seen in an advert and was in line with your studies, etc
  6. You: Thanks for the time given.  Leave contact address with the secretary.




KIRINYAGA WEST SUB-COUNTY EFFECTIVE ‘40’  examination. Form 4 exam -2021

kenya certificate of secondary education



paper 1

(Functional skills)



  1. FUNCTIONAL WRITING                                                                               (20 mks)
  2. Your elder sister who lives in Mombasa is organizing a get together and has invited you to stay in her house for four days. She is required to prepare a dish for six guests.

(a)  Email her a recipe of your favourite dish.                                                                             (14 mks)

(b)  Prepare a packing list of the personal items you will need for the vist.                                  (6 mks)


  1. CLOZE TEST                                                                                                                   (10 mks)

Fill in each of the blank spaces in the passage below with the most appropriate word

Samuel Wanjiru, the (1) ________________ olympic champion, could not have died from falling  (2) _____________ the balcony, a pathologist has (3) ________________.

(4) ________________ in a court inquest into the (5) ________________ of the former athlete, former chief pathologist Dr. Moses Njue said he was told that the (6) ________________ Wanjiru would occasionally jump off the same (7) ______________,  and that he could not have died from the same.

Dr. Njue told the court that Wanjiru died from an “Independent” hit at the back (8) _______________ his head.

Njue referred to a postmortern he conducted on May 27, 2011 (9) _________________ with Government Pathologist Dr. Johannesen Oduor, Dr. Emily Rogena for Wanjiru’s mother and Dr. Peter Ndegwa who was representing  Wanjiru’s (10) ________________ Trizah Njeri.

He told the court that Wanjiru, being an athlete, fell over the balcony “like a cat” facing foward.



(a)  Read the poem below and then answer the questions that follow


He clasps the crag, with crooked hands,

close to the sun in lonely hands

Rung’d with the azure world, he stands.


The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls,

He watches from his mountain walls

And like a thunderbolt he falls


(i)   Identify and illustrate two mnemonic effects (sound devices) in the poem                            (4 mks)

(ii) What has the poet achieved by use of the patterns above                                                                  (1 mk)

(iii) Which words would you stress in the last line and why?                                                                  (2 mks)

(iv) What gesture would you use while reciting line 1 of the poem?                                           (1 mk)

(v) Imagine you are perfoming this poem to learners who are visually impaired (blind). Explain two ways                      in which you would ensure that they get the message effectively.                                  (2 mks)

(b)  Classify the words below according to the sounds indicated below                                              (4 mks)

seal, mirage, keys, portion, ratio, axe, pleasure, daze

/s/               /z/              /  /                      /   /

(c)  For each of the following letters, provide a word in which the letter is silent                                           (3 mks)

(i)         r ___________________________________________________________________

(ii)        h __________________________________________________________________

(iii)       t __________________________________________________________________


(d)  Study the genre below and answer the questions that follows:

A counsellor wanted to teach her students about self esteem, so she asked anyone who thought they were stupid to stand up. One student  stood up and the counsellor was suprised. She didn’t think anyone would stand up so she asked him, “why did you stand up?”

He answered, “I didn’t want to leave you standing up alone”

(i)   Classify the genre above                                                                                                      (1mk)

(ii) State two functions of the genre above                                                                                (2 mks)

(iii) State and illustrate two characteristics of the genre                                                              (2 mks)

(e)  You are giving a talk on the dangers of HIV/AIDs pandemic to a group of young people. Your talk centres around loss of relatives and friends, orphaned children and the general impoverishment of  your village. Describe any two possible ways of ending the talk and explain the advantages of each one of them                         (2 mks)


(f)  Read the conversation below between two students from Masomo Mazuri High School and then answer the question that follows:

WAKONYO:    (Shortly after attending an English symposium)

Good morning, Kebu. How are you fairing on with your academic work?

KEBU :            Good morning. I don’t even wish to talk about my performance. I didn’t get the score                                                I had promised.

WAKONYO:    Come on, Kebu, you are taking your failure too much to heat. I know it is a great                                                        disapointment to score a grade below what you expected in the pre-mocks and I                                                      sympathise with you but you must not allow it to make you so unhappy.

KEBU:             (Looks sullen) It is all very well for a lucky lass like you, Wakonyo. You have                                                           passed and you would not feel cheerful if you were in my place.

WAKONYO:    (Leaning forward) I know, but you must pull yourself together, and wake your                                                           mind up. you will pass next time. Remember the old saying, “If you dont suceed,  try, try, try


KEBU:             I think the other version of the saying has more sense to it. “ If at first you don’t succeed, quit,

quit, quit at once!

WAKONYO:    (Nodding her head encouragingly) Mm……………….

KEBU:             I should just give up

WAKONYO:    Oh nonsense! You’ll never do anything if you don’t persevere. Now why do you        think you


KEBU:             Last term had been very challenging for me. I was down with malaria for three weeks and I

could not prepare properly.

WAKONYO:    Well, you did have bad luck, I am sorry. But I am sure you  will do well in the mocks and

National Exams, so you must make your mind to win through

KEBU:             I wish I had your will power. Still, I will take your advice and put more effort.

WAKONYO:  That’s the way forward! And Iam sure you will register a better grade next time.


(i)        Identify and explain three strengths in Wakonyo’s speaking and listening skills   (6mks)


KIRINYAGA WEST SUB-COUNTY EFFECTIVE ‘40’ examination           



marking scheme

  1. a) Functional Writing
  • A recipe sent through an e-mail
  • Expect the format of an e-mail
  • The student should use subject for the title of the body instead of RE/REF
  • The Recipe must have a heading (1mk)
    • Must have the subheadings:
    • ingredients (1 mk)
    • method
  • The e-mail must have the address of the sender ( 1mk)
  • Must have the address of the receiver (1 mk)
  • Must have a date (1 mk)
  • Must have a subject (1 mk)
  • The email must be from the writer (you) and to your sister             (1mk)
  • It must be a dish not a snack (1 mk)
  • The dish must be for five people (1 mk)
  • The steps in the method must be written in point form and numbered (1 mk)
  • Must use imperative language (1 mk)

Total = 10 mks


– No capitals

– No spacing in the e-mail address otherwise, don’t award






Signing off:


Language = 4 mks

Total = 14 mks

  1. b) Packing list

Must have

  1. A heading – A PACKING LIST FOR ……………        ( 1 mk)
  2. At least 6 items                                                        @ 1/2 mk (1/2 X 6)   =  (3 mks)
  3. Quantity indicated for number                                 (1 mk)
  4. Description (i.e clothing beddings, toiletries)                        (1 mk)

Total = (6mks)

NB: Can be tabulated e.g

A PACKING LIST FOR……………………………….

No.             Item     Quantity           Description









  1. CLOZE TEST (10mks)



  1. former
  2. off
  3. said
  4. Testifying
  5. death
  6. late
  7. balcony
  8. of
  9. together
  10. widow


NB: All the answers except number 4 must begin in the lower case

  • wrong spelling = 0 mark
  • should only be one word, if not award 0

(a)  (i)         Alliteration – clasps crag crooked

onamatopoea – thunderbolt

rhyme – hands -stands

– clawls – walls

(ii)        Gives musicality of the poem, making it memorable and enjoyable

(iii)       Thunderbolt – This is because it captures the  meaning of the line and vividly captures the strength of

the eagle.

(iv)       I would fold my hand into a fist to vividly show how     the eagle flies

(v)        Being audible/voice protection

  • Pronounciation/ Articulation of words correctly
  • Vary pitch
  • stress important words

(b)  /S/        /Z/        /  /                   /  /

seal      keys     ratio                 mirage

axe       daze     portion             pleasure

(c)  r – cart

h – white

t – depot

(d) (i)         It is a joke

(ii)        Functions         socialization




  • It is humorons
  • It is funny
  • It is entertaining
  • It is hilarious

(e)  When ending the speech, ensure that you leave the       audience either laughing and applauding or quiet and

thoughtful. This can be achieved through:

  • A short but touching story – Refer to the introduction. You can complete a story or anecdote you used to  introduce the speech.
  • End with a quotation
  • End with a proverb. Proverbs are sayings whose wisdom has stood the test of the time. Ending with a proverb is quiete effective
  • End with a dramatic statement. This might take the form of a sensational revelation about HIV/AIDS
  • If you started with a startling statistic, you could conclude with yet another startling statistic to complement the first one


  • Listens attentively to Kebu without interupting
  • Puts herself in Kebu’s shoes and tries to understand his position
  • Tries to lessen the tension by lowering Kebu’s anger
  • Explains clearly why she disagrees with Kebu and tries to tackle the problem soberly
    • Uses polite language……… “ I am sorry ………”
    • Emphathizes with Kebu …….. “ Iam sorry …….”
    • Assures her all will be well ……… Iam sure you will register a better grade next time”.










Imagine that you are the chairperson of the student’s council in your school. Your school is holding a fund raising dinner in aid of a school hall. The class is given the invitation cards to give to their parents during the midterm break. You inform your parents/ guardian but forgot to give them the card.                                     (20 mks)


  1. i) Write a reminder to your parents on the upcoming fund raise.                   (10 mks)
  2. ii) Attach the invitation card that you forgot to give them       (10 mks)

Read the passage below and complete each blank space with an appropriate word                      (10 mks)

Citizen used to  1 ____________________ that political leaders would observe the principles of good governance simply 2_______________________  they were expected to.  3_______________________

it appears most leaders on the continent have replaced integrity with reckless impunity that has

4___________________________ Africa in chaos. 5__________________________ Office are also supposed  to be 6___________________________ to the people that entrusted them with them the

7________________________________ of leading them. 8__________________________, the political elite in the continent see people as a means to an end. In many countries these days, Kenya included, politics has become the easiest way to make money. Electioneering is seen as an 9____________________ with extremely lucrative returns when campaign loyalties are 10____________________________ with appointments in the government of the day.


  1. Oral Skills       (30 mks)

Read the following poem then answer the question that follow.


A song in springs

O little buds all burgeoning with spring

You hold my winter in forgetfulness

Without my window lilac branches swing

Within my gate I hear a robin sing

O little laughing blooms that lift and bless!


So blow the breezes in a soft caress

Blowing my dreams upon swallow’s wing;

O little merry buds in dappled dress

You fill my heart with very wantonness-

Oh little buds all burgeoning with spring

By Thomas S. Jones Jr.


  1. a) Explain what makes this an oral poem       (4 mks)
  2. b) How has rhythm been achieved in this poem.       (3 mks)
  3. c) How would you perform the last two lines in this poem       (4 mks)
  4. d) Give another word pronounced as the following       (3 mks)
  5. i) Gate            __________________________________________________________________________
  6. ii) You __________________________________________________________________________

iii) Here ________________________________________________________________________

  1. e) Imagine you are performing this poem to learners who are visually impaired. Explain four ways in which you would ensure that they get the message effectively                               (3 mks)
  2. f) Indicate where you would place the stress mark in the following words by (/) to make them either Nouns or Verbs as shown in the brackets.                                           (5 mks)
  3. i) Import (Nouns)
  4. ii) Export (Verb)

iii) Transport                (Noun)

  1. iv) Object (Verb)
  2. v) Produce (Noun)


  1. g) In the following sentences, the speaker made errors, rewrite the sentences correctly replacing the under-

lined words and expressions with appropriate ones to communicate the intended meaning.         (5 mks)


  1. a) I am sorry to say, Sir Anthony, that my affluence over my niece is very small
  2. b) An usher will sew you to your sheet.
  3. c) He is very pineapple of eloquence.
  4. d) It will take a lot of public fund to bring back the abnormal.
  5. e) Kabito is a green grass in a green snake.
  6. h) You speak to a group of form ones about an issue of concern and you notice during the talk that many of them are dozing, yawning, fidgeting and silting carelessly. What would this mean to you? (3 mks)









QUESTION 1 Functional skills

      (i) Write a reminder to your parents on the upcoming fund raiser                         (10 mks)



      TO                         : All parents of Masomo Secondary School.

      FROM                   : The Chairperson of Masomo Secondary School Students Council,

      DATE                    :16th July 2021

      SUBJECT              :Fund raising

Please remember that the school will be holding a fund raising dinner in aid of a school hall on Saturday 4th September 2021 starting at 6.00pm. Kindly attend the aforementioned function to support the school in its programmes as it endeavors to provide quality education.


Kali Richardson

Chairperson of Student’s Council

  1. ii) Attach the invitation card that you forgot to give the. (10 mks)




Prof/ Dr/ Rev/ Mr/ Mrs/ Ms…………………………………………………………………

To a fundraising dinner that will be held on Saturday, 4th September 2021

from 6.00 p.m in the school dinning hall

The guest of honor will be

Rev. Jeremiah Victor

Only photographers accredited by the management of the school are allowed to take photographs


The Board of Management

Masomo Secondary School

Box 100


Tel : 072300000


Question 2 cloze test

  1. Assume
  2. because
  3. unfortunately
  4. left
  5. those
  6. accountable
  7. privilege / responsibility
  8. however
  9. Investment
  10. Rewarded

Oral skills

(a) The presence of direct address Ö 1 such as you had my winter in forgetfulness.Ö 1

RepetitionÖ 1 the line “O little buds all burgeoning with spring”Ö 1

(b)        – rhythm has been achieved through rhyme;Ö 1 – spring/ swing Ö 1

            – Alliteration of sounds /1/ Ö 1 in little laughingÖ 1

Assonance of sounds /U/ in buds….burgeoning

(c)- Tonal variation Ö1 for instance I would have raised my tone on reciting the second last line but lower it on reciting the last line. Ö 1

– Use gestures. Ö 1 I could have touched my left hand side of the chest with my hand when reciting the lines. Ö 1                            (Award any other performance aspect with appropriate example)

(d)        i) gait

ii)ewe/ yew

iii) Hear

  1. e) – I will vary my tone of reciting the various lines appropriately Ö 1

– I will involve the learners in recitation of some lines. Ö 1

– I will recite the poem more than once. Ö 1

– I will ensure my voice projection is good. Ö1

  1. f) i) ‘Import (noun) Ö 1
  2. ii) Ex’port (verb) Ö 1

iii)’Transport                (noun) Ö 1

  1. iv) Ob’ject (verb) Ö 1

v)’Produce                    (noun) Ö 1

  1. g) i) I am sorry to say sir Anthony, that my influence over my niece is very small Ö 1
  2. ii) An usher will show you your seat. Ö 1

iii) He is the very pinnacle of eloquence Ö 1

  1. iv) It will take a lot of public fund to bring back the abnormality. Ö 1
  2. v) Kabito is a green snake in a green grass. Ö 1
  3. h) The students are: bored Ö 1

That shows they are tired Ö 1

Your voice projection is poor.



      Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)




      PAPER 1  

  1. Imagine you are the Principal of Bahati Secondary School. Mr David Kamau, an alumini of the school has recently been recruited as a clerk in Coca- Cola Kenya Ltd and the management has requested you to give them a
  1. CLOZE TEST (10 marks)

Read the passage below and fill each blank spaces with the most appropriate word.

When you hear a gunshot you (1) _______ actually thank God; a bullet (2) _______ faster than the speed of sound (3) ________ chances are you would not hear a kill shot. In the middle (4) _______ untold danger the gravest enemy is not the (5) _______, but the panic that naturally grips us. Overcoming this hysteria is (6) ______ first battle. At the ring of a gunshot, lie flat on the ground and then (7) _______ listen to ascertain the (8) ______ of the shots. Looking around or even (9) ________ running and screaming makes you an easy (10) ________. Lie low as you quickly find a cover position behind a bullet – resistant surface.

  2. Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow.

Horizons by Kalungi Kabuye

As I meditate

And levitate

In human state

No one can see

How the internal sea

Wells up with hope

But lets hope

Life so dear

With love so near

And closeness so close

Will bring home

The thing that we hope

Means to transform

Even the simplest digit

Into a magnified seed

Of a mustard tree

  1. Which words would you stress in line (i) of the poem and why?       (2 marks)
  2. How has rhythm been achieved in this poem?       (4 marks)
  • What tone of voice would be appropriate in recitation of this poem?       (2 marks)
  1. How would you say the last line of this poem?       (1 mark)
  2. Provide a word which sounds the same as each of the following:       (4 marks)
  3. Face
  4. Though
  • Dam
  1. Prophet
  2. Indicate whether the following have a rising or falling intonation.       (3 marks)
  3. What a wonderful watch you have!
  4. Hand in your answer sheets now.
  • Can I assist you?
  1. You are expected to address an assembly of noisy students. How would you ensure that they listen to you?                               (4 marks)


  1. Read the following telephone conservation and answer the questions that follow:

RECEPTIONIST:    Good morning, this is Chase Construction Company. What can I do for you?

CALLER:               What is your name and who are you in that company?

RECEPTIONIST:    I am Agnes and I am the receptionist. May I ……..

CALLER:               If so, you may not be of any help. I want to speak to the boss.

RECEPTIONIST:    Excuse me, who specifically do you want to speak to yet you have not told me your name?

CALLER:               They call me DJ Karos or Man P, the king of……

RECEPTIONIST:    Sorry for interruption DJ, you have not given the name of the officer you want to speak to.

CALLER:               Oh! It is the man who issues works.

RECEPTIONIST:    I do not understand you.

CALLER:               Come on! Do not tell me you do not know the human officer.

RECEPTIONIST:    Do you mind holding on as I put you through to the Human Resource   Officer?

CALLER:               You guys advertised works in the papers which I realized I can manage but…….

OFFICER:              Sorry sir, have you applied for the job?

CALLER:               How did you expect me to know that? Am I an angel?

OFFICER:              Sorry for inconvenience.

CALLER:               You are not sorry; give me this work right away.

  1. Identify ways in which telephone etiquette has been flouted in this conservation.                   (6 marks)
  2. How has the receptionist demonstrated effective conversational skills?       (4 marks)




  • Should be a confidential report
  • Two addresses; principal’s √ ½ and cocacola’s √ ½
  • Dates after the first address √ 1
  • Salutation: Dear sir/ madam √ 1
  • Reference √ ½ should have the name and subject and position in question.√ ½
  • First paragraph should confirm that the principals knows the subject
  • Second paragraph to describe the subject dwelling mainly on the strength of the subject√ ½
  • Should have a less consequential mention of one of the subject’s weaknesses.√ ½
  • Should have signed off valediction
  • Body (10 marks)
  • Grammar (4 marks)


  1. should
  2. travels
  3. and
  4. of
  5. assailant/ attacker
  6. the
  7. keenly
  8. direction
  9. worse
  10. target


  1. a) I √ ½  & meditate √ ½ – they are content√ words and emphases the seriousness of thoughts going on in the

persona’s mind

  1. Through the use of rhyme √ 1 e.g. mediate/ levitate√ 1

-alliteration√ 1 wells√ 1 with, close, closeness√ 1

-Assonance √1 – simplest digit, √ 1

– mustard tree, closeness so

            1mark for identification

            1 mark for illustration

            Mark any two 2X 2= 4 marks

  • Optimstic tone√- the persona hopes that with love and closeness, the simplest digit can be transformed into a

magnified seed√ of a mustard tree                                                                                 1 x 2= 2  marks

  • Falling intonation- for finality
  • Slowly and deliberately√
  • Use appropriate facial expressions
  • Stress the content words

            Mark one verbal and one non- vebal award ½ mark each

            Total = 1 mark

  1. Phase √
  2. Thaw√
  • Damn√
  1. Profit√ 4 x 1
  2. Rising √
  3. Falling√
  4. rising√

      May use arrow          rising         falling

–     start by greeting them

–     Clap or ring the bell

     clear the throat

     use anecdote or a joke

     make use of appropriate gestures

     use appropriate facial expressions

Any other relevant answer                                                                                           4 x 1= 4 marks

  1. -The caller does not identify/ introduce himself and when he does, he uses nicknames- “I an Dj Karos, Man P”
  • The caller does not use polite language, he is rude- “how did you expect me to know that, I am an angel?”
  • Proud/ bossy/ patronizing- “they call me, you may not be of any help”
  • Interrupts impolitely/ rudely
  • Uses a slang in a formal conversational eg works, DJ Karos
  • Any relevant answer

Mark any three and should be illustrated

1 mark for identification 1 mark for illustration

No mark for identification without illustration and vice versa                                     3 x 2= 6 marks

  • Identifies herself
  • Use polite expression- “what can I do for you, do you mind.”
  • Interrupts politely
  • Exercises self control when the caller says you may not be of any help
  • Connects the caller to the human resources officer
  • Seeks clarification- “I do not understand you.”             4 x 1= 4 marks







      Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

      101/1 ENGLISH


  1. You are the Public Health Officer of Londiani Sub-county Hospital. There is an outbreak of cholera in the sub-county. The county cabinet secretary of health has requested you together with the members of the Hospital’s public Health Committee, to carry out an investigation and present a report to her. Write a report you would present.                                                                   (20mks)
  2. Read the passage below and fill in each blank space with an appropriate word. (10 mks)

To rank or not rank? This is the(1)___________________that greeted the(2)____________on ranking of schools and students based on their performance in national examinations.(3)________________and cons on the decision by the government.


(4)__________________been put forth with education officials giving varied (5) __________________

(6)__________________the debate on the issue is gradually being relegated to the periphery, it is (7) _________________from being conducive. It is (8) _______________that scholars and education experts,(9)_____________should be the guiding lights  by providing enlightened(10)_____________have been conspicuous in their silence on this burning issue.                              (Saturday Nation Newspaper 4/4/2021)

  1. (a)Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow.


The sun spun like

a tossed coin

it whirled on the azure sky,

it clattered into the horizon,

it clicked in the slot,

and neon lights popped,

and blinked ‘time expired’

as on a parking meter.

(Oswald Mbusiyeni: mtshaki)

  1. Describe the rhyme scheme of the poem                   (2 marks)
  2. How would you say the last line of this poem       (2 marks)
  • State any two onomatopoeic words in the poem.                   (2 marks)
  1. Identify any other sound pattern used in the poem.       (1 mark)
  2. State and illustrate three non-verbal cues that you would use to make the recitation of the above poem interesting.                                     (3 marks)
  3. You are a radio presenter with Classic FM and you are scheduled to interview the Deputy President about terrorism and piracy in Kenya.
  4. What preparations would you carry out before the interview.             (3 marks)
  5. What strategies would you employ during the interview?                                     (3 marks)

(c)  Study the proverb below.

“Haraka haraka haina Baraka.”

  1. Translate the proverb into English.       (1 mark)
  2. Comment on the various sound dynamics in the proverb.                   (2 marks)
  • Explain the meaning of the proverb.       (2 marks)
  1. Give an example of a proverb that is similar in meaning to the one above                   (1 mark)
  2. Give two characteristic of proverbs.       (2 marks)
  3. The underlining indicates the stressed word in the sentences below. Briefly explain what each sentence means.                               (3 marks)
  4. Tony hit Sue today
  5. Tony hit sue today.
  • Tony hit sue today
  1. In each of the following groups of words, one of the underlined is different from the rest. Identify the word with the different sound.                   (3 marks)
  2. Chasm Chic Choir
  3. Exercise Equity E
  • Gigolo Genre G





  1. Must be in report format. If not deduct 2AD

Format – 7 marks

Heading or title 1 mark (capitalized and underlined)

Terms of reference or introduction√ 1

Procedure √1

Findings √1

Conclusion √ 1

Recommendations √ 1

Signing off √1

Content 8 marks

  1. Terms of reference/ introduction

Show the pourpose of the report (1 mk)

  1. Procedure (2 mks)

Candidate to show how they collected the information e.g. interviewing, observation, visits, questionnaires etc

  1. Findings (2 mks)
  2. Conclusion (1 mk)

The candidate should deduce from the findings or date collected. It should not be new information.

  1. Recommendations (2 mks)
  • The candidate should give at least two recommendations
  • Should be in point form
  • Language accuracy 4 marks
  • Ability to communicate accurately
  • Proficient use of language structures
  • Coherence
  • Appropriate punctuation
  • Penalize for poor grammar (tenses, punctuations. S.V.A)
  • Penalize for sentence construction, spelling mistakes etc
  • Tone – must be formal
  • Use of passive language (if not deduct 1AD)


  • question
  • ban
  • Pros
  • have
  • reasons
  • although
  • far
  • surprising
  • who
  • opinions



–     Expect only one word per blank space

–     Alternatives where one is wrong award 0

–     Misuse of capital letters award 0

–     If spelling is wrong award 0



  1. a)
  2. Irregular rhyme scheme 1 mk                               abcdefgh √1 mk
  3. The line would be said slowly and softly- end of the day. √ 1 mk                                           with a falling intonation- to show finality √ 1 mk
  • Popped, blinked, whirled, clattered, clicked (2 mks)
  1. Alliteration – sun spun

Assonance – sun spun

(any 1 x1= 1 mk)(the sound must be underlined)

  1. Use of gestures

Facial expressions

Tonal variation


(they must illustrate where and when)                                                               Any three 1x 3 = 3 mks

  1. Make an appointment with the interviewee

Set the time for the interview

Inform the interviewee and listeners about the interview

Set specific objectives for the interviewee

Read and understand more on terrorism and piracy

Set the interview questions in a systematic clear manner                             (any 3x 1= 3 mks)

  1. Begin the interview with introduction eg personal details

Make the topic of the interview clear

Allocate appropriate time to each event that would take place

Ask specific questions of the interview

Manage the time allocated                                                                          (any 3x 1= 3 mks)


  1. Hurry hurry has no blessings √ 1 mk
  2. Alliteration haraka haina Baraka √ 1 mk

Assonance haraka haina Baraka √ 1 mk

(½ mark identification, ½ mark illustration)

  • Things done in haste have little benefit

It is used in advising people against rushing into doing things without stopping to think.√ 2 mks

  1. Brevity

Used sound pattern

Have two parts- proposition and the completion

Have word images

Draws its objects and imagery fro the community or environment around that community

(any 2x 1= 2 mks)

  1. Tony and not anyone else hit sue
  2. Tony only hit sue and did nothing else to her
  • Tony did not hit sue on any other day but today. (1 mark each)
  1. Chic
  2. Example
  • Genre




      Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

      101/1 ENGLISH


  1. FUNCTIONAL WRITING                                                                                                    (20 marks)

You are the secretary of a committee that is planning for a fundraiser for the construction of science laboratory. During the meeting two members are absent and nobody knows where they are. The meeting is also attended by the class teacher and a parent’s representative. The following issues are discussed in the meeting. Guest of honour , ways of raising funds and the students participation.

Write the minutes of the meeting.

  1. CLOZE TEST (10 marks)

Find each of the blanks spaces below with the most appropriate word.

In the past couple of months ,Kenya has(1)______________to deal with a swarm of security(2)_________.The knee jerk reaction of the political class as well as citizens and netizens has been to play(3)____________games. And while we are quick to apportion blame, we adopt the speed(4)___________a sloth to offer solutions.

We have become (5)____________the mediaval kingdoms(6)_________________solutions was to put someone’s head  on a platter(8)_____________it is unlikely that many people will remain with their heads intact because as a country we face myriad challenges and may will be with (9)________for years to come.

But for now, let us keep our focus on the issue of national security(10)_____________problems in this sector are structural, not individual.

  1. (a)ORAL SKILLS (30 marks)

Read the song below and then answer the questions that follow.

One hand cannot manage work

A threshing stick cannot thresh millet with one hand

Some hands breed hatred at eating time

Nobody hates being assisted

Let the millet be threshed.

Let it be threshed, let it be threshed.


Cut a threshing stick for me

A lazy wife

Is taken back to her parents

When the rain fails

It blames the wind

And lazy woman

Blames the threshing stick

Cut a threshing stick for me…ii

My co-wife cut me a threshing stick


You woman, owner of the occasion

Remember that work is the stomach

Take care not to starve us

The threshing sticks are resounding

Let the millet leave the threshing grounds.


  1. a) (i) Identify and illustrate any two sound patterns in the above song.                                                     (4 marks)

(ii)  How would you say lines 17-19 in the above song.                                                               (2 marks)

(b)  You are performing a solo verse during the country music festival .What could you do to sustain maximum attention of your audience?                                                                                                               (4 marks)

(c)  Underline the silent sounds in the following words.                                                                   (5 marks)

  • Plumb
  • Rendezvous
  • Poignant
  • Mortgage
  • Aisle

(d)  The chairperson of the Uwezo Fund in your sub-county has invited you to his office in connection to a loan application you had made for your local youth group. As the secretary give convincing reasons why you deserve the loan.                                                                                                                                       (6 marks)

(e)  Write two sentences using each of the given words given words to bring out the difference in meaning.(4 marks)

  • Convict
  • Refuse

(f)  Rewrite the following passage changing all gender specific nouns to neutral ones.                      (5 marks)

Yesterday I took a taxi to the interview venue. On reaching the gate, I found a watchman who directed me to the room where the panel was sitting .I found several young men and women waiting to go in. A beautiful lady came and called me. In the interview room, I found the chairman and other members of the panel seated. They were all friendly except one man who kept asking me very difficult questions.


Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education


Marking Scheme

  1. Functional writing

Must be minutes of class meeting. If not deduct 2 mks A

(i)   Format


Attendance – Present

– Absent

– In attendance


Reading and confirmation of previous minutes

Business of the day

– Guest of Honour

– Ways of raising funds

– Student participation


Adjournment/closing                                                                                              Total = 8 mks

(ii) Content/body

Candidates must capture clearly the three items agenda for the day. Award 2 marks for each individual item of the agenda.                                                                                                                           2 x 3 = 6 mks

(iii) Language         4. Excellent

  1. Good
  2. Average
  3. Poor 4 mks

(iv) Tone – Formal = 2 mks


  2. had
  3. challenges/problems
  4. blame
  5. of
  6. like
  7. whose
  8. out
  9. then
  10. us
  11. our
  12. (a) Sound patterns

(i)   Alliteration – hand – hatred

Repetition – let millet be threased

Idiophone – me – ii

Assonance – rain fails

(ii) I would use a rising intonation accompanied by a finger pointing at an imaginary woman and a

commanding voice to remind her to realize that work cannot be done with an empty stomach which will end with a falling intonation.

(b) – Maintain eye contact

– Be audible enough

– Use appropriate facial expression

– Very your tone appropriately

– Upright posture

– Be confident

– Be humorous

– Make dramatic pauses

– Use apt gestures                                                                                             Any 4, 1 mk each

(c)  – Funds will empower the your financially will discourage idleness among youth.

– Reduce drug abuse and crime.

– Bring goods and services closer to the local community.

– Spur/trigger/bring development to local community.

Any 6, 1 mk each

(d) – The form of the word must be retained, if not no score.

– The sentence must be grammatically correct if not award ½ mk

– The difference in meaning must be well brought out.

(i)  The convict was released from prison yesterday.

The judge convict your for handling stolen.

(ii) Chuka Municipal Council has brought a new refuse collector.

I refuse to compromise my principles.

(f) (i)  Security officer/guard/personnel

(ii)  Interviewees/people/ladies and gentlemen

(iii) Receptionist

(iv) Chairperson/chair/coordinate

(v)  Person/panelist/individual


      Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)




      PAPER 1  

  1. a)Your study group has been assigned to write a review of the play, The Caucasian Chalk Circle, for presentation to the class in two week’s time.

Write the book review.                                                                                                        (12 marks)

  1. b) Similarly, your subject teacher writes a reminder to the group on the importance of completing this

assignment in time. Write the reminder the group received.                                                 (8 marks)


      Read the passage below and fill in the blank spaces with the most appropriate word

Some students know so (1)________ that they are unable to understand and do the tasks that the examiner requires of them. This is also, (2) ________ often the result of lack of proper preparation on their part (3) _______ the teacher’s (4) _______to teach them. Rarely is this (5) ____ due to lack of teaching and access to books. Another aspect is the unfortunate desire (6) _____ many student’s part to try to impress. The desire often leads to (7) ______ use of vocabulary that distorts communication completely. Students are advised to use vocabulary that they are (9) ______ with and understand their meaning if not, the examiner is more likely to find out the fault with your diction than be impressed (10) ________ it.

  1. a) Read the poem below and then answer the questions that follow.

There are words like freedom

Sweet and wonderful to say

On my heartstrings freedom sings

All day everyday

There are words like liberty

That almost makes me cry

If you had known what I know

You would know why.

(Langston Hughes)

  1. Describe the rhyme scheme of the poem.                   (2 marks)
  2. How would you perform line 6 of the poem.       (2 marks)
  • Give two pairs of rhyming words in the poem.       (2 marks)
  1. Why do you think the words freedom and liberty are in italics.       (2 marks)
  2. Provide homophones for the following words used in the poem.       (3 marks)
  3. There
  4. Sweet
  5. Know
  6. Utaala nya rukana baba yata vuza zing’ombe (luhya)

(Whoever did not see his/ her mother when she was still young and beautiful imagines that her/ his father just gave away his cows.

  1. Explain a situation where this genre is applicable.             (2 marks)
  2. What role does the genre play in the situation you have described in (ii)                         (2 marks)
  3. Identify and explain three different situations in which it will be courteous for you to maintain a respectable distance as you interact with people.                               (6 marks)
  4. Study the following conservation then answer the questions that follow:

Michael:     Hey, you! What is it?

Paul :         Two fifteen. Can’t you buy your own watch?

Michael:     Ah! Don’t ask me funny questions. Is there a bus stop here?

Paul :         Yeah that way, towards the market. You don’t know where to board a bus? Some people are


Michael:     Don’t you see I’m a stranger? Where did you say the bus stop is? Near which market?

Paul :         Ah! I told you that way! Don’t you have ears? The bus stop is that way, towards the market!

Michael:     Don’t shout at me! Don’t shout! I don’t know what’s wrong with some people. I just don’t


Paul:           Go away. I don’t know what’s wrong with you either.

  1. What is the setting of this conservation?                         (2 marks)
  2. Identify instances of breach etiquette committed by the two.             (4 marks)
  • What should Paul have done in order to improve on his giving direction?                         (2 marks)







  1. Format (1/2mk per item=total 3 mks)

i.e Must have

  • Heading-Book review (1/2mk)
  • Title (1/2mk)
  • Author (1/2mk)
  • Publisher (1/2mk)
  • Year of publication (1/2mk)
  • Reviewer/reviewed by (1/2mk)
  1. Language (2mks)
  • Content
  • Characters and theme-The candidate to capture the main characters as he/she brings out the plot and the main thematics concerns in the novel
  • Style- Candidates to explore some unique styles employed. Remember to highlight the weakness and strength of the work of art.
  • Conclusion-Must conclude by encouraging their classmates to reread the text again.
  1. Reminder (8 marks)

Format-i) Formal letter format or memo format

  1. 2 Address-(1mk)

Date (1/2mk)

Salutation (1/2mk)

RE: REMINDER- (1/2mk)

Signing off-Closing tag/complimentary

Close-yours faithfully


Name (1/2mk)


Total=3mks (format)


  • Remind the group/steudents of the assignment

      Body (6mks)

  • Early competition/prompt will enhance
  • Good presentation
  • Class control
  • Confidence and ability to answer questions exhaustively

      Conclusion: I look forward to a good presentation from you

      Language: (2mks)


  1. Memo format (1/2mk)

Senders address (1/2mk)

Date  (1/2mk)

From: (1/2mk)

To: (1/2mk)

RE: Reminder (1/2mk)

Signing off: yours


Name (1/2mk)


  1. Little
  2. More
  3. Than
  4. Failure
  5. Ignorance
  6. On
  7. Wrong
  8. Breaks
  9. Conversant/familiar
  10. By


  1. i) The rhyme scheme is a b c b d e f eP1

It has an irregular rhyme schemeP1

  1. How would you perform line 6 of the poem
  • I would use facial express-I will flex my facial muscles/twist my face/frown/knit eyebrows/portray a mournful

face to show sadness/anguish/pain/ suffering as a result of oppression (lack of freedom)P

  • I would use a falling intonation to show sadness/nostalgia for freedom.P
  • Sets of rhyming words (2 marks)


  1. Freedom and liberty are italicized

They are key words that communicate the persona’s yearning for freedom that is beyond his reach.

  1. Words pronounced the same. (3 marks)
  • There-their
  • Sweet-suite
  • Know-no
  1. b) i) The above genre is a proverb (1 mark)

Application: in a situation where a child despises the mother for not measuring up to his/her expectations. (2 mks)

The role is to caution and advice against looking down on somebody without understanding where they’ve come from.                           (2 marks)

  1. Identify and explain 3 different situations in which it will be courteous for you to maintain a respectable distance as you interact with people.

(6 marks)

  1. When queuing for service; in a bank; while voting, for an elevator, for food.
  2. While sharing public facilities like transport, urinals and lifts.
  3. When interacting with strangers
  4. While interacting with elders; VIPs, leaders etc.
  5. When other people are being served in an office, when in consultation with a doctor.
  6. While interacting with people whose culture demands it. E,g. no shaking of hands.
  7. While talking on phone.

(any 3 situations=3×1=3mks)

      Importance of respecting personal space

  • Makes other people comfortable around you.
  • Reduces suspicion of pick pocketing.
  • Is a mark of respect of other people and culture.
  • Prevents misinterpretation of signals.
  • Helps maintain order and enhances efficiency. (any 3 situations and corresponding reasons (3×1=3mks)
  1. Conversion
  2. At bus stopP1

2.15pmP1 (2mks)

  1. Rudeness

Abusive language



Impatience (any 4 clearly, illustrated 4×1=4mks)

  • Listen carefully first, before answering Kalonzo
  • Give accurate answers e.g. names of buildings, streets.
  • Use polite language.
  • Repeat the instructions/directions

(any 2.2 x1=2mks)




      Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)




      PAPER 1  


  1. You are student of Bidii High School. Your class has just finished reading The Caucasian Chalk Circle by Bertolt Bretch.  They would like to perform the play at the local cultural centre.
  2. Write a book review of the play. (12 marks)
  3. Write an E-mail to the director of the cultural centre seeking permission to stage the performance. (8 marks)



  1. Read the passage below and fill in each blank space with the most appropriate word.


As a student who does well in Science and Maths, I always wonder why English is taught as a _______________ (1) subject in high school.  We were taught spelling and punctuation from Primary school.  But this fizzles out once we ______________ (2)  to high school.  Now, I can understand the teaching of English if it involved things such as ________________ (3) to write a thesis paper or how to write a proposal.  But we are taught to analyse _____________(4) and what they mean to us.  We are made to   ____________ (5) lengthy essays on a weekly basis explaining things such as “How women have played a significant role in the development of their society,” and we have to include examples and quotes from different texts.  The _________________ (6) work is then marked according to how well they _______________ (7) and are generally not marked _________________ (8) because of things such as ____________(9) and punctuation.  I believe that what we learn in primary school should be a  ________________ (10) of what to expect in secondary school.




We shall not always plant while others reap

The golden increment of bursting fruit,

Not always countenance, abject and mute,

That lesser men should hold their brothers chap;

Not everlasting while others sleep

Shall we beguile their limbs with mellow flute,

Not always bend to some more subtle brute;

We were not made to eternally weep,

The night whose sable breast relieves the stark,

White stars is no less lovely being dark,

And there are buds that cannot bloom at all

In light, but crumple, piteous, and fall;

So in the dark we hide the heart that bleeds,

And wait, and tend our agonizing seeds.

By Countee Cullen


  • Describe the rhyme scheme in the poem above.       (6 marks)
  • Apart from rhyme, identify any other way in which the poet has achieved rhythm.       (2 marks)
  • Which words would you stress in the line: “We were not made to eternally weep”?       (2  marks)
  • How would you say the last line of this poem.       (2 marks)

(b)  Provide another word that is pronounced the same as the ones given above.                     (2 marks)





(c) You are student leader and have just come from a student leadership conference.  Your school principal has

asked you to present a brief oral presentation to the other students during assembly.

  1. i) Explain three important things you would do to ensure your presentation will be               (3 marks)
  2. ii) During the presentation how would you tell that the audience is listening?                          (3 marks)


(d) Against each of the following sentences, indicate whether you would end with a rising or falling intonation.                                                                                                                                             (2 marks)

  1. i) What a beautiful day it is!
  2. ii) He is a good leader, isn’t he?

iii)  We walked to the library.

  1. iv) What is your name?


Read the following conversation between Paul and the principal and then answer the question that



Principal:                Welcome Paul, please have a seat.

Paul:                      (After sitting down) Sir, why did you call me?

Principal:                I would like us to have a chat about ………..

Paul:                      I have not done anything wrong; you can even ask Elijah, the class prefect I was with him the

whole day yesterday.

Principal:                Actually the reason why I called you is because……

Paul                       Speaker louder, I can’t hear you.

Principal:                (In a louder voice).  The reason why I sent for you is because I have just received news

from …………….

Paul:                      (shouting!) David! I knew that fool could not be trusted with a secret.  Okay, it’s true that

Elijah and I sneaked out of school yesterday but we were hungry, really hungry.  All we did was buy a loaf of bread and then sneaked back to school.

Principal:                Paul, I wish you could listen to me.  The reason I called you here is because I have received

news that you have won an award in the creating writing contest that you entered last year.  I have a cheque here for you; however, you have raised a matter that I would like to attend to without further delay.  Please go and call Elijah.  By the time you get back I will have decided on the best punishment for you two.

Focus on English book 4.


  1. How does Paul demonstrate lack of etiquette in his speech.       (4 marks)
  2. What should Paul do to improve his listening skills?       (4 marks)



      Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)




      PAPER 1  

      Marking scheme

      Functional Writing


      Book review

Title:                      The Caucasian chalk circle        ½

Author:                  The Betolt Berch                      ½

Year:                      2012                                         ½

Price:                      Ksh500                                     ½

Reviewed by:          Student                                    ½

Publisher:               Target Publication Limited        ½

Total 3 marks


  • Brief summary of the text.
  • Highlight main themes – Nepotism, 1 Abuse of power, class struggles, motherhood e.t.c.
  • Describe the core/key conflict/general problem. 1
  • Give reactions to the text based on the:
  • How you find the book – interesting, 1
  • Do you agree with the author’s opinion: 1
  • The student should end with an overall view of the book, offer opinion/advice to the potential reader. 1


Weakness and Stress                       1

Format                                           (3 marks)

Content                                          (7 marks)

Language and tone                         (2 marks)



From:         Another “yahoo.coom/Email     ½

Date:          ½

To:             mkubwa”

CC:            (Optional)

Subject:      Permission to stage a performance ½


Content:                 Introduction                             1

Request to perform                                                 1

Give reasons why it is important to perform                        1

Conclusion                                                                         1

Signing off:  Names ½ (left side of page)


Question 3 (a)

Oral skills

  1. Rhyme pattern abba abba ceddee – regular
  2. bend brute

some subtle

sable stark

hide hart

Repetition  – Not always


  • “We were not made to eternally weep”

Not weep eternally – to emphasize that they were not to suffer forever.

  1. And wait, and tend to our organizing seeds
  • Falling intonation
  • Sad but determined tone
  • Appropriate face/hand gesture

Close test


  1. Compulsory
  2. Get
  3. How
  4. Texts
  5. Write
  6. Students
  7. Analyse
  8. Down
  9. Spelling
  10. Foundation




3    b)   oar




3    c)

  1. Going through the notes they made during the conference to refresh their memory.

Prepare presentation notes/highlight key points practice the presentation/rehearse.

Good grooming/ensure you are presentable to boost confidence.

  1. Maintaining eye contact with the speaker.

Nodding in affirmation/responding appropriately by smiling, clapping e.t.c.

Sitting upright/or standing attentively.

Asking relevant questions during/after the presentation.


  1. d) Rising intonation

Rising intonation

Falling intonation

Falling intonation

  1. e)
  2. i) He rudely interrupts/cuts into the principal’s utterances.

He shouts at the principal.

He does not listen.

He uses abusive language.

(Expect all four)


  1. ii) He should be attentive.

He should be patient.

He should be polite/respectful.

He should be open-minded.

He should wait for his turn to contribute/an appropriate moment to have his say and avoid interrupting the principal.

(Any four points)



        Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)




        PAPER 1     


The University of Nairobi offers undergraduate scholarships of 1000 dollars or more to outstanding students in any any sport and have attained a minimum, of KCSE and grade B+.The scholarship can be taken at Nairobi University main campus and the application deadline is 31 st May 2021.All students are eligible and their website is https// application.

  1. Write an advertisement in the local dailies for this.       (10 marks)
  2. Inform two friends online about the above scholarship.                   (10 marks)

      Read the passage below and fill in each blank space with an appropriate word.                      (10 marks)

The much anticipated parliamentary report(1)_____________the September 21 Westgate mall(2)___________in Nairobi appears to have opted for the middle ground in its attempt to make sense of one of the Kenya’s (3)______________terror attacks.

(4)____________hard questions have been (5)______________in the aftermath of the four day(6)__________(7)______________,there have been few convincing answers.

Some legislators (8)______________include the failure(9)________________act on intelligence, endemic corruption and the looting of business premises by(10)________________soldiers.


      Read the following items and answer the questions that follow.

      Item 1

Step 1: Tongooch: A challenge

Step 2: Choo: Let it come

Step 3: Kootuiyen kwandayun koibei kootiek

(I met my father carrying arrows)
step 4:Chesweret:porcupine.

      Item 2

A boy went home after a street fight and narrated what happened to his father.

“Didn’t I warn you against fighting? See you have now lost two front teeth!”Barked the angry man.

To this, the boy retorted, “I didn’t lose my teeth Dad. Both are in my pocket.”

  1. i) Classify each of the two items above.       (2 marks)
  2. ii) What is the role of step 1 in the presentation of item 1?       (1 mark)

iii)  (a)What kind of audience is best for these two types of items?                                             (1 mark)

(b)Varied responses are expected from the audience to the items. Briefly explain how they would respond to:

  1. Item 1
  2. Item 2

(iv) Identify one similar function of the sub-genres in any society.                                             (1 mark)

(b)  The following words have two forms of pronunciation leading to a difference in meaning. For each of them construct two sentences to bring out this difference.                                                                                 (3 marks)

  1. Minute
  2. Row
  • Dove
  1. c) (i) Identify two words from the following sentences with different spelling but similar pronunciation.        (3 marks)
  2. What seems to ail the couple as they walk down the aisle is an aisle church?
  3. After being told which side of the country he sired the child, he sighed heavily.
  4. The ideal idol looks idle.

(ii)  Place the following words in their appropriate columns depending on the pronunciation of the highlighted part

of the word.

(Look, groom, took, boot, hook, boom, soot, noon)

/u/                                                                    /u: /

(d)  You are set to present a poem in music festival as a representative of your school. How are you going to deal with fear and panic?                                                                                                                                 (4 marks)

(e)  (i)You are out on a field trip to gather oral song and without audio-visual equipment. Mention any four vital aspects you will be unable to refer to in future.                                                                                                     (4 marks)

(ii)  During the conversation with the resource person at the field trip, how do you know it is your turn to speak?                                                                                                                                                                   (4 marks)


      Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)




      Question 1 (a) Functional Writing

      Points of interpretation

Must be an advertisement. If not deduct.                                                                       2mks (AD)


–     Name of institution                                                                                                      1mk

–     Frame/borders                                                                                                                     ½ mk

–     Eye catching                                                                                                                       ½ mk


–     Qualification –KCSE B+                                                                                                     ½ mk

Sports                                                                                                                                 ½ mk

–     Deadline     31st May, 2021                                                                                                  ½ mk

–     Collection point for the forms-        UON                                                                            ½ mk

Address –Website –https:// www.Nairobi

–     Invitation message                                                                                                        2mks

–     Language                                                                                                                     3mks

  1. b) Online application (10mks)

email.To:                                                                                                                      1mk

From:                                                                                                                           1mk

Cc:                                                                                                                               1mk

Subject                                                                                                                               ½ mk

Content                                                                                                                        3mks

Close                                                                                                                                  ½ mk

Tone                                                                                                                            1mk

NB: Content must mention the information on the advertisement i.e about the scholarship


-Nasme of institution



      Question 2

      Cloze test

  1. On
  2. Attack
  3. deadliest
  4. many
  5. asked
  6. siege
  7. unfortunately, however
  8. findings
  9. to


Question 3.Oral skills

  1. a) i) a)Riddle                                                                                                1mk

b)Joke                                                                                                  1mk

  1. ii) Captures listeners attention

Set them in a riddling mood (accept any plausible answer from the candidate)

iii)  a)Children

b)Item1:answer unruffled the riddle (decipher)                                       1mk

item 2:laugh at the joke                                                                                    1mk

  1. iv) Entertainment                                                                                      1mk
  2. b) i) Award marks depending on the kind of sentence given by the candidate to bring the meaning.

Ie   –minute: Period of time/small

-Row :Propel a boat /line of objects e.g seats/line of entries.

-Dove –type of bird /past tense of dive.

  1. c) i) a)         aisle/ail/                                                                                                ½ mk

aisle/ail/                                                                                                ½ mk

  1. b) side /said                                                                                              ½ mk

sighed/said                                                                                            ½ mk

  1. c) Idol/idl                                                                                                 ½ mk

Idle/idl                                                                                                  ½ mk

  1. ii) /u)                                                        /u:/

look /luk/ü ½                           groom/gru:m/ü ½

took /tukü½                             boot/bu:t/ü½

nook/nuk/ü½                           boom/bu:m/ü½

soot/sut/ü½                              noon/nu:n/ü½

  1. d) breath in and out 1mk

psyche yourself that you can do it                                                                           1mk

Rehearse thoroughly                                                                                               1mk

Be in appropriate dressing.                                                                                      1mk





        Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)




        PAPER 1     


You are the principla of Boresha Secondary school. Your former student has indicated you as his referee in his application for a job at Utumishi organization to be employed as a clerk. Write a reference letter to the Human Resource manager about the suitability of the applicant.                                                            (20 marks)

  1. CLOZE TEST       (10marks)

Read the passage below and fill in each of the blank spaces with an appropriate word.

Corruption (1)_______________one of the country,s(2) _____________serious governance issues. In November 2014,through one of its quarterly survey,IPSOS polled Kenyans(3)_____________various socio-economic, cultural and political issues.(4)____________________them was an evaluation of the Jubilee government on 13 policy areas  compared  to be(5)____________________coalition government’s  performance. It (6)_____________that whereas more than half of Kenyans(7)____________that the current government is doing better in (8)______________of health services and education 59 per cent thought it is(9)________________in(10)______________________.

  1. (a) ORAL SKILLS

Read the following poem and answer the questions that follow in the spaces provided.



Kurukuru kakara kukuru kakara,

The train moves

Roaring and racing on the ridge.


Kukuru kakara kukuru kakara,

Crawling,criss-crossing beautiful plains

I sit staring at scenic scenes

Observing the wild animals.


Kukuru kakara kukuru kakara,

I feel the heat

I see the Swahili houses

Thriving thatched homestead.


Kukuru kakara kukuru kakara,

I see the bright ocean.

The train grinds to a hault.

I am in Mombasa.

By Egara Kabaji

  1. Describe the rhyme scheme of this poem.             (2 marks)
  2. Describe how rhythm has been achieved in this poem.             (4 marks)
  • How would you make this poem interesting if you were to recite it to audience.             (3 marks)
  1. If the words ‘kukuru kakara kukuru kakara ‘are translated into English, what would happen? (1 mark)

(b)  Your school has invited a bank manager to come and address form four students on banking as a career. During the discussion the students on banking as a career. During the discussion the students seemed not to be concerning. Suggest what could be the manager’s shortcomings.                                                       (6 marks)

(c)  In these sentences the stressed word is underlined. Explain their meanings.                                (4 marks)

  1. Is Mary going to Nairobi?
  2. Is Mary going to Nairobi?
  • Are you happy with him?
  1. Are you happy with him?

(d)  Identify the odd one out of the following.                                                                                  (4 marks)

  1. One walk                             work
  2. Send ten                               weak
  • Debt Debut                           prompt
  1. Rock mock                            cost

(e)  In the telephone conservation below, Mercy calls Toyota Kenya Limited Company to book an appointment with the managing director. Complete their conversation.                                                                          (6 marks)

Mercy: __________________________________________________________________________     (1 mark)

Telephone operator: Yes,it is .How can I help you ?

Mercy: __________________________________________________________________________     (1 mark)

Telephone: Please hold on as I put you through the managing director’s secretary.

Secretary: ________________________________________________________________________        (2 marks)

Mercy: I am Mercy Mapendo.I would like to book an appointment with managing Director on Wednesday at 2pm.

Secretary:                                                                                                                                 (2 marks)

Mercy: Friday, 12:45 p.m. is fine with me.

Secretary: That’s fine thank you for calling and keep time.

Mercy:                                                                                                                                      (1 mark)

Secretary: You’re welcome.




        Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)




        PAPER 1     


  1. Functional writing

Format                               6mks

Content                              8 mks

Language                           4 mks

Tone                                  2mks

Total                                  20 mks


  1. Addresses (sender’s) 1mk
  2. Date ½ mark
  • Recipient’s address 1 mark
  1. Salutation ½ mark
  2. Subject must be REF 1 mk
  3. Signing off

Yours faithfully            1mk

Sign                             1mk

Name/ designation


  1. Should acknowledge the identity of the student
  2. Should mention positive attributes I the following
  3. Conduct/ displine
  4. Academic performance
  5. Leadership position held in school
  6. Participation in co- curriculum at least 3 attributes
  • Should recommend the student to HRM


It must be a confidential report if not 2 mks AD

Mixed format deduct upto 1AD



  1. is
  2. most
  3. on
  4. among
  5. grand
  6. revealed
  7. thought
  8. terms
  9. worse

10.. handling


  2. Abcadefaghiaejk

identify and illustrate

irregular rhyme scheme

  1. – through repetition kukuru kakara

–     idiophone- kukuru kakara

–     onomatopoeia- roaring , racing

criss –crossing, halt


–     rhyme- wriggling rumbling

–     alliteration- thriving, thatch

  • I would use- tonal variation

Dramatization and body movement

Facial expression

      Any well identified word

  1. Lose the musicality

Lose the meaning

Lose the originality and  authenticity

      1 mk

  1. Must be about the manager
  • Did not do thorough research
  • Could be misleading the students
  • Poorly groomed
  • Being inaudible
  • The pace slow/ fast speaker
  • Poor articulation/ fluency
  • Shy/ timid
  • Poor eye contact

            @1 mk= 6 mks

  1. The speaker is asking if mary and not somebody else was going to Nairobi
  2. The focus is on the destination and the question is to find a clarification of the destination which is Nairobi.
  • The focus is on the object (him) not anybody else
  1. The focus is on feelings of the addresses not any other feeling
  2. Walk
  3. Weak
  • Debut
  1. Rock
  2. e) Mercy: Hello, is this Toyota Kenya Ltd.

Mercy: may I speak to MD Toyota Kenya please

Secretary: hello, this is Toyota Kenya ltd. Who am I speaking to and may I help you

Secretary: sorry the manager wont be in on Wednesday, until Friday 12:45 pm, will that be fine with you?

Mercy: thank you for your time. Goodbye





        Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)




        PAPER 1     


Your school is organizing for an Annual General Meeting (AGM) to be held soon. Five prominent guests have been invited. The Head teacher has assigned you the responsibility of preparing the meals for the guests.

  • Prepare a shopping list of the items you need to buy. (4 Marks)
  • Provide the school head cook with a recipe for the dish. (16 Marks)

Read the passage below and fill in each blank space with the most appropriate word

What is good governance? This is a (1)……………… discussed very often. It refers to the (2)……….. management of affairs of a village, town or country. Where there is (3) …………………. governance, people live (4) …………… harmony, ways of reducing poverty are sought and people (5) ………… ownership of the process of developing their communities. (5)………………… ownership of the process of developing their communities. Although the government is expected to create a (6) ……….. political and legal environment, it cannot succeed if ordinary citizens do not co-operate and play their role. Everyone craves for the maintenance of the (7)……………. of law, but if we do not obey that same law, we will know no peace. We accuse certain sectors of corruption but give (8) …………. in order to induce others to give us preferential (9) …………. If we really desire to have positive changes in our society, we must change our attitudes and join hands in building a society we can be (10)……….


  • Study the following song and answer the questions that follow.

Soloist  : Greetings to you comrade warriors.

Others : Greetings!

Soloist : Do you know or you do not know me?

Others  : We do not know you?

Soloist  :  I know you know me not?

For I am he who is known as Ole Pare who wears a loose ring

And who owns stout steers and a healthy herd.

That bears in the months of plenty.

That are over-weight by fat.

Others  : Yes it is him indeed!

Soloist  :  He that owns heifers with large stomachs.

For whom the meadow is insufficient but who gets stuffed at the valleys.

Where cow bells are removed1

As they are grazed together with those of the king’s

Others : It is him!

Soloist :  I have the blue one with the horn.

Whose beauty resists branding.

Who leads the large herd of Kilapa2

Whose numbers pose difficulty when moving homes.

From Naom Kipury, Oral literature of the Maasai

Notes:  1. To prevent them from being discovered.

  1. Name of a cow.

(i)   In which category would you place this song?                                                                     (1 Mark)

(ii)  Identify two features characteristics of an oral song.                                                                        (2 Marks)

(iii)  Mention three ways in which you would expect the audience to react during the presentation of

this song.                                                                                                                  (3 Marks)


(iv) How would say the following line to make it interesting?                                                    (1 Mark)

‘He that owns heifers with large stomachs’.

(v) What has the artist done to involve the audience in the performance of this song?                (3 Marks)

  • ‘Hurry hurry has no blessing.’

(i)   To which genre of oral literature does the above statement belong?                                      (1 Mark)

(ii)  Classify the genre in (i) above                                                                                             (1 Mark)

(iii) State any three functions of the genre.                                                                                (3 Marks)

(iv) Write one example from the same genre that has an opposite meaning to the one above.

(1 Marks)

  • Suppose you are attending a talk on ‘The power of entrepreneurship’, what non-verbal skills will you employ to benefit from the talk?                                                 (5 Marks)
  • A group of from three students were asked by their literature teacher to hold a discussion on the traits of a certain character in their set text. List any three things they must do if their discussion is goingto be successful.                                                             (3 Marks)
  • Read the conversation below and answer the questions that follow.

The patient is entering the office, where the doctor is writing something.

Doctor  : (Stop writing) Good morning Eunice, sit down.

Patient : Good morning doctor, thank you.

Doctor  : What is your problem?

Patient : I get very upset sometimes, (doctor putting the book and pen aside) lately by the

Doctor : What, what is there about the children that upsets you?

Patient : Uh, before I moved in where I stay now, I used to …… they used to listen to me and all

that. Now, they ……….

Doctor : Go on, they …………

Patient : They disobey and disrespect me and upsets me.

Doctor : Why do you think they disobey you?

Patient : I think it is because their father is away most of the time.

Doctor : (Smiling) That is a simple problem. Once your husband comes, bring him along. We will

sort it out.

Patient : Thank you Doctor, I believe you will assist me.

(i)  Identify features of turn-taking in the conversation above.                                                    (5 Marks)

(ii) Identify two features of etiquette used in the conversation.                                                   (2 Marks)







Q1. A


Number of item Item Type Quantity Description Unit price


  1. B Layout/Format

Title           –          1 mark

Introduction –         2 marks

Ingredients             –           2 marks


Serving 1 mark

(How the meal is to be served)

Language ability one presentation.

A   –           4

B    –           3

C    –           2

D   –           1

  1. 10 mks


  1. Question/subject/issue
  2. Responsible
  3. good
  4. in
  5. assume
  6. conducive
  7. rule
  8. bribes
  9. treatment
  10. proud


  1. (a)

(i)  Praise song

(ii) (i) Direct address

(ii) Repetition

(iii) Its simplicity

Call – response/refrain by audience

(iii) Nodding


Responding to body movement

(iv) Use appropriate gestures e.g. demonstrate size of stomach by use of hands.

(v)  He has included refrain; he is posing questions that need answers.

Creates rapport by greeting

(b)  (i)   Proverb

(ii)  Cautionary proverbs

(iii) Gives advice

– Cautions

– Leaders

(iv) Slow but sure wins the race.

(c)  To benefit from the talk, I would do the following:-

–     Maintaining eye contact.

–     Avoid distracters.

–     Take down short notes on key points.

–     Listen attentively to the talk.

–     Sit in a position from which I would hear the speaker clearly.

–     Maintaining appropriate sitting posture/upright.

–     Read relevant texts to ensure familiarity with the content.

(d) Choose chairperson and secretary

–     Set all members participate.

–     Introduce a agenda of the meeting.

–     Keep within true limit.

–     Be polite.

(e) (i) Features of turn taking in the conversation above.

–     Both doctor and patient take their turn to respond to questions.

–     Both are listening attentively since they give relevant response to the questions asked.

–     Doctor stops writing puts writing material away to attend fully to the patient.

–     When the patient trails off, the doctor encourages her to continue, ‘Go on ….they’ realizing it is not yet his

turn to talk.

  • Doctors greets the patient, to make her realize that the doctor is friendly, helping her to talk in a relaxed


  • Doctor’s non-verbal response. (smile) comforts the patients by demystifying the problem.(Any 5 x 1 = 5)

(ii) Two features of etiquette used in the conversation.

–     Greeting, Good morning

–     Thank you.


Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education


Paper – 101/1

July/August 2021

Time: 2 hours

  1. You are the principal of your school. The local area M.P has invited you and the school captain to a luncheon at a top class hotel in your nearest town: The Royal Hotel. This is to celebrate your school’s good performance in the KCSE exams. You are unable to attend and would like the deputy principal to represent you. Write a memo to the deputy principal informing him of the same and include directions to the venue. (20 marks)
  2. Fill in the blanks in the passage below with the most appropriate word       (10 marks)


      I did not know whether to take him 1 ………………………………………………  his word. It is true that Daniel was 2 ……………………………………………… honourable man and many people 3 ………………………………………………up to him. This time round 4 ……………………………………………… , I chose to take his story with a 5 ………………………………………………  of salt. The man claimed that it was about to be announced 6 ………………………………………………  radio that his 7 …………………………………………..  the ambassador had died of a short illness bravely 8 ……………………………………………. . Many people in our small town of Hampshire found 9 ………………………………………………particular news unbelievable. The good ambassador had been in town weeks earlier looking  10 ……………………………………………… and hearty.


  1. a) Read the poem below and answer the questions that follow.


How doeth the little busy bee

Improve each shining hour

And gather honey all the day

From every opening flower.


How skilfully she builds her cell!

How neat she spreads the wax!

And labours hard to store it well

With the sweet food she makes.


In works of labour or of skill

I would be busy too.

For Satan finds some mischief still

For idle hands to do


In books or work or healthful play

Let my first years be past,

That I may give for every day

Some good account at last.


  1. i) Identify four pairs of rhyming words in the poem?       (4 marks)
  2. ii) Besides rhyme, identify and illustrate two other ways though which rhythm has been achieved in this poem                                           (4 marks)

iii)  Imagine you are listening to a live presentation of this poem. What four things would you do to benefit most from the listening experience?                                                                                                       (4 marks)

  1. b) For each of the words below, provide another that is pronounced the same.       (5 marks)
  2. i) Aisle
  3. ii) please

iii)  peak

  1. iv) rest
  2. v) aren’t
  3. c) For each of the words below, underline the silent letter.       (3 marks)
  4. i) Soften
  5. ii) Subtle

iii)  Comb

  1. d) You have been invited to speak to an audience you have never encountered before. You decide to find out in advance what kind of audience it is. What four things would you ask for?                               (4 marks)
  2. e) Indicate whether the following would be said with a falling or rising       (3 marks)
  3. i) Where is my mother ?
  4. ii) Is it hot ?

iii)  She will come tomorrow, won’t she ?

  1. f) Study the conversation below and give three instances of shortcomings in it.                   (3 marks)

Peter:                     (Dial a number) Hello, hello, hello! (almost shouting)

Grace:                    Hello.  This is Dr. Kameno’s office. . . .

Peter:                     (Shouting) Who is that ? Eee, who . . .?

Grace :                   Dr. Kameno’s office, can I help you?

Peter:                     I want to talk to the doctor. Is he in?

Grace:                    Sorry, he is not in. Can I take a . . .

Peter:                     Tell him to call me back, okay?

Grace:                    Yes, but whom am I speaking to?

Peter:                     I will call back later. (Hangs up on her)



Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education


Paper – 101/1

July/August 2021


        Question 1



Letterhead  ü½

Internal memoü½

Reference numberü½







Postü½(5 marks)

(Any interchanged items i.e wrongly placed, do not award the mark)


        Invitationthe deputy principalü½

and school captainü½

Good performance in K.C.S.E ü1

Principal cannot attendü1


At Royal Hotelü1




*     Nearest pointü1

Approximate distanceü1

Landmarks e.g buildings, billboards etc.ü1

Compass directionsü1

Time or duration to cover distanceü1

Direction in terms of left or rightü1

Names of streets or avenuesü1

(Any 4 aspects to give direction)

        * Nearest point must be mentioned and any other 3.

        LANGUAGE – ( 4MKS



        Directions outside the memo deduct 2 from the total mark

Direction in point form ignore



  1. on
  2. an
  3. looked
  4. however/though
  5. pinch
  6. on
  7. excellency
  8. borne
  9. this
  10. hale




  1. a) i) hour – flower, cell-well, wax-makes, skill-still, too-do, day-play, past-last.

(Any 2 1 mark each)

        * pairing with slashes or commas o

  1. ii) Alliteration

from ……. flower

busy…….. bee

how …… her

be …….. busy

for …. finds

satan …..some…..still

Assonance – mischief …. still

be ….. busy

iii)   I would maintain eye contact with the presenter.

I would sit upright (slightly leaning forward)

I would take note of the presenter’s verbal and non-verbal uses.

I would avoid distractions.

  1. b) i) isle
  2. ii) pleas

iii)   peek

  1. iv) wrest
  2. v) aunt       (Two alternatives one wrong o
  3. c) i) soften
  4. ii) subtle

iii)   comb

  1. d) The age of the audience

The gender

The ethnic or racial composition

The educational background

Their religious affiliation

Their political affiliation

The economic status

The language they are most comfortable with

(Note: mark the first 4 x 1 = 4mks – ignore the rest)

  1. e) falling


falling and rising

  1. f) Peter shouts at Grace.

Peter keeps interrupting Grace before she finishes speaking.

Peter does not identify himself.

Peter is impolite/rude/Peter demands to talk to the doctor.

Peter hangs up on Grace.

(Note: mark the first three; ignore the rest)





(Functional Skills)



  1. Functional writing.

Your best friend has lost his father who succumbed to injuries after a grisly road accident.

Your friend is grief-stricken by this loss and clearly requires a lot of support from you.

The hospital bill resulting from the deceased’s long stay in hospital has made it necessary to      hold a fund-raising, after which there will be a requiem mass, then burial.

(a) Write a condolence note to your friend about this loss.                                                              (8 marks)

(b) Write an e-mail to his close friends informing them about this situation.                                    (12 marks)


  1. CLOZE TEST.       (10 marks)

      Fill in each blank space in the passage below with the most appropriate word.

A student in Mandera county (1) ______________ history after scoring an A in last year’s Form Four examination.

Ibrahim Abdi Ali, a former student at Sheikh Ali Secondary School  (2) ______________ the troubled Rhamu Sub-county, (3) _________ 81 points.  No Mandera student had (4) ______________ scored an A.

Speaking at Tawfiq Secondary School where  (5) _________________ has been a volunteer teacher, Ibrahim said it was by God’s (6) ___________ that he broke the record in the hardship (7) _______________

“I challenge students to keep the fire (8) _____________________ since it has taken me much perseverance to achieve this,”  he said.

Ibrahim said he  (9) _____________ out of school in Form Two due to lack of fees, (10) __________ the principal of Sheikh Ali came to his rescue.             

  1. ORAL SKILLS. (30 marks)

(a)  Read the song below and then answer the questions that follow.


There is no needle without piercing point

There is no razor without trenchant blade

Death comes to us in many forms

with our feet we walk the goats earth

with our hands we touch God’s sky

Some future day in the heat of noon,

I shall be carried shoulder high

Through the village of the dead

When I die, don’t bury me under forest trees,

I fear their thorns

Bury me under the great shade trees in the market,

I want to hear the drums beating,

I want to feel the dancer’s feet.


  1. If you were to perform the above song, how would you involve the audience in the performance? (2 marks)
  2. How would you make lines 4 – 12 more effective as you perform the song to an audience?       (2 marks)
  3. Mention three ways in which you would expect the audience to react during the presentation of this song.                                           (3 marks)
  4. Identify a pair of rhyming words in the song.                   (1 mark)
  5. Identify an example of alliteration in the poem.       (1 mark)
  6. Provide homophones for:       (2 marks)

(i)  bury

(ii)  hear



(b) Complete the list below by getting another word pronounced in the same way as the ones given.  (5 marks)

(i)   pair, pear, _______________________

(ii) there, ________________, their

(iii)             write, _________________, right

(iv) raze, raise, ________________

(c)  Identify onomatopoeia in the following poem.                                                                          (2 marks)


The wind howls, the trees sway,

The loose house-top sheets clatter and clang,

The open window shuts with a bang

And the sky makes light of day.

(d)  You were left home alone to take care of the house.  Your parents went on a journey to Mombasa for the

December holidays.  By bad luck thieves break into your house and made away with valuables from

the house.  You decided to go to the police station to record a statement.  State five things you will

have to mention in your report.                                                                                                 (5 marks)

(e)  Below is an excerpt from a discussion.

      Read it carefully and answer the questions that follow.                 

CHAIRPERSON:    Manzee, the teacher of English left us this question.  Let’s hurry over it and go on

with other things.  The question is “What role does Wandia play in The River and

the Source?  Evans, what do you think?

TEDDY:                 Excuse me.  We have not chosen a secretary.  How can we go on without one?

CHAIRPERSON:    Everybody chill.  Let everybody take down their notes.  So, we do not need a


EVANS:                 What about the report we have to make.  A secretary is necessary for a discussion

of this nature.

CHAIRPERSON:    (Furiously) You can’t over-rule us here, Evans.  You’d better shut up.  Wandia is

Aoro’s wife who offers assistance in raising their family.

FLORA:                 (Loudly) Noo! But Wandia abandons the family and goes for further studies                                                        abroad.  She is ….

DAVE:                   We are not talking about ….

CHAIRPERSON:    Eeh! Stop it! Wandia develops the plot in the story.  She agrees to raise Becky’s

children when the latter dies of AIDs.  Let’s stop there, discussion over ………..

ELIZA:                   (Amid pandemonium)  But we haven’t finished the assign ….

CHAIRPERSON:    I said over.  Next time.


Based on your knowledge of group discussion, identify seven weaknesses in the discussion. (7 marks)







(Functional Skills)



  1. Functional Writing.

(a)     Condolence note, 8 mks

Format:         Address               ½   mk

Date                      ½   mk

Salutation            ½   mk

Ending                  ½   mk

Total                     2 mks


– Express sorrow; mention something  positive about the deceased. 1 mk

– Console your friend                                                                                          1 mk

– Offer assistance                                                                                  1 mk

Total                                                                                                3 mks

Language = 3 mks

(b)        Email   12 mks


From:            –              ½   mk

To:  –                             ½   mk

CC: –                             ½   mk

Date              –              ½   mk

Subject –                      ½   mk

Closure –

Name             –

Total      3 mks


–      Introduction                                                                            1 mk

–      Information about the accident and death.         1 mk

–      Hospital bill                                                             1 mk

–      Requiem mass                                                         1 mk

–      Burial                                                                        1 mk

–      Conclusion                                                              1 mk

Total                                                                         6 mks

Language – 3 mks

  1. Cloze Test. (10 mks
  2. made 6. grace
  3. in 7. county / area
  4. scored 8. burning
  5. ever 9. dropped
  6. he 10. but
  7. Oral skills (30 mks)

(a)   1.   – I would include a refrain where the  audience would join in.

– Pose questions for the audience to respond      for

– Ask the audience to join in the performance. any 2 x 1 = 2 mks

  1.    – Use of appropriate gestures e.g raised hands asI perform line 7 – I shall be carried shoulderhigh.

-Use of tonal variations e.g a frightened tone  of voice in “I fear their thorns” and a raised, confident tone in “Iwant to

hear the drums beating”

NB: Answers should include a verbal and a   nonverbal point; 1/2 mk for identification,     1/2 mk for illustration.

  1. – Joining in the song

– Show interest by nodding.

– Applauding

– Clapping.

NB/ Mark the first  any three, 3 x 1 = 3

  1. sky, high
  2. Line 1: no needle /n/ piercing point /p/ with/walkfeel / feet or any other correct answer

No mark if sound not shown.


6     (i)   berry      (ii) here

(b)         (i)           pare

(ii)  they’re

(iii) rite

(iv) rays

(c)   howls, clatter, clang, bang     any 2 x 1 = 2 mks

(d)  –      Date    When the incident happened. 1 mk

–      Time

–      What was stolen. 1 mk

–      Value of the loss in monetary terms. 1 mk

–      Distinctive features of the thieves e.g size complexion, face, hair, etc 1 mk

–      How they escaped.

–      If they used a car; number plate of the car, its colour – 1 mk

–      Approximately how long they took before  escaping  1 mk

–      What you did as a reaction to the break – in  e.g scream, shout etc. 1 mk

any 5 x 1 = 5 mks

(e)   –      The chairperson is authoritarian ; he doesn’t   take note of members’ contributions. He  over-rules everybody.

–      Members interrupt one another at will. This makes the discussion disorderly and chaotic   e.g Dave interrupts Flora, the

chairperson  interrupts Flora.

–      The chairperson lacks control, causing  pandemonium in fact no discussion goes on.

–      The chairperson loses temper and tries to   make others shut up.

–      The chairperson cuts the discussion. – “I  said over.  Next time.”

–      In an attempt to bring control, the  chairperson takes it upon himself to make  his contribution, then stops the discussion        altogether.

–      Members’ suggestions are ignored e.g Teddy  suggests the need for a secretary but he is   ignored.

any 5 x 1 = 5 mks





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